NDC Active Ingredients A-Z Index

What are active ingredients?

The FDA defines an active ingredient as any component that provides pharmacological activity or other direct therapeutical effect. Active ingredients mitigate, treat, prevent diseases or affect the structure of bodily functions.

This page contains the complete alphabetical index of active ingredients in the NDC database. The table includes the substance name, definitions, usages and number of registered NDC products that contain that active ingredient.

Substance Name What is this Substance? Uses Count
(4-METHOXYPHENYL)GLYOXAL1
.ALPHA.,.ALPHA.-DIBROMO-D-CAMPHOR1
.ALPHA.1-PROTEINASE INHIBITOR HUMAN2
.ALPHA.-HEXYLCINNAMALDEHYDE3
.ALPHA.-KETOGLUTARIC ACIDA family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)27
.ALPHA.-LIPOIC ACIDAn octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.29
.ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROLA natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.20
.ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL ACETATEA natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.30
.ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE, D-6
.ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE, DL-51
.ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL SUCCINATE, D-7
.ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL, D-2
.ALPHA.-TOCOPHEROL, DL-4
.BETA.-CAROTENEA carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. Beta carotene is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC).6
.BETA.-CITRONELLOL, (R)-3
.BETA.-SITOSTEROL1
.DELTA.9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOLIC ACID1
.GAMMA.-AMINOBUTYRIC ACIDThe most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.43
0.01-0.2 MOLE PERCENT BISACRYLAMIDE)1
1,2-DISTEAROYL-SN-GLYCERO-3-PHOSPHOCHOLINE2
1,2-DOCOSAHEXANOYL-SN-GLYCERO-3-PHOSPHOSERINE CALCIUM1
1,2-HEXANEDIOL2
1,2-ICOSAPENTOYL-SN-GLYCERO-3-PHOSPHOSERINE CALCIUM1
1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE2
1,3-BIS(BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YLTHIOMETHYL)UREA2
1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE1
1000 MW)2
2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN4
2,5-PIPERAZINEDIONE2
2000 MW)2
2-BUTOXYETHYL LAURATE1
2-MERCAPTOETHANOLA water-soluble thiol derived from hydrogen sulfide and ethanol. It is used as a reducing agent for disulfide bonds and to protect sulfhydryl groups from oxidation.1
2-NAPHTHALENEACETIC ACID, 6-METHOXY-.ALPHA.-METHYL-, SODIUM SALT, (S)-1
3,3'-DIINDOLYLMETHANE3
3-HEXYLOXYPROPYLENE GLYCOL1
3-HYDROXY-1-METHYLGUANINE1
3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENEA carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.1
3'-METHYLPHTHALANILIC ACID1
450000 MW)2
50000000 PA.S)1
5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN, DL-1
5-METHOXYTRYPTAMINESerotonin derivative proposed as potentiator for hypnotics and sedatives.2
5-METHYLTETRAHYDROFOLIC ACID2
7-KETO-DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE9
7-OXODEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE 3-ACETATE17
ABACAVIR SULFATEThis drug is used with other HIV medications to help control HIV infection. It helps to decrease the amount of HIV in your body so your immune system can work better. This lowers your chance of getting HIV complications (such as new infections, cancer) and improves your quality of life. Abacavir belongs to a class of drugs known as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors-NRTI. Abacavir is not a cure for HIV infection. To decrease your risk of spreading HIV disease to others, do all of the following: (1) continue to take all HIV medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor, (2) always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condoms/dental dams) during all sexual activity, and (3) do not share personal items (such as needles/syringes, toothbrushes, and razors) that may have contacted blood or other body fluids. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.27
ABALOPARATIDEAbaloparatide is used to treat bone loss (osteoporosis) for women after menopause who are at high risk of having broken bones (fractures). It is similar to a natural hormone in your body (parathyroid hormone). It works by increasing bone density and strength. This effect helps to decrease the risk of having a fracture. This medication should not be used for children or young adults whose bones are still growing.1
ABAMETAPIR1
ABATACEPTA fusion protein immunoconjugate of the extracellular domain of CTLA4 and the Fc domain of human IgG1. It functions as a T-cell co-stimulation blocker that inhibits TNF-ALPHA and prevents the activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is used in the treatment of RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.This medication is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, a condition in which the body's own defense system (immune system) attacks healthy tissue. This leads to swelling in the joints, which causes pain and makes it harder to move. Abatacept works by weakening your immune system. This effect helps to slow down joint damage and reduce joint pain and swelling so you can move better. This medication is also used to treat other types of arthritis (such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis).4
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS FLOWER1
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS SEED3
ABEMACICLIBThis medication is used to treat certain types of breast cancer. Abemaciclib works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. It belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors.4
ABIES ALBA LEAFY TWIG5
ABIES BALSAMEA LEAF OIL2
ABIRATERONE ACETATEAn androstene derivative that inhibits STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE and is used as an ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant PROSTATE CANCER.This medication is used to treat prostate cancer. Abiraterone belongs to a class of drugs known as anti-androgens (anti-testosterone). Testosterone, a natural hormone, helps prostate cancer to grow and spread. Abiraterone works by blocking the production of testosterone, thereby slowing the growth and spread of prostate cancer. This medication should not be given to women or children.34
ABROCITINIB6
ABRUS PRECATORIUS SEED7
ABUTILON THEOPHRASTI SEED1
ACACIAA plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).10
ACACIA DEALBATA POLLEN9
ACACIA LONGIFOLIA POLLEN3
ACACIA POLLEN24
ACALABRUTINIBThis medication is used to treat certain types of cancer (such as mantle cell lymphoma, small lymphocytic lymphoma - SLL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia - CLL). Acalabrutinib works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. It belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors.2
ACAMPROSATE CALCIUMStructural analog of taurine that is used for the prevention of relapse in individuals with ALCOHOLISM.This medication is used along with counseling and support to help people who are alcohol dependent not drink alcohol. Acamprosate works by restoring the natural balance of chemicals in the brain (neurotransmitters). Before starting this medication, you should no longer be drinking alcohol. Acamprosate has not been shown to work well if you are still drinking alcohol when you start taking it.7
ACARBOSEAn inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.Acarbose is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Acarbose works in your intestines to slow the breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates from foods that you eat. This effect helps lessen your blood sugar rise after a meal.24
ACEBUTOLOL HYDROCHLORIDEA cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist with little effect on the bronchial receptors. The drug has stabilizing and quinidine-like effects on cardiac rhythm, as well as weak inherent sympathomimetic action.9
ACER CAMPESTRE LEAF BUD1
ACER NEGUNDO INNER BARK1
ACER NEGUNDO POLLEN64
ACER NEGUNDO ROOT BARK2
ACER NEGUNDO WOOD1
ACER NIGRUM WHOLE1
ACER PENSYLVANICUM WHOLE2
ACER PSEUDOPLATANUS POLLEN1
ACER RUBRUM POLLEN48
ACER SACCHARINUM POLLEN28
ACER SACCHARUM POLLEN68
ACER SACCHARUM SAP3
ACETALDEHYDEA colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.35
ACETAMINOPHENAnalgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.This drug is used to treat mild to moderate pain (from headaches, menstrual periods, toothaches, backaches, osteoarthritis, or cold/flu aches and pains) and to reduce fever.3467
ACETAZOLAMIDEOne of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Acetazolamide is used to prevent and reduce the symptoms of altitude sickness. This medication can decrease headache, tiredness, nausea, dizziness, and shortness of breath that can occur when you climb quickly to high altitudes (generally above 10,000 feet/3,048 meters). It is particularly useful in situations when you cannot make a slow ascent. The best ways to prevent altitude sickness are climbing slowly, stopping for 24 hours during the climb to allow the body to adjust to the new height, and taking it easy the first 1 to 2 days. This medication is also used with other medications to treat high pressure inside the eye due to certain types of glaucoma. Acetazolamide belongs to a class of drugs known as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the production of fluid inside the eye. It is also used to decrease a buildup of body fluids (edema) caused by heart failure or certain medications. Acetazolamide can work less well over time, so it is usually used only for a short period. It has also been used with other medications to treat certain types of seizures (petit mal and unlocalized seizures).45
ACETAZOLAMIDE SODIUMThis medication is used with other medications to treat high pressure inside the eye due to certain types of glaucoma. Acetazolamide belongs to a class of drugs known as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the production of fluid inside the eye. It is also used to decrease a buildup of body fluids (edema) caused by heart failure or certain medications. Acetazolamide can work less well over time, so it is usually used only for a short period. It has also been used with other medications to treat certain types of seizures (petit mal and unlocalized seizures).8
ACETIC ACIDProduct of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Acetic acid is used to treat an outer ear infection (external otitis). It works by stopping the growth of bacteria and fungus. Treating the infection reduces pain and swelling in the ear. Wetness in the ear canal can help bacteria and fungus to grow. This medication may also contain drying ingredients such as glycerin or alcohol. Drying of the ear canal helps to cure the infection.63
ACETIC ACID, (2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXY)-, 2-ETHYL-4-METHYLPENTYL ESTER1
ACETOHYDROXAMIC ACIDThis medication is used with antibiotics and/or surgery to treat types of bladder infections that are caused by certain bacteria. These bacteria cause the level of ammonia in the urine to become too high. This effect can lead to a certain type of kidney stone (struvite). This medication works by stopping the bacteria from making the ammonia. The decreased levels of ammonia can slow the growth of the kidney stones and make the antibiotic work better on your infection.1
ACETONEA colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.12
ACETYL COENZYME AAcetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.7
ACETYL L-TYROSINE3
ACETYL TETRAPEPTIDE-31
ACETYLCARNITINEAn acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.3
ACETYLCHOLINE CHLORIDEA neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.36
ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE HUMAN1
ACETYLCYSTEINEThe N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.When inhaled by mouth, acetylcysteine is used to help thin and loosen mucus in the airways due to certain lung diseases (such as emphysema, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia). This effect helps you to clear the mucus from your lungs so that you can breathe easier. When taken by mouth, acetylcysteine is used to prevent liver damage from acetaminophen overdose.30
ACETYLDIGITOXINCardioactive derivatives of lanatoside A or of DIGITOXIN. They are used for fast digitalization in congestive heart failure.1
ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUMA plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.87
ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM FLOWER18
ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM FLOWERING TOP4
ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM WHOLE13
ACHYRANTHES BIDENTATA ROOT2
ACHYRANTHES BIDENTATA WHOLE2
ACHYRANTHES JAPONICA ROOT2
ACHYROCLINE SATUREIOIDES1
ACITRETINAn oral retinoid effective in the treatment of psoriasis. It is the major metabolite of ETRETINATE with the advantage of a much shorter half-life when compared with etretinate.This medication is a retinoid used in the treatment of severe psoriasis and other skin disorders in adults.15
ACLIDINIUM BROMIDEAclidinium is used to control and prevent symptoms (such as wheezing, shortness of breath) caused by ongoing lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD which includes bronchitis and emphysema). It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways so that they open up and you can breathe more easily. Aclidinium belongs to a class of drugs known as anticholinergics. Controlling symptoms of breathing problems can decrease time lost from work or school. This medication must be used regularly to be effective. It does not work right away and should not be used to relieve sudden breathing problems. If wheezing or sudden shortness of breath occurs, use your quick-relief inhaler (such as albuterol, also called salbutamol in some countries) as prescribed.3
ACMELLA OLERACEA FLOWERING TOP2
ACMELLA OLERACEA WHOLE2
ACONITIC ACIDA tricarboxylic acid with the formula (COOH)-CH2-C(COOH)=CH-COOH.2
ACONITIC ACID, (Z)-8
ACONITUM CARMICHAELI LATERAL ROOT5
ACONITUM FEROX ROOT2
ACONITUM LYCOCTONUM2
ACONITUM LYCOCTONUM WHOLE2
ACONITUM NAPELLUSA plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.396
ACONITUM NAPELLUS ROOT6
ACONITUM NAPELLUS WHOLE76
ACORUS CALAMUS ROOT5
ACORUS CALAMUS WHOLE1
ACREMONIUM STRICTUM8
ACRYLIC ACID1
ACTAEA SPICATA ROOT30
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL258
ACYCLOVIRA GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.Acyclovir is used to treat infections caused by certain types of viruses. It treats cold sores around the mouth (caused by herpes simplex), shingles (caused by herpes zoster), and chickenpox. This medication is also used to treat outbreaks of genital herpes. In people with frequent outbreaks, acyclovir is used to help reduce the number of future episodes. Acyclovir is an antiviral drug. However, it is not a cure for these infections. The viruses that cause these infections continue to live in the body even between outbreaks. Acyclovir decreases the severity and length of these outbreaks. It helps the sores heal faster, keeps new sores from forming, and decreases pain/itching. This medication may also help reduce how long pain remains after the sores heal. In addition, in people with a weakened immune system, acyclovir can decrease the risk of the virus spreading to other parts of the body and causing serious infections.182
ACYCLOVIR SODIUMA GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.This medication is used in certain people to treat outbreaks of herpes simplex infection of the skin (such as on the genitals), mucous membrane areas (such as the mouth, nose), or brain. It is also used in certain people to treat shingles infection. The viruses that cause these infections live in the body quietly until an outbreak occurs. Acyclovir does not cure these infections, but can speed healing of the sores, decrease pain/itching/formation of new sores, and lower the risk of other problems from the virus (e.g., infection spreading to other parts of the body/organs, persistent pain after sores heal).16
AD26.COV2.S1
ADAGRASIB1
ADAPALENEA naphthalene derivative that has specificity for RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS. It is used as a DERMATOLOGIC AGENT for the treatment of ACNE.This medication is used to treat acne. It may decrease the number and severity of acne pimples and promote quick healing of pimples that do develop. Adapalene belongs to a class of medications called retinoids. It works by affecting the growth of cells and decreasing swelling and inflammation.49
ADEFOVIR DIPIVOXILThis medication is used to treat a chronic viral infection of the liver (hepatitis B) in people 12 years of age and older. It works by slowing the growth of the virus, helping to lower the amount of virus in your body. It is not a cure for hepatitis B and does not prevent the passing of hepatitis B to others. This medication is a nucleotide analog.3
ADEMETIONINEPhysiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)1
ADENINEA purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.37
ADENOSINEA nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.179
ADENOSINE CYCLIC PHOSPHATE49
ADENOSINE PHOSPHATE DISODIUMAdenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.4
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATEAn adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.41
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE DISODIUM106
ADIANTUM CAPILLUS-VENERIS LEAF1
ADIPIC ACID1
ADIPIC ACID DIHYDRAZIDE1
ADONIS VERNALISA plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain cardenolide oligoglycosides such as adoniside, adonisidum and alepposide.5
ADONIS VERNALIS FLOWERING TOP4
ADONIS VERNALIS WHOLE2
ADUCANUMAB2
AEDES TAENIORHYNCHUS5
AESCULUS CARNEA FLOWER4
AESCULUS CHINENSIS WHOLE6
AESCULUS GLABRA NUT2
AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM BARK2
AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM FLOWER34
AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM LEAF2
AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM SEED OIL6
AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM WHOLE6
AESCULUS X CARNEA FLOWER3
AESCULUS X CARNEA WHOLE2
AETHUSA CYNAPIUM36
AETHUSA CYNAPIUM WHOLE5
AFAMELANOTIDE1
AFATINIBA quinazoline and butenamide derivative that acts as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptors (ERBB RECEPTORS) and is used in the treatment of metastatic NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER.3
AFLIBERCEPTAflibercept is used to treat certain serious eye conditions (such as wet age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy/macular edema, macular edema following retinal vein occlusion). This medication can help preserve vision and prevent blindness. Aflibercept belongs to a class of drugs known as growth factor inhibitors. It works by slowing the growth of abnormal new blood vessels in the eye and decreasing leakage from these blood vessels.3
AGALSIDASE BETAThis medication is used to treat a certain inherited disorder (Fabry disease) that causes buildup of a certain fat substance (GL-3) in some parts of your body. Worsening of this disorder can lead to kidney disease, heart attack, or stroke. Agalsidase beta works by replacing an enzyme that your body lacks, which helps break down the fat substance (GL-3) in your body. This can help prevent symptoms such as pain (especially in the hands and feet), dark red spots on the skin, a decreased ability to sweat, cloudiness of the front part of the eye, stomach/intestinal problems, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), and hearing loss.2
AGASTACHE URTICIFOLIA WHOLE1
AGATHOSMA BETULINA LEAF14
AGATHOSMA CRENULATA LEAF1
AGATHOSMA CRENULATA WHOLE1
AGAVE AMERICANA LEAF4
AGAVE ATROVIRENS TOP2
AGERATINA AROMATICA ROOT3
AGKISTRODON CONTORTRIX VENOM2
AGKISTRODON PISCIVORUS IMMUNE FAB ANTIVENIN (OVINE)1
AGKISTRODON PISCIVORUS VENOM6
AGRIMONIA EUPATORIAA plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that has been used in folk treatment of diabetes. Members contain agrimoniin (TANNINS).6
AGRIMONIA EUPATORIA FLOWER16
AGRIMONIA EUPATORIA WHOLE2
AGROPYRON FRAGILE WHOLE1
AGROSTEMMA GITHAGO SEED2
AGROSTIS GIGANTEA POLLEN72
AGROSTIS GIGANTEA TOP3
AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA POLLEN2
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA BARK1
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA FLOWERING TWIG14
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA FRUIT1
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA POLLEN27
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA WHOLE3
AIRThe mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.13
AJUGA REPTANS WHOLE1
AKEBIA STEM1
ALANINEA non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.51
ALBENDAZOLEA benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)This medication is used to treat certain tapeworm infections (such as neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease).17
ALBUMIN AGGREGATED2
ALBUMIN HUMANSerum albumin from humans. It is an essential carrier of both endogenous substances, such as fatty acids and BILIRUBIN, and of XENOBITOICS in the blood.26
ALBUTEROL SULFATEA short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Albuterol (also known as salbutamol) is used to treat wheezing and shortness of breath caused by breathing problems such as asthma. It is a quick-relief medication. Albuterol belongs to a class of drugs known as bronchodilators. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways so that they open up and you can breathe more easily. Controlling symptoms of breathing problems can decrease time lost from work or school.116
ALCAFTADINEThis medication is used to prevent itching of the eyes due to allergies. Alcaftadine is an antihistamine. It works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine) that causes allergic symptoms. Do not use this medication to treat red or irritated eyes due to wearing contact lenses. Contact your doctor for further instructions if this occurs.2
ALCALIGENES FAECALISThe type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.9
ALCHEMILLA XANTHOCHLORA FLOWERING TOP3
ALCLOMETASONE DIPROPIONATEThis medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Alclometasone reduces the swelling, itching, and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a low- to medium-strength corticosteroid.6
ALCLOXA11
ALCOHOL4574
ALCOHOL, X-RAY EXPOSED (1000 RAD)14
ALDESLEUKINAldesleukin is used to treat kidney or skin cancer. This medication is the same as a substance that your body normally makes (interleukin-2). In the body, this drug is thought to work by affecting the body's natural defenses (immune system). This effect slows or stops cancer cell growth.7
ALDICARBCarbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.1
ALDOSTERONEA hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.10
ALECTINIB HYDROCHLORIDE1
ALEMTUZUMABAn anti-CD52 ANTIGEN monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of certain types of CD52-positive lymphomas (e.g., CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA; CUTANEOUS T-CELL LYMPHOMA; and T-CELL LYMPHOMA). Its mode of actions include ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT CELL CYTOTOXICITY.Alemtuzumab is used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS). It is not a cure for MS but it is thought to help by preventing immune system cells (lymphocytes) from attacking the nerves in your brain and spinal cord. It helps decrease the number of relapses and may prevent or delay disability.2
ALENDRONATE SODIUMA nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Alendronate is used to prevent and treat certain types of bone loss (osteoporosis) in adults. Osteoporosis causes bones to become thinner and break more easily. Your chance of developing osteoporosis increases as you age, after menopause, or if you are taking corticosteroid medications (such as prednisone) for a long time. This medication works by slowing bone loss. This effect helps maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of broken bones (fractures). Alendronate belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates.35
ALETRIS FARINOSA ROOT13
ALFALFA50
ALFALFA TOP1
ALFENTANIL HYDROCHLORIDEA short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.1
ALFUZOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE17
ALGLUCOSIDASE ALFA1
ALIROCUMABAlirocumab is used by people who have blockage in the heart blood vessels to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and certain types of chest pain that require treatment in a hospital. It is also used by people who have an inherited condition that causes high levels of LDL. Treatment with alirocumab, a proper diet, and cholesterol-lowering drugs can help lower "bad" cholesterol (LDL) in the blood. Alirocumab belongs to a class of drugs known as monoclonal antibodies. It works by improving how well your body gets rid of LDL cholesterol. In addition to eating a proper diet (such as a low-cholesterol/low-fat diet), other lifestyle changes that may help this medication work better include exercising, losing weight if overweight, and stopping smoking. Consult your doctor for more details.8
ALISKIREN HEMIFUMARATEThis medication is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Aliskiren works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily. It belongs to a class of drugs known as direct renin inhibitors. This drug is not recommended for use in children younger than 2 years due to an increased risk of side effects.10
ALITRETINOINA retinoid that is used for the treatment of chronic hand ECZEMA unresponsive to topical CORTICOSTEROIDS. It is also used to treat cutaneous lesions associated with AIDS-related KAPOSI SARCOMA.This medication is used to treat skin sores in patients with a certain type of AIDS-related cancer (Kaposi's sarcoma). Alitretinoin belongs to a class of medications called retinoids. It works by affecting the growth of skin cells. This medication should not be used when medications taken by mouth are needed to treat the Kaposi's sarcoma (for example, if you have had more than 10 new skin sores in the previous month, or if the disease affects the lungs or other organs).1
ALLANTOINA urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.85
ALLENROLFEA OCCIDENTALIS POLLEN10
ALLIUM CEPA WHOLE9
ALLIUM SATIVUM WHOLE5
ALLOGENEIC HUMAN UMBILICAL CORD-DERIVED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS1
ALLOGENIC ADIPOSE DERIVED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS (MSCS) EXOSOMES1
ALLOGENIC THYMOCYTE-DEPLETED THYMUS TISSUE-AGDC1
ALLOPURINOLA XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Allopurinol is used to treat gout and certain types of kidney stones. It is also used to prevent increased uric acid levels in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. These patients can have increased uric acid levels due to release of uric acid from the dying cancer cells. Allopurinol works by reducing the amount of uric acid made by the body. Increased uric acid levels can cause gout and kidney problems.103
ALLOPURINOL SODIUM5
ALLOXANAcidic compound formed by oxidation of URIC ACID. It is isolated as an efflorescent crystalline hydrate.5
ALLYLTHIOUREA47
ALMONDA plant species in the family ROSACEAE, genus Prunus which produces edible seeds called almonds.12
ALMOTRIPTAN MALATEAlmotriptan is used to treat migraines. It helps to relieve headache, pain, and other migraine symptoms (including nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light/sound). Prompt treatment helps you return to your normal routine and may decrease your need for other pain medications. Almotriptan belongs to a class of drugs known as triptans. It affects a certain natural substance (serotonin) that narrows blood vessels in the brain. It may also relieve pain by affecting certain nerves in the brain. Almotriptan does not prevent future migraines or lessen how often you get migraine attacks.6
ALNUS GLUTINOSA BARK1
ALNUS GLUTINOSA LEAF2
ALNUS GLUTINOSA WHOLE1
ALNUS INCANA SUBSP. RUGOSA POLLEN32
ALNUS RHOMBIFOLIA BARK2
ALNUS RHOMBIFOLIA POLLEN15
ALNUS RUBRA POLLEN15
ALNUS SERRULATA BARK2
ALNUS SERRULATA POLLEN7
ALNUS VIRIDIS SUBSP. CRISPA LEAF1
ALOEA plant genus of the family Xanthorrhoeaceae which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).99
ALOE FEROX LEAF6
ALOE SPICATA WHOLE1
ALOE VERA FLOWER4
ALOE VERA LEAF15
ALOE VERA LEAF POLYSACCHARIDES1
ALOGLIPTIN BENZOATEAlogliptin is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Alogliptin works by increasing levels of natural substances called incretins. Incretins help to control blood sugar by increasing insulin release, especially after a meal. They also decrease the amount of sugar your liver makes.25
ALOPECURUS PRATENSIS1
ALOSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE16
ALPELISIBThis medication is used to treat certain types of breast cancer. Alpelisib belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.4
ALPHA1
ALPHA LIPOIC ACIDAn octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.20
ALPHA-TOCOPHEROLA natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.2
ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ACETATEA natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.3
ALPINE STRAWBERRYA plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.20
ALPINIA OXYPHYLLA FRUIT1
ALPRAZOLAMA triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)Alprazolam is used to treat anxiety and panic disorders. It belongs to a class of medications called benzodiazepines which act on the brain and nerves (central nervous system) to produce a calming effect. It works by enhancing the effects of a certain natural chemical in the body (GABA).134
ALPROSTADILA potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.This medication is used to treat male sexual function problems (erectile dysfunction). It works by helping the blood flow into the penis to achieve and maintain an erection. This medication is not for use in women or children. This medication is not recommended for use in men with penile implants.15
ALTEPLASE1
ALTERNANTHERA SESSILIS1
ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA88
ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS LEAF4
ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS ROOT11
ALUMINUMA metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.42
ALUMINUM ACETATE7
ALUMINUM CHLORIDEA compound with the chemical formula AlCl3; the anhydrous salt is used as a catalyst in organic chemical synthesis, and hydrated salts are used topically as antiperspirants, and for the management of HYPERHYDROSIS.This medication is used to help control excessive sweating.19
ALUMINUM CHLORIDE ANHYDROUS1
ALUMINUM CHLOROHYDRATE334
ALUMINUM CHLOROHYDRATE ANHYDROUS3
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDEA compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.134
ALUMINUM OXIDEAn oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.73
ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE1
ALUMINUM SESQUICHLOROHYDRATE232
ALUMINUM SULFATE7
ALUMINUM SULFATE TETRADECAHYDRATE3
ALUMINUM ZIRCONIUM OCTACHLOROHYDREX GLY28
ALUMINUM ZIRCONIUM PENTACHLOROHYDREX GLY18
ALUMINUM ZIRCONIUM TETRACHLOROHYDREX GLY362
ALUMINUM ZIRCONIUM TRICHLOROHYDREX GLY82
ALVIMOPAN2
AMANITA MUSCARIA FRUITING BODY105
AMANITA MUSCARIA VAR. MUSCARIA2
AMANITA MUSCARIA WHOLE1
AMANTADINEAn antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Amantadine is used to prevent or treat a certain type of flu (influenza A). If you have been infected with the flu, this medication may help make your symptoms less severe and shorten the time it will take you to get better. Taking amantadine if you have been or will be exposed to the flu may help to prevent you from getting the flu. This medication is an antiviral that is believed to work by stopping growth of the flu virus. This medication is not a vaccine. To increase the chance that you will not get the flu, it is important to get a flu shot once a year at the beginning of every flu season, if possible. Based on the recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the US, amantadine should not be used to treat or prevent influenza A because the current influenza A virus in the United States and Canada is resistant to this medication. For more details, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. Amantadine is also used to treat Parkinson's disease, as well as side effects caused by drugs (e.g., drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms), chemicals, other medical conditions. In these cases, this medication may help to improve your range of motion and ability to exercise. For the treatment of these conditions, amantadine is believed to work by restoring the balance of natural chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain.5
AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDEAn antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.40
AMARANTH6
AMARANTHUS HYBRIDUS LEAF5
AMARANTHUS HYBRIDUS POLLEN13
AMARANTHUS PALMERI POLLEN49
AMARANTHUS RETROFLEXUS POLLEN80
AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS POLLEN34
AMARANTHUS TUBERCULATUS POLLEN33
AMARYLLIS BELLADONNA WHOLE44
AMBERA yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.11
AMBERGRISA gray substance found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT of the SPERM WHALE.52
AMBRISENTANAmbrisentan is used to treat high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary arterial hypertension). This condition is thought to be caused by increased levels of a certain natural substance (endothelin-1). This medication blocks the effects of endothelin-1, thereby helping to decrease the blood pressure in the lungs, slow the worsening of symptoms, and improve your ability to exercise.21
AMBROSIA ACANTHICARPA POLLEN34
AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA38
AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA POLLEN48
AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA WHOLE19
AMBROSIA BIDENTATA POLLEN10
AMBROSIA CONFERTIFLORA POLLEN10
AMBROSIA CONFERTIFLORA WHOLE1
AMBROSIA DELTOIDEA POLLEN5
AMBROSIA DUMOSA POLLEN9
AMBROSIA PSILOSTACHYA POLLEN55
AMBROSIA PSILOSTACHYA TOP1
AMBROSIA SALSOLA POLLEN4
AMBROSIA TENUIFOLIA POLLEN1
AMBROSIA TENUIFOLIA WHOLE1
AMBROSIA TRIFIDA POLLEN62
AMCINONIDEThis medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Amcinonide reduces the swelling, itching, and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a strong corticosteroid.3
AMERICAN GINSENG68
AMERICAN HAZELNUT2
AMERICAN LOBSTER4
AMIFAMPRIDINE PHOSPHATE4-Aminopyridine derivative that acts as a POTASSIUM CHANNEL blocker to increase release of ACETYLCHOLINE from nerve terminals. It is used in the treatment of CONGENITAL MYASTHENIC SYNDROMES.Amifampridine phosphate is used to treat a certain disorder that affects nerves and muscles (Lambert-Eaton syndrome). This disorder causes your body's immune system to attack healthy nerve cells, which results in muscle weakness. It is not known exactly how this medication works, but it can help lessen symptoms of muscle weakness and loss of movement caused by Lambert-Eaton syndrome.1
AMIFOSTINEA phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Amifostine is used to decrease the risk of kidney problems caused by treatment with a certain anti-cancer drug (cisplatin). It is also used to help prevent a certain side effect (dry mouth) caused by radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. Amifostine is thought to work by preventing certain chemicals from damaging healthy cells. It may also help repair cells damaged by cisplatin or radiation treatment.1
AMIKACINA broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.1
AMIKACIN SULFATEA broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.This medication is used to prevent or treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. Amikacin belongs to a class of drugs known as aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.9
AMILORIDEA pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)1
AMILORIDE HYDROCHLORIDEA pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)4
AMILORIDE HYDROCHLORIDE ANHYDROUS3
AMINO ACIDSOrganic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.1
AMINO ACIDS, SILK2
AMINOBENZOIC ACID3
AMINOCAPROIC ACIDAn antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.This medication is used to help control bleeding due to a condition where your blood does not clot the way it normally should (fibrinolysis). This may cause serious bleeding after certain surgeries or in certain conditions (such as bleeding disorders, liver disease, cancer). Aminocaproic acid works by helping your blood clot normally. It belongs to a class of drugs known as antifibrinolytics.41
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID HYDROCHLORIDEA compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.2
AMINOPHYLLINE DIHYDRATE9
AMIODARONE HYDROCHLORIDEAn antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.64
AMISULPRIDEA benzamide derivative that is used as an antipsychotic agent for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is also used as an antidepressive agent.1
AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDETricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.171
AMITROLEA non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.1
AMIVANTAMAB1
AMLODIPINEA long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.14
AMLODIPINE BENZOATEAmlodipine is used with or without other medications to treat high blood pressure. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Amlodipine belongs to a class of drugs known as calcium channel blockers. It works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily. Amlodipine is also used to prevent certain types of chest pain (angina). It may help to increase your ability to exercise and decrease the frequency of angina attacks. It should not be used to treat attacks of chest pain when they occur. Use other medications (such as sublingual nitroglycerin) to relieve attacks of chest pain as directed by your doctor.1
AMLODIPINE BESYLATEA long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Amlodipine is used with or without other medications to treat high blood pressure. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Amlodipine belongs to a class of drugs known as calcium channel blockers. It works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily. Amlodipine is also used to prevent certain types of chest pain (angina). It may help to increase your ability to exercise and decrease the frequency of angina attacks. It should not be used to treat attacks of chest pain when they occur. Use other medications (such as sublingual nitroglycerin) to relieve attacks of chest pain as directed by your doctor.439
AMMI VISNAGA FRUIT5
AMMONIAA colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.This product is used to treat or prevent fainting. It works by increasing the body's urge to breathe.12
AMMONIA N-1323
AMMONIAC1
AMMONIUM BENZOATE4
AMMONIUM BROMIDE13
AMMONIUM CARBONATE29
AMMONIUM CATION10
AMMONIUM CHLORIDEAn acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.39
AMMONIUM LACTATEA normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)This medication is used to treat dry, scaly skin conditions (e.g., xerosis, ichthyosis vulgaris) and can also help relieve itching from these conditions. This medication works by increasing the moisture in the skin.7
AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE, DIBASIC10
AMMONIUM THIOGLYCOLATE1
AMNIOTIC FLUID (BOVINE)1
AMOBARBITAL SODIUMA barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)1
AMOEBA PROTEUS5
AMOSITEAsbestos, grunerite. A monoclinic amphibole form of asbestos having long fibers and a high iron content. It is used in insulation. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)2
AMOXAPINEThe N-demethylated derivative of the antipsychotic agent LOXAPINE that works by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine, serotonin, or both; it also blocks dopamine receptors. Amoxapine is used for the treatment of depression.This medication is used to treat depression. Treating depression can improve your mood and sense of well-being and allow you to enjoy everyday life more. Amoxapine is a tricyclic antidepressant. It works by restoring the balance of natural chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain. Because amoxapine has some effects that are similar to those of major tranquilizers, it may work better in patients who have agitation or anxiety along with depression.4
AMOXICILLINA broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Amoxicillin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is a penicillin-type antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections. Amoxicillin is also used with other medications to treat stomach/intestinal ulcers caused by the bacteria H. pylori and to prevent the ulcers from returning.302
AMOXICILLIN SODIUMA broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.1
AMPELOPSIS JAPONICA TUBER1
AMPHETAMINEA powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.This medication is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - ADHD. It works by changing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain. Amphetamine belongs to a class of drugs known as stimulants. It can help increase your ability to pay attention, stay focused on an activity, and control behavior problems. It may also help you to organize your tasks and improve listening skills.12
AMPHETAMINE ASPARTATE30
AMPHETAMINE ASPARTATE MONOHYDRATE251
AMPHETAMINE SULFATEA powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.This medication is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - ADHD. It works by changing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain. Amphetamine belongs to a class of drugs known as stimulants. It can help increase your ability to pay attention, stay focused on an activity, and control behavior problems. It may also help you to organize your tasks and improve listening skills. This medication is also used to treat a certain sleeping disorder (narcolepsy) to help you stay awake during the day. It should not be used to treat tiredness or to hold off sleep in people who do not have a sleep disorder. Amphetamine may also be used along with a doctor-approved, reduced-calorie diet to help significantly overweight (obese) people lose weight. It should only be used for a short time (a few weeks) in people who have not lost enough weight with other treatments (such as dieting, other drugs, group programs). It may work by decreasing your appetite.317
AMPHIACHYRIS DRACUNCULOIDES POLLEN14
AMPHOTERICIN BMacrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.See also Warning section. This medication is used to treat a variety of serious, possibly fatal fungal infections. It works by stopping the growth of fungi.5
AMPICILLIN SODIUMSemi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Ampicillin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It is a penicillin-type antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.121
AMPICILLIN TRIHYDRATESemi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Ampicillin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It is a penicillin-type antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.3
AMYGDALINA cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.1
AMYL NITRITEA vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.7
AMYLOGLUCOSIDASE (ASPERGILLUS NIGER)1
ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE BARK1
ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE FRUIT28
ANAEROCOCCUS TETRADIUS1
ANAGALLIS ARVENSIS6
ANAGALLIS ARVENSIS EXTRACT1
ANAGALLIS ARVENSIS WHOLE6
ANAGRELIDE HYDROCHLORIDE2
ANAGRELIDE HYDROCHLORIDE ANHYDROUS3
ANAKINRAA ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.This medication is used alone or with other medications to treat rheumatoid arthritis. It helps to slow joint damage and reduces the joint pain/swelling caused by rheumatoid arthritis so that you can move better. Anakinra is a man-made form of a natural protein (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) made by the body. It helps to block the effects of another protein (interleukin-1) which can cause joint pain/swelling/stiffness. Anakinra is also used to treat a certain condition called Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID). It helps to improve symptoms of the disease such as fever, rash, joint pain, vomiting, and headache.1
ANAMIRTA COCCULUS FRUIT6
ANAMIRTA COCCULUS SEED81
ANAMIRTA COCCULUS WHOLE5
ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUMA species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.6
ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS FEATHER27
ANASTROZOLEA nitrile and triazole derivative that acts as a selective nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. It is used in the treatment of ESTROGEN NUCLEAR RECEPTOR-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.Anastrozole is used to treat breast cancer in women after menopause. Some breast cancers are made to grow faster by a natural hormone called estrogen. Anastrozole decreases the amount of estrogen the body makes and helps to slow or reverse the growth of these breast cancers.26
ANCYLOSTOMA DUODENALE3
ANDEXANET ALFA2
ANDROCTONUS AUSTRALIS VENOM4
ANDROCTONUS AUSTRALIS WHOLE1
ANDROSTERONEA metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.10
ANEMARRHENA ASPHODELOIDES ROOT2
ANEMONE HEPATICA VAR. OBTUSA3
ANEMONE NEMOROSA EXTRACT1
ANEMONE PATENS2
ANEMONE PATENS WHOLE2
ANEMONE PRATENSIS73
ANEMONE PULSATILLA215
ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS WHOLE2
ANGELICA ACUTILOBA ROOT5
ANGELICA ARCHANGELICA ROOT28
ANGELICA ARCHANGELICA WHOLE1
ANGELICA DAHURICA ROOT2
ANGELICA GIGAS ROOT4
ANGELICA GIGAS ROOT OIL1
ANGELICA PUBESCENS ROOT2
ANGELICA SINENSIS ROOT27
ANGIOTENSIN IA decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.1
ANGIOTENSIN IIAn octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.2
ANGOSTURA BARK11
ANGUILLA ROSTRATA BLOOD SERUM8
ANHYDROUS CITRIC ACIDA key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.115
ANHYDROUS DEXTROSEA primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.7
ANHYDROUS DIBASIC CALCIUM PHOSPHATE17
ANHYDROUS LACTOSEA disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.1
ANHYDROUS TRISODIUM CITRATE1
ANIBA ROSAEODORA WHOLE1
ANIDULAFUNGINEchinocandin antifungal agent that is used in the treatment of CANDIDEMIA and CANDIDIASIS.This medication is used to treat a variety of fungal infections. Anidulafungin belongs to a class of drugs known as echinocandins. It works by stopping the growth of fungi.2
ANIFROLUMAB1
ANILINE3
ANISE7
ANISUM1
ANOPHELES QUADRIMACULATUS2
ANSER ANSER FEATHER27
ANTAZOLINEAn antagonist of histamine H1 receptors.1
ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM9
ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM POLLEN43
ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM WHOLE1
ANTHRACENE2
ANTHRAQUINONE5
ANTHRAX IMMUNE GLOBULIN HUMAN1
ANTIARIS TOXICARIA RESIN1
ANTIHEMOPHILIC FACTOR HUMAN1
ANTI-INTERLEUKIN-1.ALPHA. IMMUNOGLOBULIN G RABBIT12
ANTIMONYA metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.50
ANTIMONY ARSENATE3
ANTIMONY CATION (3+)1
ANTIMONY PENTASULFIDE8
ANTIMONY POTASSIUM TARTRATEA schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.139
ANTIMONY TARTRATE ION2
ANTIMONY TRIIODIDE1
ANTIMONY TRISULFIDE169
ANTIPYRINEAn analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)5
ANTIRRHINUM MAJUS LEAF1
APALUTAMIDEApalutamide is used to treat men with prostate cancer. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as anti-androgens (anti-testosterone). It works by blocking the effects of testosterone to slow the growth and spread of prostate cancer.1
APC-35643311
APC-35643411
APIOLE (PARSLEY)34
APIS CERANA WHOLE1
APIS MELLIFERA393
APIS MELLIFERA VENOM21
APIUM GRAVEOLENS WHOLE1
APIXABANApixaban is used to prevent serious blood clots from forming due to a certain irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation) or after hip/knee replacement surgery. With atrial fibrillation, part of the heart does not beat the way it should. This can lead to blood clots forming, which can travel to other parts of your body (such as the lungs or legs) or increase your risk for stroke. In the United States, apixaban is also approved to treat certain types of blood clots (deep vein thrombosis-DVT, pulmonary embolus-PE) and to prevent them from forming again. Apixaban is an anticoagulant that works by blocking certain clotting proteins in your blood.10
APOCAROTENAL1
APOCYNUM CANNABINUM ROOT19
APOMORPHINEA derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.3
APOMORPHINE HYDROCHLORIDEA derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.15
APPLE13
APPLE CIDER1
APPLE CIDER VINEGAR1
APRACLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE2
APREMILASTThis medication is used to treat a certain type of arthritis (psoriatic arthritis). Apremilast is also used to treat a certain type of skin condition (moderate to severe plaque psoriasis). Apremilast belongs to a class of drugs known as phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors. For the treatment of psoriatic arthritis, it decreases pain and swelling, and may help improve flexibility in the affected joints. For the treatment of plaque psoriasis, it may help to reduce the redness, thickening, and scaling of the skin that occurs with this condition. Apremilast is also used to treat mouth sores in people who have Behcet's disease. It helps to reduce the pain and improve the healing of these mouth sores.1
APREPITANTA morpholine neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist that is used in the management of nausea and vomiting caused by DRUG THERAPY, and for the prevention of POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING.Aprepitant is used with other medications to help prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer drug treatment (chemotherapy). Aprepitant works by blocking one of the body's natural substances (substance P/neurokinin 1) that causes vomiting. This medication will not treat nausea or vomiting that has already started. Ask your doctor what you should do if you already have nausea or vomiting.14
APRICOT3
APRICOT KERNEL OIL3
AQUA REGIA2
AQUILEGIA VULGARIS5
ARABICA COFFEE BEAN131
ARALIA RACEMOSA ROOT34
ARANEUS DIADEMATUS59
ARATINGA ERYTHROGENYS FEATHER7
ARBUTUS ANDRACHNE LEAFY SHOOT4
ARCHED SWIMMING CRAB, COOKED1
ARCTIUM LAPPA FRUIT6
ARCTIUM LAPPA ROOT87
ARCTIUM LAPPA ROOT OIL6
ARCTIUM LAPPA WHOLE2
ARCTOSTAPHYLOS TOMENTOSA WHOLE4
ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI LEAF43
ARFORMOTEROL TARTRATEArformoterol is used as a long-term (maintenance) treatment to prevent and decrease wheezing and shortness of breath caused by breathing problems (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Arformoterol belongs to the class of drugs known as long-acting beta agonists (LABAs). Arformoterol is also known as a bronchodilator. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways so that they open up and you can breathe more easily. Controlling symptoms of breathing problems can decrease time lost from work or school. This medication does not work right away and should not be used for sudden attacks of breathing trouble. Your doctor must prescribe a quick-relief medicine/inhaler (such as albuterol, also known as salbutamol) for sudden shortness of breath while you are using arformoterol. You should always have a quick-relief inhaler with you. Arformoterol is not approved to treat asthma. People with asthma using long-acting inhaled beta agonists (such as arformoterol) without also using an inhaled corticosteroid may have an increased risk of serious (sometimes fatal) breathing problems.8
ARGAN OIL1
ARGATROBAN15
ARGEMONE MEXICANAA plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains isoquinoline alkaloids.6
ARGENTINA ANSERINA FLOWERING TOP1
ARGINASE-11
ARGININEAn essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.67
ARGININE HYDROCHLORIDEAn essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.1
ARGININE PIDOLATE1
ARIPIPRAZOLEA piperazine and quinolone derivative that is used primarily as an antipsychotic agent. It is a partial agonist of SEROTONIN RECEPTOR, 5-HT1A and DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS, where it also functions as a post-synaptic antagonist, and an antagonist of SEROTONIN RECEPTOR, 5-HT2A. It is used for the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA and BIPOLAR DISORDER, and as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of depression.Aripiprazole is used to treat certain mental/mood disorders (such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, and irritability associated with autistic disorder). It may also be used in combination with other medication to treat depression. Aripiprazole is known as an antipsychotic drug (atypical type). It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural chemicals in the brain (neurotransmitters). This medication can decrease hallucinations and improve your concentration. It helps you to think more clearly and positively about yourself, feel less nervous, and take a more active part in everyday life. Aripiprazole can treat severe mood swings and decrease how often mood swings occur.255
ARIPIPRAZOLE LAUROXILExtended-release aripiprazole injection is used to treat a mental/mood disorder called schizophrenia. This medication can decrease hallucinations (hearing/seeing things that are not there) and improve your concentration. It also helps you to think more clearly, feel less nervous, and take a more active part in everyday life. Some brands of this medication are also used to treat bipolar disorder. It can help to decrease extreme changes in mood and help you feel less agitated. Extended-release aripiprazole injection is a long-acting psychiatric medication known as an atypical antipsychotic. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain.5
ARISAEMA DRACONTIUM ROOT2
ARISAEMA TRIPHYLLUM ROOT41
ARISTOLOCHIA CLEMATITIS ROOT13
ARISTOLOCHIA CLEMATITIS WHOLE4
ARISTOLOCHIA CYMBIFERA FLOWER1
ARMADILLIDIUM VULGARE WHOLE7
ARMODAFINILA benzhydryl acetamide compound, central nervous system stimulant, and CYP3A4 inducing agent that is used in the treatment of NARCOLEPSY and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS.Armodafinil reduces extreme sleepiness due to narcolepsy and other sleep disorders, such as periods of stopped breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea). It is also used to help you stay awake during work hours if you have a work schedule that keeps you from having a normal sleep routine (shift work sleep disorder). This medication does not cure these sleep disorders and may not get rid of all your sleepiness. Armodafinil does not take the place of getting enough sleep. It should not be used to treat tiredness or hold off sleep in people who do not have a sleep disorder. It is not known how armodafinil works to keep you awake. It is thought to work by affecting certain substances in the brain that control the sleep/wake cycle.40
ARMORACIA RUSTICANA WHOLE1
ARNICA CHAMISSONIS FLOWER2
ARNICA CORDIFOLIA WHOLE1
ARNICA MONTANA547
ARNICA MONTANA FLOWER49
ARNICA MONTANA FLOWER WATER8
ARNICA MONTANA ROOT57
ARNICA MONTANA WHOLE89
ARRHENATHERUM ELATIUS POLLEN12
ARSENICA shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)16
ARSENIC ACID1
ARSENIC CATION (3+)3
ARSENIC TRIBROMIDE13
ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE7
ARSENIC TRIIODIDE79
ARSENIC TRIOXIDEAn inorganic compound with the chemical formula As2O3 that is used for the treatment of ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA in patients who have relapsed from, or are resistant to, conventional drug therapy.Arsenic trioxide is used to treat a type of leukemia (acute promyelocytic leukemia-APL).726
ARSENIC TRISULFIDE7
ARTEMETHERAn artemisinin derivative that is used in the treatment of MALARIA.1
ARTEMISIA ABROTANUM FLOWERING TOP54
ARTEMISIA ABROTANUM WHOLE1
ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM POLLEN8
ARTEMISIA ANNUA FLOWERING TOP21
ARTEMISIA ANNUA POLLEN20
ARTEMISIA CINA FLOWER5
ARTEMISIA CINA PRE-FLOWERING TOP58
ARTEMISIA DRACUNCULUS POLLEN2
ARTEMISIA FRIGIDA POLLEN13
ARTEMISIA LUDOVICIANA POLLEN17
ARTEMISIA LUDOVICIANA WHOLE3
ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA POLLEN42
ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA WHOLE5
ARTEMISIA VULGARIS POLLEN42
ARTEMISIA VULGARIS ROOT35
ARTEMISIA VULGARIS WHOLE7
ARTHROSPIRA PLATENSIS1
ARTICAINE HYDROCHLORIDE17
ARTICHOKE2
ARUM MACULATUM ROOT3
ARUNDO PLINIANA ROOT40
ASAFETIDAA plant genus of the family APIACEAE. It contains pungent oils and resins. It is used to flavor curries, as a carminative, and as cat and dog repellent. The occasionally used common name of 'giant fennel' should not be confused with true fennel (FOENICULUM).30
ASARUM CANADENSE ROOT9
ASARUM EUROPAEUM8
ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDESA species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.8
ASCIMINIB HYDROCHLORIDE2
ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA2
ASCLEPIAS INCARNATA ROOT1
ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA FLOWERING TOP5
ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA ROOT5
ASCOPHYLLUM NODOSUM1
ASCORBIC ACIDA six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is used to prevent or treat low levels of vitamin C in people who do not get enough of the vitamin from their diets. Most people who eat a normal diet do not need extra ascorbic acid. Low levels of vitamin C can result in a condition called scurvy. Scurvy may cause symptoms such as rash, muscle weakness, joint pain, tiredness, or tooth loss. Vitamin C plays an important role in the body. It is needed to maintain the health of skin, cartilage, teeth, bone, and blood vessels. It is also used to protect your body's cells from damage. It is known as an antioxidant.191
ASCORBYL GLUCOSIDE2
ASCORBYL PALMITATE8
ASENAPINE8
ASENAPINE MALEATEThis medication is used to treat certain mental/mood disorders (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder). Asenapine helps you to think more clearly, feel less nervous, and take part in everyday life. It may also help to decrease hallucinations (hearing/seeing things that are not there) and prevent severe mood swings. Asenapine is a psychiatric medication that belongs to the class of drugs called atypical antipsychotics. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain (neurotransmitters).16
ASFOTASE ALFA4
ASIAN GINSENG39
ASIMINA TRILOBA WHOLE1
ASPARAGINASEA hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.1
ASPARAGINEA non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)6
ASPARAGINE MONOHYDRATE5
ASPARAGUS24
ASPARTAMEFlavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.20
ASPARTIC ACIDOne of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.20
ASPERGILLOPEPSIN I (ASPERGILLUS PHOENICIS)1
ASPERGILLUS FLAVUSA species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.15
ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS VAR. ORYZAE12
ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUSA species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.46
ASPERGILLUS NIDULANSA species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.16
ASPERGILLUS NIGER VAR. NIGER92
ASPERGILLUS REPENS12
ASPERGILLUS TERREUS16
ASPIDOSPERMA QUEBRACHO-BLANCO BARK9
ASPIDOSPERMA QUEBRACHO-BLANCO ROOT1
ASPIRINThe prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Aspirin is used to reduce fever and relieve mild to moderate pain from conditions such as muscle aches, toothaches, common cold, and headaches. It may also be used to reduce pain and swelling in conditions such as arthritis. Aspirin is known as a salicylate and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by blocking a certain natural substance in your body to reduce pain and swelling. Consult your doctor before treating a child younger than 12 years. Your doctor may direct you to take a low dose of aspirin to prevent blood clots. This effect reduces the risk of stroke and heart attack. If you have recently had surgery on clogged arteries (such as bypass surgery, carotid endarterectomy, coronary stent), your doctor may direct you to use aspirin in low doses as a "blood thinner" to prevent blood clots.789
ASPLENIUM SCOLOPENDRIUM TOP10
ASPLENIUM SCOLOPENDRIUM WHOLE1
ASTACUS ASTACUS13
ASTAXANTHIN1
ASTERIAS RUBENS24
ASTRAGALUS AMERICANUS WHOLE1
ASTRAGALUS CHINENSIS SEED1
ASTRAGALUS EXSCAPUS WHOLE FLOWERING/FRUITING3
ASTRAGALUS GUMMIFER ROOT1
ASTRAGALUS MONGHOLICUS ROOT2
ASTRAGALUS NUTTALLII LEAF5
ASTRAGALUS PROPINQUUS ROOT35
ASTRAGALUS PROPINQUUS ROOT POLYSACCHARIDES1
ATAZANAVIR SULFATEAn azapeptide and HIV-PROTEASE INHIBITOR that is used in the treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS in combination with other ANTI-HIV AGENTS.This drug is used with other HIV medications to help control HIV infection. It helps to decrease the amount of HIV in your body so your immune system can work better. This lowers your chance of getting HIV complications (such as new infections, cancer) and improves your quality of life. Atazanavir belongs to a class of drugs known as protease inhibitors. It may be given with certain other medications (such as cobicistat, ritonavir) to increase ("boost") the levels of atazanavir. This helps atazanavir work better. Atazanavir is not a cure for HIV infection. To decrease your risk of spreading HIV disease to others, do all of the following: (1) continue to take all HIV medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor, (2) always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condoms/dental dams) during all sexual activity, and (3) do not share personal items (such as needles/syringes, toothbrushes, and razors) that may have contacted blood or other body fluids. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.36
ATENOLOLA cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Atenolol is used with or without other medications to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. This medication is also used to treat chest pain (angina) and to improve survival after a heart attack. Atenolol belongs to a class of drugs known as beta blockers. It works by blocking the action of certain natural chemicals in your body, such as epinephrine, on the heart and blood vessels. This effect lowers the heart rate, blood pressure, and strain on the heart.128
ATEZOLIZUMABThis medication is used to treat various cancers (such as bladder, breast, liver, lung, skin). It works by helping your immune system fight the cancer. Atezolizumab belongs to a class of drugs known as monoclonal antibodies.2
ATLANTIC COD10
ATLANTIC HALIBUT5
ATLANTIC MACKEREL2
ATLANTIC SALMON7
ATOGEPANT3
ATOLTIVIMAB2
ATOMOXETINE HYDROCHLORIDEA propylamine derivative and selective ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITOR that is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.111
ATORVASTATINA pyrrole and heptanoic acid derivative, HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL-COA REDUCTASE INHIBITOR (statin), and ANTICHOLESTEREMIC AGENT that is used to reduce serum levels of LDL-CHOLESTEROL; APOLIPOPROTEIN B; and TRIGLYCERIDES. It is used to increase serum levels of HDL-CHOLESTEROL in the treatment of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS, and for the prevention of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES in patients with multiple risk factors.7
ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM ANHYDROUSA pyrrole and heptanoic acid derivative, HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL-COA REDUCTASE INHIBITOR (statin), and ANTICHOLESTEREMIC AGENT that is used to reduce serum levels of LDL-CHOLESTEROL; APOLIPOPROTEIN B; and TRIGLYCERIDES. It is used to increase serum levels of HDL-CHOLESTEROL in the treatment of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS, and for the prevention of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES in patients with multiple risk factors.2
ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM PROPYLENE GLYCOL SOLVATE41
ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM TRIHYDRATEA pyrrole and heptanoic acid derivative, HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL-COA REDUCTASE INHIBITOR (statin), and ANTICHOLESTEREMIC AGENT that is used to reduce serum levels of LDL-CHOLESTEROL; APOLIPOPROTEIN B; and TRIGLYCERIDES. It is used to increase serum levels of HDL-CHOLESTEROL in the treatment of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS, and for the prevention of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES in patients with multiple risk factors.320
ATOVAQUONEA hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Atovaquone is used to prevent or treat a serious lung infection called Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). This medication helps to stop infection symptoms such as fever, cough, tiredness, and shortness of breath.30
ATRACTYLODES LANCEA ROOT1
ATRACTYLODES MACROCEPHALA ROOT2
ATRACURIUM BESYLATE6
ATRIPLEX CANESCENS POLLEN37
ATRIPLEX CONFERTIFOLIA POLLEN6
ATRIPLEX LENTIFORMIS POLLEN12
ATRIPLEX POLYCARPA POLLEN13
ATRIPLEX POLYCARPA WHOLE1
ATRIPLEX WRIGHTII POLLEN11
ATROPA BELLADONNAA plant species of the genus ATROPA, family SOLANACEAE that contains ATROPINE; SCOPOLAMINE; BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for SOLANUM.417
ATROPA BELLA-DONNA FLOWERING TOP2
ATROPA BELLADONNA ROOT3
ATROPA BELLADONNA WHOLE16
ATROPINEAn alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.10
ATROPINE SULFATEAn alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.This medication is used before eye examinations (e.g., refraction) and to treat certain eye conditions (e.g., uveitis). It belongs to a class of drugs known as anticholinergics. Atropine works by widening (dilating) the pupil of the eye.125
AURANOFINAn oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.This medication is used as part of a complete treatment program including non-drug therapies (e.g., rest, physical therapy) to treat active rheumatoid arthritis. It is used to treat patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis who have not responded to or cannot take other medications. Auranofin is a gold compound. Auranofin is not a true pain reliever (e.g., like aspirin) but it is thought to decrease pain that occurs with arthritis by decreasing inflammation. It is known as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). It decreases morning stiffness and pain/swelling in joints and can increase grip strength.1
AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS VAR. PULLUTANS48
AUTOLOGOUS CULTURED CHONDROCYTES1
AVACOPAN1
AVALGLUCOSIDASE ALFA1
AVANAFILAvanafil is used to treat male sexual function problems (impotence or erectile dysfunction-ED). In combination with sexual stimulation, avanafil works by increasing blood flow to the penis to help a man get and keep an erection. This drug does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV, hepatitis B, gonorrhea, syphilis). To decrease your risk of infection, always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condom/dental dams) during all sexual activity. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.6
AVATROMBOPAG MALEATEThis medication is used by people with chronic liver disease and a certain blood disorder (low platelet count) who are scheduled to have a medical or dental procedure. Having a low platelet count increases the risk of too much bleeding during certain procedures. This medication increases the production of platelets by your body to help prevent too much bleeding from the procedure. Avatrombopag is also used to treat people with a certain blood disorder known as chronic immune thrombocytopenia-ITP. This is a condition where the amount of platelets in the blood is lower than normal. ITP can lead to serious bleeding problems. This medication increases the production of platelets by your body to help prevent too much bleeding from ITP.1
AVELUMABAvelumab is used to treat various types of cancer. It works by changing the action of your own immune system, directing it to attack cancer cells. Avelumab belongs to a class of drugs known as monoclonal antibodies.1
AVENA SATIVA FLOWERING TOP145
AVENA SATIVA LEAF2
AVENA SATIVA POLLEN32
AVENA SATIVA TOP3
AVENA SATIVA WHOLE2
AVENS EXTRACT1
AVIBACTAM SODIUM1
AVICULARIA AVICULARIA5
AVISCUMINE8
AVOBENZONE2374
AVOCADO2
AVOTERMIN2
AXICABTAGENE CILOLEUCEL1
AXITINIBA benzamide and indazole derivative that acts as a TYROSINE KINASE inhibitor of the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It is used in the treatment of advanced RENAL CELL CARCINOMA.This medication is used to treat kidney cancer. Axitinib works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. It belongs to a class of drugs known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors.4
AZACITIDINEA pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.This medication is used to treat a group of blood/bone marrow disorders (myelodysplastic syndromes-MDS) in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. People with MDS usually have problems such as infections, anemia, and easy bleeding/bruising. Azacitidine is believed to work by helping your bone marrow grow normal blood cells so you will need fewer blood transfusions. Azacitidine also kills abnormal blood cells that have grown too fast and do not work properly.28
AZADIRACHTA INDICA BARK12
AZADIRACHTA INDICA FLOWER2
AZADIRACHTA INDICA SEED OIL1
AZATHIOPRINEAn immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Azathioprine is used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney transplant. It is usually taken along with other medications to allow your new kidney to function normally. Azathioprine is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. In this condition, the body's defense system (immune system) attacks healthy joints. Azathioprine belongs to a class of drugs known as immunosuppressants. It works by weakening the immune system to help your body accept the new kidney as if it were your own (in the case of an organ transplant) or to prevent further damage to your joints (in the case of rheumatoid arthritis). Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of azathioprine, especially when used in children and young adults.25
AZATHIOPRINE SODIUMAn immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)1
AZELAIC ACIDThis medication is used to treat a certain skin condition called rosacea. It helps to reduce the number of inflamed skin lesions.9
AZELASTINE HYDROCHLORIDE32
AZILSARTAN KAMEDOXOMIL4
AZITHROMYCIN ANHYDROUS3
AZITHROMYCIN DIHYDRATEA semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.116
AZITHROMYCIN MONOHYDRATEA semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.79
AZTREONAMA monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Aztreonam is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is an antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of bacteria.10
AZURITE2
BABESIA MICROTIA species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.17
BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA POLLEN20
BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA WHOLE5
BACCHARIS PILULARIS WHOLE1
BACCHARIS SAROTHROIDES WHOLE4
BACILLUS ANTHRACIS IMMUNOSERUM RABBIT27
BACILLUS ANTHRACIS STRAIN V770-NP1-R ANTIGENS1
BACILLUS CALMETTE-GUERIN LIVE ANTIGEN, UNSPECIFIED SUBSTRAIN3
BACILLUS CALMETTE-GUERIN SUBSTRAIN TICE LIVE ANTIGEN2
BACILLUS SUBTILISA species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.1
BACILLUS THURINGIENSISA species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.6
BACITRACINA complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)This medication is an antibiotic used to treat certain bacterial eye infections. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This medication treats only bacterial eye infections. It will not work for other types of eye infections. Unnecessary use or overuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.36
BACITRACIN ZINCA complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)301
BACLOFENA GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.Baclofen is used to treat muscle spasms caused by certain conditions (such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury/disease). It works by helping to relax the muscles.156
BACOPA MONNIERI WHOLE8
BAICALIN1
BALLOTA FOETIDA1
BALOXAVIR MARBOXILBaloxavir marboxil is an antiviral medication used to treat the flu (influenza) if your symptoms started less than 48 hours ago. It helps make the symptoms (such as stuffy nose, cough, sore throat, fever/chills, aches, tiredness) less severe and may shorten the recovery time by 1 to 2 days. Baloxavir marboxil works by stopping the flu virus from growing. It will not treat other kinds of infection besides the flu virus. Baloxavir marboxil is not a substitute for the flu vaccine. (See also Notes section.)3
BALSALAZIDE DISODIUMBalsalazide is used to treat a certain bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). It helps to reduce symptoms of ulcerative colitis such as diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and stomach pain. Balsalazide belongs to a class of drugs known as aminosalicylates. It works by decreasing swelling in the colon.7
BALSAM PERU6
BAMBUSA BAMBOS LEAF2
BAMBUSA BAMBOS SAP1
BAMBUSA BAMBOS STEM1
BAMBUSA VULGARIS LEAF8
BAMBUSA VULGARIS TOP1
BAMBUSA VULGARIS WHOLE23
BAMLANIVIMAB1
BANANA13
BANDTOOTH CONGER2
BAPTISIA AUSTRALIS ROOT1
BAPTISIA TINCTORIA37
BAPTISIA TINCTORIA ROOT242
BAPTISIA TINCTORIA WHOLE20
BARICITINIBBaricitinib is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. It helps decrease pain, tenderness, and swelling in the joints.4
BARIUMAn element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.1
BARIUM ACETATE8
BARIUM BROMIDE7
BARIUM CARBONATE167
BARIUM CATION2
BARIUM CHLORIDE1
BARIUM CHLORIDE DIHYDRATE32
BARIUM CITRATE5
BARIUM IODATE3
BARIUM IODIDE21
BARIUM OXALATE3
BARIUM OXALOSUCCINATE10
BARIUM PHOSPHATE, DIBASIC8
BARIUM SULFATEA compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.19
BARLEY23
BARTONELLA BACILLIFORMISThe type species of the genus BARTONELLA, a gram-negative bacteria found in humans. It is found in the mountain valleys of Peru, Ecuador, and Southwest Columbia where the sandfly (see PHLEBOTOMUS) vector is present. It causes OROYA FEVER and VERRUGA PERUANA.2
BARTONELLA CLARRIDGEIAE2
BARTONELLA ELIZABETHAE2
BARTONELLA HENSELAEA species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.7
BARTONELLA QUINTANAA species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the primary host and the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, the principal vector. It is the etiological agent of TRENCH FEVER.2
BARTONELLA VINSONII2
BARTONELLA WASHOENSIS2
BASIC COPPER SULFATE2
BASIC CUPRIC CARBONATE10
BASIL3
BASILIXIMABA chimeric murine-human monoclonal antibody that functions as an INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR antagonist by binding to the alpha chain (CD25 ANTIGEN) of the interleukin-2 receptor on the surface of activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is used in the prevention of acute graft rejection episodes in patients undergoing renal transplantation.Basiliximab is used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney transplant. It is usually taken along with other medications (e.g., cyclosporine, corticosteroids) to allow your new organ to function normally. Basiliximab is an immunosuppressant drug known as a monoclonal antibody. It works by slowing down your body's defense system (immune system) to prevent your body from rejecting the new kidney after surgery (acute rejection).2
BASSIA SCOPARIA FRUIT2
BASSIA SCOPARIA POLLEN40
BAY LEAF2
BAZEDOXIFENE ACETATE2
BEAN1
BEBTELOVIMAB1
BECAPLERMINA recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor B-chain dimer used to promote WOUND HEALING by stimulating PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.This medication is used to treat certain foot/leg ulcers in people with diabetes. It is used along with good foot/leg care (e.g., keeping pressure off the wound) to help the ulcer heal completely. Becaplermin works by attracting certain natural substances to the ulcer that help wound healing.1
BECKWITHIA GLACIALIS WHOLE1
BECLOMETHASONE DIPROPIONATEBeclomethasone is used to prevent and treat seasonal and year-round allergy symptoms (such as stuffy/runny nose, itchy eyes/nose/throat, sneezing). It may be used to treat symptoms (such as stuffy/runny nose) caused by other triggers (such as cigarette smoke, perfumes). It is also used to prevent the return of growths in the nose (nasal polyps) after removal by surgery. Beclomethasone belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. It works by reducing swelling (inflammation) in the nasal passages.4
BECLOMETHASONE DIPROPIONATE MONOHYDRATE1
BEDAQUILINE FUMARATEThis medication must be used with other medications to treat active multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) of the lungs in people with limited treatment options. Bedaquiline belongs to a class of drugs known as antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of the bacteria that causes TB. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.2
BEE POLLEN5
BEEFMeat such as beef, goat, pork, or lamb which contains more MYOGLOBIN than POULTRY or SEAFOOD.28
BEEF HEART32
BEEF KIDNEY30
BEEF LIVER72
BEEF LUNG20
BEEF SHORT PLATE1
BEEF TONGUE4
BEETA species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).3
BEET JUICE1
BELANTAMAB MAFODOTIN1
BELATACEPTA fusion protein immunoconjugate of the extracellular domain of CTLA4 and the Fc domain of human IgG1. It functions as a T-cell co-stimulation blocker that inhibits TNF-ALPHA and prevents the activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is used in the treatment of RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Belatacept is used to help prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney transplant. It is used along with other medications (such as mycophenolate, corticosteroids) to allow your new organ to function normally. Belatacept belongs to a class of drugs known as immunosuppressants. It works by weakening your body's natural defense (immune system) to prevent your body from rejecting the new kidney.1
BELIMUMABThis medication is used to treat a certain type of lupus, systemic lupus erythematosus, in patients who are receiving other lupus medicines. It works by binding to a protein (found in high levels in patients with active lupus) in the blood and limiting the activity of the protein. It helps decrease the symptoms of lupus. Belimumab is a type of medication called a monoclonal antibody.3
BELINOSTATBelinostat is used to treat a certain type of cancer (peripheral T-cell lymphoma - PTCL). Belinostat works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.1
BELLADONNA LEAF8
BELLIS PERENNIS122
BELLIS PERENNIS WHOLE30
BELUMOSUDIL1
BELZUTIFAN1
BEMOTRIZINOL10
BEMPEDOIC ACID2
BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE141
BENDAMUSTINE HYDROCHLORIDEA nitrogen mustard compound that functions as an ALKYLATING ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT and is used in the treatment of CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA and NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA.8
BENOXINATE HYDROCHLORIDE3
BENRALIZUMABBenralizumab is used along with other medications to control and prevent symptoms (such as wheezing and shortness of breath) caused by asthma. Controlling symptoms of asthma helps you maintain your normal activities and decreases time lost from work or school. This medication must be used regularly to be effective. It does not work right away and should not be used to relieve sudden asthma attacks. If an asthma attack occurs, use your quick-relief inhaler as prescribed.2
BENZALKONIUM2
BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE1953
BENZENEToxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.23
BENZETHONIUM CHLORIDEBactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.101
BENZHYDROCODONE HYDROCHLORIDE6
BENZO(A)PYRENEA potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.2
BENZOCAINEA surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.563
BENZOIC ACIDA fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.91
BENZOIN RESIN5
BENZOIN, (+/-)-1
BENZONATATEThis medication is used to treat coughs caused by the common cold and other breathing problems (e.g., pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). It works by reducing the reflex in the lungs that causes the urge to cough. Use of this medication is not recommended in children younger than 10 years. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.133
BENZOYL PEROXIDEA peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.This medication is used to treat mild to moderate acne. It may be used in combination with other acne treatments. When applied to the skin, benzoyl peroxide works by reducing the amount of acne-causing bacteria and by causing the skin to dry and peel. Check the ingredients on the label even if you have used the product before. The manufacturer may have changed the ingredients. Also, products with similar names may contain different ingredients meant for different purposes. Taking the wrong product could harm you.228
BENZPHETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE5
BENZTROPINE MESYLATEA centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.Benztropine is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease or involuntary movements due to the side effects of certain psychiatric drugs (antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine/haloperidol). Benztropine belongs to a class of medication called anticholinergics that work by blocking a certain natural substance (acetylcholine). This helps decrease muscle stiffness, sweating, and the production of saliva, and helps improve walking ability in people with Parkinson's disease. Anticholinergics can stop severe muscle spasms of the back, neck, and eyes that are sometimes caused by psychiatric drugs. It can also decrease other side effects such as muscle stiffness/rigidity (extrapyramidal signs-EPS). It is not helpful in treating movement problems caused by tardive dyskinesia and may worsen them. Benztropine should not be used by children younger than 3 years.52
BENZYL ALCOHOLA colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.24
BENZYL BENZOATE1
BENZYLPENICILLOYL POLYLYSINE1
BEPOTASTINE BESILATEThis medication is used to treat itching of the eyes due to allergies. Bepotastine is an antihistamine. It works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine) that causes allergic symptoms. Do not use this medication to treat red or irritated eyes due to wearing contact lenses. Contact your doctor for further instructions if this occurs.2
BEPOTASTINE BESYLATE3
BERACTANT1
BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM ROOT BARK26
BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM WHOLE3
BERBERIS REPENS ROOT1
BERBERIS VULGARIS FRUIT12
BERBERIS VULGARIS ROOT5
BERBERIS VULGARIS ROOT BARK332
BERBERIS VULGARIS WHOLE5
BEROTRALSTAT HYDROCHLORIDE2
BERTHOLLETIA EXCELSA WHOLE1
BERYLLIUMAn element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.37
BERYLLIUM FLUORIDE8
BERYLLIUM NITRATE7
BERYLLIUM OXYACETATE7
BERYLLIUM SULFATE TETRAHYDRATE8
BESIFLOXACIN1
BETA CAROTENEA carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. Beta carotene is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC).8
BETA VULGARISA species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).29
BETA VULGARIS POLLEN4
BETA VULGARIS WHOLE5
BETA-ENDORPHIN HUMAN4
BETAINEA naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)This medication is used to treat high levels of a certain important body chemical (homocysteine) due to an inherited disorder (homocystinuria). Decreasing high homocysteine levels may help prevent serious blood clots, abnormal bone formation, brittle bones (osteoporosis), and eye problems (e.g., dislocated eye lens, nearsightedness). This medication works by decreasing blood levels of homocysteine. It does not correct the inherited disorder that causes the disease.9
BETAINE HYDROCHLORIDEA naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)4
BETAMETHASONE ACETATE7
BETAMETHASONE DIPROPIONATEThis medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Betamethasone reduces the swelling, itching, and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a strong corticosteroid.83
BETAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE7
BETAMETHASONE VALERATEThe 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.This medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Betamethasone reduces the swelling, itching, and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a medium-strength corticosteroid.27
BETAXOLOL HYDROCHLORIDEA cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.10
BETHANECHOL CHLORIDEA slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.This medication is used to treat certain bladder problems such as the inability to urinate or empty the bladder completely due to certain causes (e.g., surgery, bladder muscle problems). It works by helping the bladder muscle to squeeze better, thereby improving your ability to urinate.27
BETIATIDE2
BETIBEGLOGENE AUTOTEMCEL1
BETULA LENTA POLLEN46
BETULA LENTA WHOLE2
BETULA NIGRA POLLEN80
BETULA OCCIDENTALIS POLLEN24
BETULA OCCIDENTALIS WHOLE5
BETULA PAPYRIFERA POLLEN23
BETULA PENDULA BARK8
BETULA PENDULA LEAF18
BETULA PENDULA POLLEN8
BETULA PENDULA WHOLE1
BETULA PENDULA WOOD1
BETULA POPULIFOLIA POLLEN18
BETULA PUBESCENS BARK19
BETULA PUBESCENS FLOWER BUD6
BETULA PUBESCENS LEAF23
BETULA PUBESCENS WHOLE1
BEVACIZUMABAn anti-VEGF humanized murine monoclonal antibody. It inhibits VEGF RECEPTORS and helps to prevent PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.This medication is a man-made antibody (IgG1) used to treat various types of cancer. This drug works by blocking a certain protein (vascular endothelial growth factor-VEGF) thereby decreasing the blood supply to the tumor and slowing tumor growth. This monograph is about the following bevacizumab products: bevacizumab, bevacizumab-awwb, and bevacizumab-bvzr.8
BEXAROTENEA rexinoid (an RXR-binding ligand), tetrahydronaphthalene derivative and RETINOID X RECEPTOR antagonist that is used in the treatment of CUTANEOUS T-CELL LYMPHOMA.Bexarotene is used to treat skin problems from a certain type of cancer (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-CTCL). It belongs to a class of drugs called retinoids (vitamin A derivatives). Bexarotene works by slowing or stopping the growth of cells.11
BEZLOTOXUMAB1
BIANCAEA DECAPETALA ROOT BARK1
BIANCAEA SAPPAN WOOD1
BICALUTAMIDEBicalutamide is used to treat prostate cancer. This medication works by blocking the action of male hormones in the prostate, slowing the growth of cancer cells. This medication should not be used in women and children.9
BICTEGRAVIR SODIUM3
BIDENS PILOSA LEAF1
BIFENTHRIN9
BILBERRY24
BILIRUBINA bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.1
BIMATOPROSTA cloprostenol-derived amide that is used as an ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENT in the treatment of OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA and OCULAR HYPERTENSION.Bimatoprost is used to treat high pressure inside the eye due to glaucoma (open-angle type) or other eye diseases (e.g., ocular hypertension). Lowering high pressure inside the eye can help prevent blindness. This medication works by regulating the flow of fluid within the eye to maintain a normal pressure.21
BINETRAKIN5
BINIMETINIBBinimetinib is used to treat a type of skin cancer (melanoma). Binimetinib belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.1
BIOTINA water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Biotin (vitamin B7) is used to prevent or treat low levels of vitamin B7 in people who do not get enough of the vitamin from their diets. Most people who eat a normal diet do not need extra vitamin B7. However, some conditions (such as pregnancy, parenteral nutrition, rapid weight loss) can cause low levels of vitamin B7.53
BIOTINOYL TRIPEPTIDE-11
BIS(2,4-DICHLOROBENZOYL) PEROXIDE1
BISACODYLA diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)Bisacodyl is used to treat constipation. It may also be used to clean out the intestines before a bowel examination/surgery. Bisacodyl is known as a stimulant laxative. It works by increasing the movement of the intestines, helping the stool to come out.143
BISMUTHA metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, and atomic number 83. Its principal isotope is Bismuth 209.This medication is used to treat occasional upset stomach, heartburn, and nausea. It is also used to treat diarrhea and help prevent travelers' diarrhea. It works by helping to slow the growth of bacteria that might be causing the diarrhea. This product should not be used to self-treat diarrhea if you also have a fever or blood/mucus in the stools. These could be signs of a serious health condition. Consult your doctor promptly for proper evaluation and treatment if you have these symptoms. This medication is used under a doctor's direction with other medication to treat stomach ulcers caused by a certain bacteria (Helicobacter pylori). Do not use this medication to self-treat ulcers. Bismuth subsalicylate is a salicylate. Salicylates can cause serious bleeding problems when used alone in patients with ulcers. Check the ingredients on the label even if you have used the product before. The manufacturer may have changed the ingredients. Also, products with similar names may contain different ingredients meant for different purposes. Taking the wrong product could harm you.39
BISMUTH OXIDE8
BISMUTH PHOSPHATE16
BISMUTH SUBCITRATE POTASSIUM1
BISMUTH SUBGALLATE2
BISMUTH SUBNITRATE25
BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATEThis medication is used to treat occasional upset stomach, heartburn, and nausea. It is also used to treat diarrhea and help prevent travelers' diarrhea. It works by helping to slow the growth of bacteria that might be causing the diarrhea. This product should not be used to self-treat diarrhea if you also have a fever or blood/mucus in the stools. These could be signs of a serious health condition. Consult your doctor promptly for proper evaluation and treatment if you have these symptoms. This medication is used under a doctor's direction with other medication to treat stomach ulcers caused by a certain bacteria (Helicobacter pylori). Do not use this medication to self-treat ulcers. Bismuth subsalicylate is a salicylate. Salicylates can cause serious bleeding problems when used alone in patients with ulcers. Check the ingredients on the label even if you have used the product before. The manufacturer may have changed the ingredients. Also, products with similar names may contain different ingredients meant for different purposes. Taking the wrong product could harm you.273
BISOCTRIZOLE2
BISOPROLOL FUMARATEA cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker. It is effective in the management of HYPERTENSION and ANGINA PECTORIS.Bisoprolol is used with or without other medications to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as beta blockers. It works by blocking the action of certain natural chemicals in your body such as epinephrine on the heart and blood vessels. This effect lowers the heart rate, blood pressure, and strain on the heart.62
BISPHENOL A17
BITTER ALMOND3
BIVALIRUDIN18
BLACK COHOSH152
BLACK CURRANT6
BLACK MUSTARD SEED14
BLACK OLIVE1
BLACK PEPPER19
BLACK SEA BASS1
BLACK WALNUTA plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.18
BLACKBERRYA plant genus of the family Rosaceae whose members include blackberries and raspberries.2
BLACK-EYED PEA1
BLASTOCYSTIS HOMINISA species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.9
BLATTA ORIENTALIS38
BLATTELLA GERMANICA21
BLEOMYCIN SULFATEA complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Bleomycin is used to treat cancer. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. This medication may also be used to control the build-up of fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion) caused by tumors that have spread to the lungs. For this condition, bleomycin is placed in the space around the lungs through a chest tube.16
BLETILLA STRIATA TUBER1
BLUE CRAB4
BLUE TILAPIA WHOLE1
BLUEBERRYSeveral species of the genus Vaccinium which produce the edible blueberry fruit.2
BLUEGILL1
BOLETUS SATANAS FRUITING BODY4
BOMBYX MORI FIBER4
BOMBYX MORI WHOLE2
BORAGE15
BORAGO OFFICINALIS FLOWER3
BORAGO OFFICINALIS WHOLE1
BORDETELLA PERTUSSISA species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.5
BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS FILAMENTOUS HEMAGGLUTININ ANTIGEN (FORMALDEHYDE INACTIVATED)9
BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS FIMBRIAE 2/3 ANTIGEN5
BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS PERTACTIN ANTIGEN5
BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS PERTACTIN ANTIGEN (FORMALDEHYDE INACTIVATED)4
BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS TOXOID ANTIGEN (FORMALDEHYDE, GLUTARALDEHYDE INACTIVATED)4
BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS TOXOID ANTIGEN (GLUTARALDEHYDE INACTIVATED)5
BORIC ACID15
BORNEOL2
BORONA trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.33
BORON CITRATE1
BORON GLUCONATE4
BORON OXIDE9
BOROSILICATE GLASS1
BORRELIA AFZELII1
BORRELIA BURGDORFERIA specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.26
BORTEZOMIBA pyrazine and boronic acid derivative that functions as a reversible PROTEASOME INHIBITOR. It is used as an ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT in the treatment of MULTIPLE MYELOMA and MANTLE CELL LYMPHOMA.This medication is used to treat certain types of cancer (such as multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.29
BOS TAURUS ACHILLES TENDON1
BOS TAURUS ADRENAL CORTEX1
BOS TAURUS ADRENAL GLAND50
BOS TAURUS ANKLE JOINT2
BOS TAURUS ARTERY6
BOS TAURUS BILE41
BOS TAURUS BONE15
BOS TAURUS BONE MARROW18
BOS TAURUS BRAIN35
BOS TAURUS BRAINSTEM4
BOS TAURUS CARTILAGE22
BOS TAURUS CEREBELLUM16
BOS TAURUS COLON7
BOS TAURUS COLOSTRUM6
BOS TAURUS COLOSTRUM IMMUNOGLOBULINS1
BOS TAURUS CONJUNCTIVA3
BOS TAURUS DANDER2
BOS TAURUS DUODENUM2
BOS TAURUS ESOPHAGUS1
BOS TAURUS EYE26
BOS TAURUS FRONTAL LOBE3
BOS TAURUS GALLBLADDER19
BOS TAURUS GALLSTONE1
BOS TAURUS GINGIVA3
BOS TAURUS HAIR5
BOS TAURUS HIP JOINT2
BOS TAURUS HIPPOCAMPUS1
BOS TAURUS HYPOTHALAMUS60
BOS TAURUS INTERVERTEBRAL DISC26
BOS TAURUS JOINT CAPSULE3
BOS TAURUS KNEE JOINT1
BOS TAURUS LARGE INTESTINE9
BOS TAURUS LIGAMENT7
BOS TAURUS LIMBIC SYSTEM2
BOS TAURUS LYMPH6
BOS TAURUS LYMPH VESSEL26
BOS TAURUS MAMMARY GLAND4
BOS TAURUS MESENCHYME6
BOS TAURUS NASAL MUCOSA10
BOS TAURUS NERVE34
BOS TAURUS OVARY25
BOS TAURUS PANCREAS22
BOS TAURUS PARASYMPATHETIC NERVE2
BOS TAURUS PARATHYROID GLAND12
BOS TAURUS PAROTID GLAND2
BOS TAURUS PEYER'S PATCH2
BOS TAURUS PINEAL GLAND15
BOS TAURUS PITUITARY GLAND37
BOS TAURUS PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR44
BOS TAURUS PLACENTA14
BOS TAURUS PROSTATE GLAND12
BOS TAURUS RED BLOOD CELL4
BOS TAURUS SKIN22
BOS TAURUS SOLAR PLEXUS6
BOS TAURUS SOMATIC NERVE2
BOS TAURUS SPINAL CORD11
BOS TAURUS SPLEEN37
BOS TAURUS SYMPATHETIC NERVE1
BOS TAURUS TENDON4
BOS TAURUS TESTICLE18
BOS TAURUS THYMUS36
BOS TAURUS TONSIL5
BOS TAURUS URINARY BLADDER1
BOS TAURUS UTERUS6
BOS TAURUS VEIN2
BOSCALID1
BOSENTANA sulfonamide and pyrimidine derivative that acts as a dual endothelin receptor antagonist used to manage PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS.Bosentan is used to treat high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary arterial hypertension). This condition is thought to be caused by increased levels of a certain natural substance (endothelin-1). This medication blocks the effects of endothelin-1, thereby helping to decrease the blood pressure in the lungs, slow the worsening of symptoms from the disease, and improve your ability to exercise.18
BOSENTAN ANHYDROUSA sulfonamide and pyrimidine derivative that acts as a dual endothelin receptor antagonist used to manage PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS.2
BOSUTINIB MONOHYDRATE5
BOSWELLIA SERRATA RESIN OIL1
BOTHROPS ATROX VENOM3
BOTRYOGLOSSUM PLATYCARPUM1
BOTRYTIS CINEREA29
BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A28
BOVINE TUBERCULIN10
BOVINE TYPE I COLLAGEN2
BOVINE TYPE I COLLAGEN (SKIN)3
BOVINE TYPE II COLLAGEN (TRACHEAL CARTILAGE)10
BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR HUMAN6
BRASSICA RAPA POLLEN5
BRAZIL NUT12
BREEA SEGETA WHOLE1
BREMELANOTIDE ACETATE1
BRENTUXIMAB VEDOTINImmunoconjugate that consists of the chimeric monoclonal anti - CD30 ANTIGEN antibody cAC-10 conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E. It is used for the treatment of LYMPHOMA.Brentuximab is used to treat certain types of cancers (Hodgkin's lymphoma, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, CD30-expressing mycosis fungoides). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.1
BREXANOLONE1
BREXPIPRAZOLEThis medication is used to treat certain mental/mood disorders (such as schizophrenia, depression). Brexpiprazole helps you to think more clearly, feel less nervous, and take part in everyday life. It may also help to decrease hallucinations (hearing/seeing things that are not there). In addition, this medication may improve your mood, sleep, appetite, and energy level. Brexpiprazole is a psychiatric medication that belongs to the class of drugs called atypical antipsychotics. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain.7
BREXUCABTAGENE AUTOLEUCEL2
BRIGATINIBBrigatinib is used to treat a certain type of lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.3
BRILLIANT BLUE G1
BRILLIANT GREEN1
BRIMONIDINE TARTRATEA quinoxaline derivative and ADRENERGIC ALHPA-2 RECEPTOR AGONIST that is used to manage INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE associated with OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA and OCULAR HYPERTENSION.This medication is used to treat open-angle glaucoma or high fluid pressure in the eye. Lowering high fluid pressure in the eye reduces the risk of vision loss, nerve damage, or blindness. This medication lowers pressure by allowing better fluid drainage from within the eye and also by reducing the amount of fluid formed in the eye. It is known as an alpha agonist. This drug is not recommended for use in children less than 2 years of age due to an increased risk of serious side effects such as very slowed breathing. Ask the doctor or pharmacist for details.26
BRINCIDOFOVIR2
BRINOLASEA fibrinolytic and thrombolytic enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae. EC 3.4.99.-.1
BRINZOLAMIDEBrinzolamide is used to treat high pressure inside the eye due to glaucoma (open angle-type) or other eye diseases (e.g., ocular hypertension). Lowering high pressure inside the eye helps to prevent blindness. This medication works by decreasing the amount of fluid within the eye. It belongs to a class of drugs known as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.8
BRIVARACETAMBrivaracetam is used to treat seizures (epilepsy).7
BRIZA MAXIMA WHOLE2
BROCCOLI5
BROCCOLI SPROUT1
BRODALUMABThis medication is used to treat plaque psoriasis. Brodalumab belongs to a class of drugs known as monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking a certain natural protein in your body (interleukin-17A) that may cause inflammation and swelling. Brodalumab treatment may lead to reduced plaque thickness, redness, and scaling.1
BROLUCIZUMAB1
BROMELAINSProtein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.7
BROMFENAC SODIUMThis medication is used to treat swelling (inflammation) and pain in the eye after a certain type of eye surgery (cataract surgery). Bromfenac belongs to a class of drugs known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It works by blocking the effects of certain natural substances (prostaglandins) that cause pain and inflammation.7
BROMINEA halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 35, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.63
BROMOCRIPTINE MESYLATEA semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Bromocriptine is used alone or with other medications (such as levodopa) to treat Parkinson's disease. It can improve your ability to move and can decrease shakiness (tremor), stiffness, slowed movement, and unsteadiness. It may also decrease the number of episodes of not being able to move ("on-off syndrome"). Bromocriptine is also used to treat high levels of a certain hormone made by the body (prolactin). High levels of prolactin may cause problems such as unwanted breast milk, missed/stopped periods, difficulty becoming pregnant, decreased sperm production, and decreased sexual ability. Bromocriptine may be used to treat a type of tumor which causes the high levels of prolactin (prolactin-secreting adenomas). It can help to reduce the tumor size. Bromocriptine is not recommended for stopping unwanted breast milk after pregnancy, miscarriage, or abortion because of possible serious side effects (such as high blood pressure, seizure, heart attack, stroke). Bromocriptine is also used to treat high levels of growth hormone (acromegaly). Bromocriptine is an ergot medication that works by acting like a certain natural substance (dopamine) in the brain. It also prevents the release of certain hormones (growth hormone, prolactin). Bromocriptine can lower these hormone levels, but it does not cure the causes of the increased levels.7
BROMOETHANE8
BROMPHENIRAMINE MALEATEHistamine H1 antagonist used in treatment of allergies, rhinitis, and urticaria.69
BROMUS INERMIS POLLEN42
BROMUS RAMOSUS FLOWER7
BROMUS RAMOSUS WHOLE2
BROMUS SECALINUS POLLEN3
BROSIMUM ACUTIFOLIUM BARK1
BROUSSONETIA PAPYRIFERA POLLEN23
BROWN RICE14
BRUCELLA ABORTUSA species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.1
BRUCELLA MELITENSISA species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.5
BRUGIA MALAYIA species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.16
BRYONIA ALBA ROOT589
BRYONIA ALBA WHOLE26
BRYONIA CRETICA SUBSP. DIOICA ROOT2
BRYONIA DIOICA ROOT13
BUCKWHEAT3
BUDESONIDEA glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Budesonide is used to control and prevent symptoms (wheezing and shortness of breath) caused by asthma. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. It works directly in the lungs to make breathing easier by reducing the irritation and swelling of the airways. This medication must be used regularly to be effective. It does not work right away and should not be used to relieve sudden asthma attacks. If an asthma attack occurs, use your quick-relief inhaler as prescribed.75
BUFO BUFO CUTANEOUS GLAND24
BUFO BUFO WHOLE1
BUMETANIDEA sulfamyl diuretic.Bumetanide is used to reduce extra fluid in the body (edema) caused by conditions such as heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. This can lessen symptoms such as shortness of breath and swelling in your arms, legs, and abdomen. Bumetanide is a "water pill" (diuretic) that causes you to make more urine. This helps your body get rid of extra water and salt.64
BUPIVACAINEA widely used local anesthetic agent.9
BUPIVACAINE HYDROCHLORIDEA widely used local anesthetic agent.96
BUPIVACAINE HYDROCHLORIDE ANHYDROUS2
BUPRENORPHINEA derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.This medication is used to help relieve severe ongoing pain (such as due to arthritis, chronic back pain). Buprenorphine belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid analgesics. It works in the brain to change how your body feels and responds to pain. The higher strengths of this drug (7.5, 10, 15, or 20 micrograms per hour patches) should be used only if you have been regularly taking moderate amounts of opioid pain medication. These strengths may cause overdose (even death) if used by a person who has not been regularly taking opioids. Do not use this medication to relieve pain that is mild or that will go away in a few days. This medication is not for occasional ("as needed") use.36
BUPRENORPHINE HYDROCHLORIDEA derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.100
BUPROPION HYDROBROMIDE3
BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDEA propiophenone-derived antidepressant and antismoking agent that inhibits the uptake of DOPAMINE.281
BURKHOLDERIA MALLEIA species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.1
BUROSUMAB3
BUSPIRONE HYDROCHLORIDEAn anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.217
BUSULFANAn alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Busulfan is used as a pretreatment for patients who are undergoing stem cell transplant for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).14
BUTALBITAL93
BUTAMBEN4
BUTENAFINE HYDROCHLORIDE19
BUTOCONAZOLE NITRATEThis medication is used to treat vaginal yeast infections. Butoconazole reduces vaginal burning, itching, and discharge that may occur with this condition. This medication is an azole antifungal. It works by stopping the growth of yeast (fungus) that causes the infection.1
BUTORPHANOL TARTRATEA synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.This medication is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain from surgery, muscle pain, and migraine headaches. Butorphanol is an opioid pain reliever similar to morphine. It acts on certain centers in the brain to give you pain relief. Butorphanol can also block the effects of opioids and can cause withdrawal symptoms in people dependent on opioids. If possible, people who have recently used opioids in high doses or for a long time should not use butorphanol. (See also Side Effects section.)6
BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENEA di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.12
BUTYLBENZENE2
BUTYLENE GLYCOL8
BUTYLPARABEN3
BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII (SHEA) BUTTER UNSAPONIFIABLES1
BUXUS SEMPERVIRENS LEAFY TWIG1
C12-15 PARETH-101
C12-17 ALKANE6
C12-20 ACID PEG-8 ESTER4
C13-14 ISOPARAFFIN1
C20-22 ALCOHOLS2
CABBAGE6
CABERGOLINEAn ergoline derivative and dopamine D2-agonist that inhibits PROLACTIN secretion. It is used in the management of HYPERPROLACTINEMIA, and to suppress lactation following childbirth for medical reasons. Cabergoline is also used in the management of PARKINSON DISEASE.This medication is used to treat high levels of prolactin hormone in your body. High levels of prolactin in women can cause symptoms such as unwanted breast milk and missed periods and can cause difficulty becoming pregnant. High levels of prolactin in men can cause symptoms such as enlarged breasts and decreased sexual ability/desire. Cabergoline is an ergot medication and works by blocking the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland.4
CABOTEGRAVIR SODIUM1
CABOZANTINIB S-MALATEThis medication is used to treat various types of cancer (including kidney, thyroid, liver cancer). Cabozantinib belongs to a class of drugs known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.4
CADMIUMAn element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 112.41. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.47
CADMIUM BROMIDE7
CADMIUM CHLORIDEA cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)8
CADMIUM FLUORIDE8
CADMIUM IODIDE4
CADMIUM SULFATE5
CADMIUM SULFIDE17
CAFFEIC ACID12
CAFFEINEA methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.461
CAFFEINE CITRATEThis medication is used for the short-term treatment of a breathing problem (apnea) in premature infants. Caffeine blocks certain proteins (adenosine receptors) which lead to improved breathing in these infants.20
CAIRINA MOSCHATA HEART/LIVER AUTOLYSATE45
CAJUPUT OIL11
CALASPARGASE PEGOL1
CALCIFEDIOLThe major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.This medication is used to treat people with serious kidney disease whose bodies make too much of a certain natural substance (parathyroid hormone-PTH). High amounts of PTH can affect other minerals in the body (such as calcium, phosphorus) that are needed for strong bones. Calcifediol belongs to a class of drugs known as vitamin D analogs. It works by decreasing PTH and increasing calcium and phosphorus in the body.1
CALCIPOTRIENEThis medication is used to treat psoriasis. Calcipotriene is a form of vitamin D. It works by slowing down the growth of skin cells.25
CALCIPOTRIENE HYDRATE6
CALCIPOTRIENE MONOHYDRATE3
CALCITONINA peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.3
CALCITONIN HUMAN2
CALCITONIN SALMON7
CALCITRIOLThe physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Calcitriol is a man-made active form of vitamin D. Most people get enough vitamin D from exposure to the sun and from fortified food products (e.g., dairy products, vitamins). Vitamin D helps control parathyroid hormone and the levels of certain minerals (e.g., calcium, phosphorus) that are needed for building and keeping strong bones. Before regular vitamin D can be used by the body, it needs to be changed to the active form by the liver and kidneys. Calcitriol is used in patients with kidney disease who can't make enough of the active form of Vitamin D. This medication is also used to prevent and treat certain types of calcium/phosphorus/parathyroid problems that can happen with long-term kidney dialysis or hypoparathyroidism. Calcitriol is usually used along with specific diet recommendations and sometimes other medications.39
CALCIUMA basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.This medication is used to prevent or treat low blood calcium levels in people who do not get enough calcium from their diets. It may be used to treat conditions caused by low calcium levels such as bone loss (osteoporosis), weak bones (osteomalacia/rickets), decreased activity of the parathyroid gland (hypoparathyroidism), and a certain muscle disease (latent tetany). It may also be used in certain patients to make sure they are getting enough calcium (e.g., women who are pregnant, nursing, or postmenopausal, people taking certain medications such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, or prednisone). Calcium plays a very important role in the body. It is necessary for normal functioning of nerves, cells, muscle, and bone. If there is not enough calcium in the blood, then the body will take calcium from bones, thereby weakening bones. Having the right amount of calcium is important for building and keeping strong bones.14
CALCIUM ACETATECalcium acetate is used to prevent high blood phosphate levels in patients who are on dialysis due to severe kidney disease. Dialysis removes some phosphate from your blood, but it is difficult to remove enough to keep your phosphate levels balanced. Decreasing blood phosphate levels can help keep your bones strong, prevent unsafe buildup of minerals in your body, and possibly decrease the risk of heart disease and strokes that can result from high phosphate levels. Calcium acetate is a natural mineral that works by holding onto phosphate from the diet so that it can pass out of your body.41
CALCIUM ACETATE MONOHYDRATE3
CALCIUM ARSENATE14
CALCIUM ASCORBATE1
CALCIUM BROMATE8
CALCIUM CARBONATECarbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.This medication is used to treat symptoms caused by too much stomach acid such as heartburn, upset stomach, or indigestion. It is an antacid that works by lowering the amount of acid in the stomach. Check the ingredients on the label even if you have used the product before. The manufacturer may have changed the ingredients. Also, products with similar names may contain different ingredients meant for different purposes. Taking the wrong product could harm you.595
CALCIUM CATION5
CALCIUM CHLORIDEA salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.116
CALCIUM CITRATEA colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)This medication is used to prevent or treat low blood calcium levels in people who do not get enough calcium from their diets. It may be used to treat conditions caused by low calcium levels such as bone loss (osteoporosis), weak bones (osteomalacia/rickets), decreased activity of the parathyroid gland (hypoparathyroidism), and a certain muscle disease (latent tetany). It may also be used in certain patients to make sure they are getting enough calcium (e.g., women who are pregnant, nursing, or postmenopausal, people taking certain medications such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, or prednisone). Calcium plays a very important role in the body. It is necessary for normal functioning of nerves, cells, muscle, and bone. If there is not enough calcium in the blood, then the body will take calcium from bones, thereby weakening bones. Having the right amount of calcium is important for building and keeping strong bones.7
CALCIUM FLUORIDECalcium fluoride. Occurring in nature as the mineral fluorite or fluorspar. It is the primary source of fluorine and its compounds. Pure calcium fluoride is used as a catalyst in dehydration and dehydrogenation and is used to fluoridate drinking water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)175
CALCIUM FORMATE5
CALCIUM GLUCONATEThe calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.10
CALCIUM GLUCONATE MONOHYDRATE12
CALCIUM GLYCEROPHOSPHATEAny salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.1
CALCIUM HEXAFLUOROSILICATE17
CALCIUM HYDROXIDEA white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.12
CALCIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE4
CALCIUM IODIDE41
CALCIUM LACTATE7
CALCIUM NITRITE8
CALCIUM OXALATE MONOHYDRATEThe calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.14
CALCIUM OXYBATE1
CALCIUM PANTOTHENATEA butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.15
CALCIUM PHOSPHATE7
CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, DIBASIC, ANHYDROUS8
CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, UNSPECIFIED FORM5
CALCIUM PICRATE3
CALCIUM POLYCARBOPHILPolycarbophil is used to treat constipation. It is known as a bulk-forming laxative. It increases the bulk in your stool, an effect that helps to cause movement of the intestines. It also works by increasing the amount of water in the stool, making the stool softer and easier to pass.30
CALCIUM PYRUVATE1
CALCIUM SILICATE19
CALCIUM SULFATEA calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.2
CALCIUM SULFATE ANHYDROUS79
CALCIUM SULFATE, UNSPECIFIED FORM1
CALCIUM SULFIDE329
CALCIUM UNDECYLENATE1
CALENDULA ARVENSIS WHOLE1
CALENDULA OFFICINALIS FLOWER69
CALENDULA OFFICINALIS FLOWERING TOP255
CALENDULA OFFICINALIS SEED OIL2
CALENDULA OFFICINALIS WHOLE3
CALFACTANT1
CALIFORNIUM CF-2491
CALLUNA VULGARIS FLOWERING TOP13
CALLUNA VULGARIS WHOLE1
CALOCHORTUS GUNNISONII WHOLE5
CALOCHORTUS TOLMIEI WHOLE4
CALOMEL19
CALTHA PALUSTRIS6
CALTHA PALUSTRIS WHOLE1
CALVATIA GIGANTEA WHOLE1
CAMELLIA CHEKIANGOLEOSA SEED OIL1
CAMELLIA SINENSIS FLOWER1
CAMELLIA SINENSIS WHOLE4
CAMELUS BACTRIANUS HAIR1
CAMPATH-1 ANTIGENA small GPI-linked glycoprotein expressed on the surface of normal and malignant B-CELLS; T-CELLS; MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; NK CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It is expressed densely and without modulation in many malignant T-cell neoplasms and therefore a target for antibody therapies (e.g., ALEMTUZUMAB).1
CAMPHECHLOR2
CAMPHOR (NATURAL)228
CAMPHOR (SYNTHETIC)356
CAMPHOR OIL6
CAMPHOR, (-)-11
CAMPHORIC ACID, (+)-1
CAMPONOTUS PENNSYLVANICUS3
CAMPSIS RADICANS FLOWER2
CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNIA species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.2
CANAGLIFLOZINA glucoside-derived SODIUM-GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER 2 inhibitor that stimulates urinary excretion of glucose by suppressing renal glucose reabsorption. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.Canagliflozin is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Canagliflozin is also used by people with type 2 diabetes and heart disease to lower the risk of death from heart attack or stroke. Canagliflozin is also used by people with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease to lower the risk of dialysis, death from heart disease, and the need to go to the hospital for heart failure. Canagliflozin works by increasing the removal of sugar by your kidneys.17
CANAKINUMAB6
CANANGA ODORATA LEAF OIL1
CANANGA OIL1
CANARIUM ALBUM ROOT2
CANAVALIA GLADIATA WHOLE1
CANDESARTAN CILEXETILCandesartan is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Candesartan belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). It works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily. This medication is also used to treat heart failure. This medication is not recommended for use in children younger than 1 year due to increased risk of side effects.58
CANDIDA ALBICANSA unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).160
CANDIDA PARAPSILOSISA species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI and opportunistic pathogen associated with its ability to form BIOFILMS in catheters and parenteral nutrition IV lines. C. parapsilosis complex includes closely related species C. orthopsilosis; and C. metapsilosis.23
CANDIDA TORRESII2
CANDIDA TROPICALISA species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.7
CANGRELOR1
CANINE MORBILLIVIRUS1
CANIS LUPUS FAMILIARIS DANDER7
CANIS LUPUS FAMILIARIS HAIR16
CANIS LUPUS FAMILIARIS MILK40
CANIS LUPUS FAMILIARIS SKIN29
CANNABIDIOLCompound isolated from Cannabis sativa extract.10
CANNABIGEROL1
CANNABINOLA physiologically inactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L.1
CANNABIS SATIVA SUBSP. SATIVA FLOWERING TOP7
CANOLA OILPLANT OILS derived from RAPESEED species known as BRASSICA NAPUS.5
CANTALOUPEA plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.2
CAPECITABINEA deoxycytidine derivative and fluorouracil PRODRUG that is used as an ANTINEOPLASTIC ANTIMETABOLITE in the treatment of COLON CANCER; BREAST CANCER and GASTRIC CANCER.Capecitabine is used to treat breast, colon, or rectal cancer. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.43
CAPMATINIB2
CAPRA HIRCUS HAIR4
CAPRA HIRCUS SKIN9
CAPRYLIC ACID1
CAPRYLYL GLYCOL2
CAPSAICINAn alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.196
CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORISA plant genus of the family CRUCIFERAE.14
CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS TOP1
CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS WHOLE4
CAPSICUMA plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.149
CAPSICUM ANNUUM WHOLE2
CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS WHOLE2
CAPSICUM OLEORESIN8
CAPTOPRILA potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. It is also used to treat heart failure, protect the kidneys from harm due to diabetes, and to improve survival after a heart attack. Captopril is an ACE inhibitor and works by relaxing blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily.37
CARAPICHEA IPECACUANHA WHOLE1
CARAWAY OIL3
CARAWAY SEED14
CARBACHOLA slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.1
CARBAMAZEPINEA dibenzazepine that acts as a sodium channel blocker. It is used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of grand mal and psychomotor or focal SEIZURES. It may also be used in the management of BIPOLAR DISORDER, and has analgesic properties.Carbamazepine is used to prevent and control seizures. This medication is known as an anticonvulsant or anti-epileptic drug. It is also used to relieve certain types of nerve pain (such as trigeminal neuralgia). This medication works by reducing the spread of seizure activity in the brain and restoring the normal balance of nerve activity.126
CARBAMIDE PEROXIDEA urea peroxide compound that is commonly used in tooth whitening agents; topical anti-infective agents, and earwax remover.This medication is used to treat earwax buildup. It helps to soften, loosen, and remove the earwax. Too much earwax can block the ear canal and reduce hearing. This medication releases oxygen and starts to foam when it comes in contact with the skin. The foaming helps break up and remove the earwax. Consult your doctor before using this product in children younger than 12 years.63
CARBIDOPAAn inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that prevents conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no anti-parkinson activity by itself.This medication is used with a combination levodopa/carbidopa product to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease or Parkinson-like symptoms (such as shakiness, stiffness, difficulty moving). Carbidopa must be taken together with a drug that contains levodopa to be effective. If used alone, carbidopa has no effect on Parkinson's symptoms. Parkinson's disease is thought to be caused by too little of a naturally occurring substance (dopamine) in the brain. Levodopa changes into dopamine in the brain, helping to control movement. Carbidopa prevents the breakdown of levodopa in the bloodstream so more levodopa can enter the brain. Carbidopa can also reduce some of levodopa's side effects such as nausea and vomiting.131
CARBINOXAMINE MALEATECarbinoxamine is an antihistamine used to relieve symptoms of allergy, hay fever, and the common cold. These symptoms include rash, watery eyes, itchy eyes/nose/throat/skin, cough, runny nose, and sneezing. This medication works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine) that your body makes during an allergic reaction. By blocking another natural substance made by your body (acetylcholine), it helps dry up some body fluids to relieve symptoms such as watery eyes and runny nose. Cough-and-cold products have not been shown to be safe or effective in children younger than 6 years. Therefore, do not use this product to treat cold symptoms in children younger than 6 years unless specifically directed by the doctor. Some products (such as long-acting tablets/capsules) are not recommended for use in children younger than 12 years. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details about using your product safely. These products do not cure or shorten the length of the common cold and may cause serious side effects. To decrease the risk for serious side effects, carefully follow all dosage directions. Do not use this product to make a child sleepy. Do not give other cough-and-cold medication that might contain the same or similar ingredients (see also Drug Interactions section). Ask the doctor or pharmacist about other ways to relieve cough and cold symptoms (such as drinking enough fluids, using a humidifier or saline nose drops/spray).6
CARBO ANIMALIS20
CARBOMER COPOLYMER TYPE A (ALLYL PENTAERYTHRITOL CROSSLINKED)2
CARBOMER HOMOPOLYMER, UNSPECIFIED TYPE6
CARBON DIOXIDEA colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.41
CARBON DISULFIDEA colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.25
CARBON MONOXIDECarbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)2
CARBON TETRACHLORIDEA solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)4
CARBONATE ION7
CARBOPLATINAn organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Carboplatin is used to treat various types of cancer. It is a chemotherapy drug that contains platinum. It is used to slow or stop cancer cell growth.26
CARBOPROST TROMETHAMINE7
CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUMA cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.This medication is used to relieve dry, irritated eyes. Common causes for dry eyes include wind, sun, heating/air conditioning, computer use/reading, and certain medications. This product may contain 1 or more of the following ingredients: carboxymethylcellulose, dextran, glycerin, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), polysorbate, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, or propylene glycol, among others. Eye lubricants keep the eye moist, help to protect the eye from injury and infection, and decrease symptoms of dry eyes such as burning, itching, and feeling as if something is in the eye.61
CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUM, UNSPECIFIED7
CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUM, UNSPECIFIED FORM18
CARDAMOM2
CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM FLOWERING TOP11
CARFILZOMIBThis medication is used to treat a certain type of cancer (multiple myeloma). It works by helping to slow the growth and spread of cancer cells.3
CARGLUMIC ACID4
CARICA PAPAYA WHOLE1
CARIPRAZINE5
CARISOPRODOLA centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1202)Carisoprodol is used short-term to treat muscle pain and discomfort. It is usually used along with rest, physical therapy, and other treatments. It works by helping to relax the muscles.63
CARLINA VULGARIS WHOLE1
CARMUSTINEA cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)This medication is used to treat certain types of cancer (including multiple myeloma, brain tumor, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). Carmustine belongs to a class of drugs known as alkylating agents. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.1
CARNEGIEA GIGANTEA FLOWER2
CARNITINEA constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.4
CARPINUS BETULUS FLOWER15
CARPINUS BETULUS FLOWER BUD1
CARPINUS BETULUS FLOWERING TOP13
CARPINUS BETULUS WHOLE1
CARPINUS CAROLINIANA WHOLE3
CARROTA plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.5
CARTEOLOL HYDROCHLORIDEA beta-adrenergic antagonist used as an anti-arrhythmia agent, an anti-angina agent, an antihypertensive agent, and an antiglaucoma agent.1
CARVEDILOLA carbazole and propanol derivative that acts as a non-cardioselective beta blocker and vasodilator. It has blocking activity for ALPHA 1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and, at higher doses, may function as a blocker of CALCIUM CHANNELS; it also has antioxidant properties. Carvedilol is used in the treatment of HYPERTENSION; ANGINA PECTORIS; and HEART FAILURE. It can also reduce the risk of death following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Carvedilol is used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. It is also used after a heart attack to improve the chance of survival if your heart is not pumping well. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. This drug works by blocking the action of certain natural substances in your body, such as epinephrine, on the heart and blood vessels. This effect lowers your heart rate, blood pressure, and strain on your heart. Carvedilol belongs to a class of drugs known as alpha and beta blockers.163
CARVEDILOL PHOSPHATECarvedilol is used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. It is also used after a heart attack to improve the chance of survival if your heart is not pumping well. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. This drug works by blocking the action of certain natural substances in your body, such as epinephrine, on the heart and blood vessels. This effect lowers your heart rate, blood pressure, and strain on your heart. Carvedilol belongs to a class of drugs known as alpha and beta blockers.27
CARYA ALBA POLLEN34
CARYA CORDIFORMIS POLLEN10
CARYA CORDIFORMIS WHOLE5
CARYA GLABRA POLLEN25
CARYA ILLINOINENSIS POLLEN55
CARYA LACINIOSA BARK5
CARYA LACINIOSA POLLEN20
CARYA OVATA POLLEN90
CASANTHRANOL1
CASEINA mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.4
CASEIN, EMMENTAL CULTURED2
CASEIN, LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS CULTURED4
CASEIN, LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS CULTURED, AGED4
CASEIN, LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS CULTURED, PENICILLIUM CAMEMBERTI CULTURED, AGED3
CASEIN, LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS CULTURED, PENICILLIUM ROQUEFORTI CULTURED, AGED6
CASEIN, STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS CULTURED, PROPIONIBACTERIUM FREUDENREICHII SUBSP. SHERMANII CULTURED, AGED3
CASHEW12
CASIMERSEN1
CASIRIVIMAB3
CASPOFUNGIN ACETATEA cyclic lipopeptide echinocandin and beta-(1,3)-D-glucan synthase inhibitor that is used to treat internal or systemic MYCOSES.Caspofungin is used to treat a variety of fungal infections. Caspofungin belongs to a class of drugs known as echinocandins. It works by stopping the growth of fungi.16
CASSAVA1
CASTANEA SATIVA FLOWER11
CASTANEA SATIVA LEAF14
CASTANEA SATIVA WHOLE2
CASTOR CANADENSIS SCENT GLAND SECRETION2
CASTOR FIBER SCENT GLAND SECRETION9
CASTOR OILOil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.26
CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA POLLEN11
CATNIP1
CAT'S CLAWA vine (Uncaria tomentosa) indigenous to the Amazon rainforest whose name is derived from its hook-like thorns. It contains oxindole alkaloids and glycosides and has many medicinal uses.1
CAULIFLOWER4
CAULOPHYLLUM ROBUSTUM ROOT1
CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIDES ROOT44
CAUSTICUM206
CAVIA PORCELLUS DANDER2
CAVIA PORCELLUS HAIR5
CAVIA PORCELLUS SKIN16
CAVIA PORCELLUS WHOLE1
CAVIAR, UNSPECIFIED1
CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS LEAF83
CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS WHOLE1
CEANOTHUS INTEGERRIMUS WHOLE2
CEDAZURIDINE1
CEDRUS DEODARA WOOD2
CEDRUS LIBANI WHOLE2
CEFACLORSemisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.This medication is a cephalosporin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections (e.g., middle ear, skin, urine and respiratory tract infections). It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic only treats bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (e.g., common cold, flu). Unnecessary use or overuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.7
CEFADROXILLong-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, CEPHALEXIN derivative.This medication is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It belongs to a class of drugs known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.33
CEFAZOLIN SODIUMA semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Cefazolin is an antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used before and during certain surgeries to help prevent infection. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.47
CEFDINIRA third-generation oral cephalosporin antibacterial agent that is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and skin.Cefdinir is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.57
CEFDINIR MONOHYDRATE4
CEFEPIME HYDROCHLORIDEA fourth-generation cephalosporin antibacterial agent that is used in the treatment of infections, including those of the abdomen, urinary tract, respiratory tract, and skin. It is effective against PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA and may also be used in the empiric treatment of FEBRILE NEUTROPENIA.31
CEFIDEROCOL SULFATE TOSYLATE1
CEFIXIMEA third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Cefixime is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.23
CEFOTAXIME SODIUMSemisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Cefotaxime is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent infection from certain surgeries. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.6
CEFOTETANA semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Cefotetan is an antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used before and during certain surgeries to help prevent infection. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for virus infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.2
CEFOTETAN DISODIUMA semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Cefotetan is an antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used before and during certain surgeries to help prevent infection. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for virus infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.2
CEFOXITIN SODIUMA semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Cefoxitin is an antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used before and during certain surgeries to help prevent infection. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.18
CEFPODOXIME PROXETILThis medication is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.22
CEFPROZILCefprozil is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.19
CEFTAROLINE FOSAMIL2
CEFTAZIDIMESemisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Ceftazidime is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.15
CEFTOLOZANE SULFATE1
CEFTRIAXONE SODIUMA broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic and cefotaxime derivative with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Ceftriaxone is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This drug is not recommended for use in newborns with high blood bilirubin levels and premature infants due to increased risk of side effects. Ask the doctor or pharmacist for details.69
CEFUROXIME AXETILCefuroxime is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.30
CEFUROXIME SODIUMCefuroxime is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent infection from certain surgeries. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.12
CEIBA PENTANDRA FIBER6
CEIBA PENTANDRA SEED1
CELECOXIBA pyrazole derivative and selective CYCLOOXYGENASE 2 INHIBITOR that is used to treat symptoms associated with RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; OSTEOARTHRITIS and JUVENILE ARTHRITIS, as well as the management of ACUTE PAIN.This medication is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), specifically a COX-2 inhibitor, which relieves pain and swelling (inflammation). It is used to treat arthritis, acute pain, and menstrual pain and discomfort. The pain and swelling relief provided by this medication helps you perform more of your normal daily activities. If you are treating a chronic condition such as arthritis, ask your doctor about non-drug treatments and/or using other medications to treat your pain. See also Warning section. This drug works by blocking the enzyme in your body that makes prostaglandins. Decreasing prostaglandins helps to reduce pain and swelling.194
CELERY5
CELERY SEED7
CELLULASE (TRICHODERMA LONGIBRACHIATUM)1
CELTIS OCCIDENTALIS POLLEN37
CEMIPLIMAB1
CENEGERMIN1
CENOBAMATE4
CENTAUREA BENEDICTAA plant species of the genus CENTAUREA and family ASTERACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene lactone CNICIN.31
CENTAUREA CYANUS FLOWER1
CENTAUREA SOLSTITIALIS WHOLE3
CENTAURIUM ERYTHRAEAA plant genus of the family GENTIANACEAE. Triterpene lactones and other compounds have been isolated from species of this genus. The common name of century plant has also been used for the AGAVE genus.8
CENTAURIUM ERYTHRAEA FLOWER12
CENTAURIUM ERYTHRAEA FLOWERING TOP4
CENTELLA ASIATICAA plant of the family APIACEAE which is the source of asiatic acid and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. = Hydrocotyle asiatica L. is known for effect on peripheral circulation.46
CENTELLA ASIATICA FLOWERING TOP1
CENTELLA ASIATICA LEAF3
CENTELLA ASIATICA TRITERPENOIDS1
CENTELLA ASIATICA WHOLE9
CENTRUROIDES FAB2 ANTIVENIN (EQUINE)1
CEPHALEXINA semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.This medication is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This medication will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.125
CERATOSTIGMA WILLMOTTIANUM FLOWER11
CERATOSTIGMA WILLMOTTIANUM FLOWERING TOP1
CERATOSTIGMA WILLMOTTIANUM WHOLE2
CERCIS SILIQUASTRUM WHOLE1
CERIC OXIDE8
CERITINIBCeritinib is used to treat lung cancer. It is used for lung cancers that have a certain type of abnormal "ALK" gene. Ceritinib belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.1
CERIUMAn element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.23
CEROUS OXALATE NONAHYDRATE8
CERTOLIZUMAB PEGOLA polyethylene-glycolated Fab' fragment of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR antibody that binds specifically to TNF-ALPHA and neutralises it in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibits the production of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-ALPHA and IL-1 BETA and is used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS and PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS.This medication is used to reduce pain and swelling due to certain inflammatory conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, plaque psoriasis). Some brands may also be used to treat a certain type of spine condition (axial spondyloarthritis) or a certain bowel condition (Crohn's disease). Certolizumab belongs to a class of drugs known as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers. It works by blocking TNF, a substance made by the body that causes inflammation.1
CERVUS ELAPHUS HORN1
CERVUS ELAPHUS HORN OIL5
CERVUS ELAPHUS VELVET1
CERVUS ELAPHUS WHOLE1
CESIUMA member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.3
CESIUM CHLORIDE28
CETEARYL ETHYLHEXANOATE4
CETERMIN1
CETIRIZINEA potent second-generation histamine H1 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and pollen-induced asthma. Unlike many traditional antihistamines, it does not cause drowsiness or anticholinergic side effects.1
CETIRIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE389
CETOSTEARYL ALCOHOL3
CETRARIA ISLANDICA SUBSP. ISLANDICA20
CETRARIA ISLANDICA WHOLE3
CETUXIMABA chimeric monoclonal antibody that functions as an ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT through its binding to the EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR, where it prevents the binding and signaling action of cell growth and survival factors.Cetuximab is used to treat a certain type of cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum. This medication is also used to treat head and neck cancer. Cetuximab works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. It binds to a certain protein (epidermal growth factor receptor-EGFR) in some tumors. Cetuximab is a man-made protein (monoclonal antibody).2
CETYL ALCOHOL3
CETYLPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDECationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.89
CEVIMELINE HYDROCHLORIDE8
CHAENOMELES JAPONICA SEED1
CHAENOMELES LAGENARIA WHOLE1
CHAENOMELES SINENSIS FRUIT1
CHAETOMIUM GLOBOSUM18
CHALCONEAn aromatic KETONE that forms the core molecule of CHALCONES.1
CHAMAECYPARIS LAWSONIANA FRUITING TWIG1
CHAMAECYPARIS OBTUSA WHOLE2
CHAMAECYPARIS OBTUSA WOOD OIL4
CHAMAELIRIUM LUTEUM ROOT52
CHAMAEMELUM NOBILEA plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used in folk medicine as CHAMOMILE. Other plants with similar common names include MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM and ANTHEMIS.2
CHAMOMILECommon name for several daisy-like plants (MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM; ANTHEMIS; CHAMAEMELUM) native to Europe and Western Asia, now naturalized in the United States and Australia.66
CHAMOMILE FLOWER OIL2
CHAMOMILLA1
CHANNEL CATFISH1
CHASTE TREEA genus of trees in the Lamiaceae family containing assorted flavonoids with possible analgesic and antineoplastic properties. The fruit of these trees is used in herbal preparations.64
CHASTE TREE FRUIT42
CHELIDONIUM MAJUS275
CHELIDONIUM MAJUS ROOT18
CHELIDONIUM MAJUS WHOLE62
CHELONE GLABRA3
CHENODIOLChenodiol is used to dissolve certain types of gallstones (non-calcified). Chenodiol is a bile acid. Chenodiol may be tried before surgery in patients that are at high risk of complications from gallstone surgery. If the gallstones do not dissolve, emergency surgery may still be needed.1
CHENOPODIUM ALBUM POLLEN84
CHENOPODIUM ALBUM WHOLE3
CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDESA plant species of the genus Chenopodium known for toxicity to intestinal worms and other simple organisms.4
CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES POLLEN16
CHENOPODIUM VULVARIA WHOLE2
CHERRY1
CHICKENCommon name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.10
CHICKEN BREAST1
CHICKEN SKIN, COOKED2
CHICKPEA2
CHICORY ROOT6
CHIMAPHILA UMBELLATA20
CHIMAPHILA UMBELLATA WHOLE5
CHINESE CHESTNUT1
CHINESE CINNAMONA plant species of the genus CINNAMOMUM that contains CINNAMATES and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).2
CHINESE RHUBARB ROOT1
CHINESE YAMA plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.5
CHIONANTHUS VIRGINICUS BARK30
CHIONANTHUS VIRGINICUS ROOT BARK4
CHITOSAN MEDIUM MOLECULAR WEIGHT (200-400 MPA.S)1
CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATISType species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.13
CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACIA genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.1
CHLOPHEDIANOL HYDROCHLORIDE16
CHLORAMBUCILA nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)This medication is used to treat certain types of cancer (such as leukemia, lymphoma). Chlorambucil belongs to a class of drugs known as alkylating agents. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.2
CHLORAMPHENICOLAn antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)3
CHLORAMPHENICOL SODIUM SUCCINATE1
CHLORCYCLIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE2
CHLORDIAZEPOXIDEAn anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.6
CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE HYDROCHLORIDEAn anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.43
CHLORELLA MINUTISSIMA1
CHLORELLA VULGARISA species of green microalgae in the family Chlorellaceae. It is used as a model organism for PHOTOSYNTHESIS, and as a food supplement (DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS).1
CHLORHEXIDINE ACETATEA disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.2
CHLORHEXIDINE GLUCONATEThis medication is used along with regular tooth brushing/flossing to treat gingivitis, a gum disease that causes red, swollen, and easily bleeding gums. Chlorhexidine belongs to a class of drugs known as antimicrobials. It works by decreasing the amount of bacteria in the mouth, helping to reduce swelling and redness of the gums and bleeding when you brush.166
CHLORIDE ION1
CHLORINEAn element with atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 35, and member of the halogen family.37
CHLORINE DIOXIDE4
CHLORITE ION1
CHLOROFORMA commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.12
CHLOROGENIC ACIDA naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).8
CHLOROPHYLLPorphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.3
CHLOROPROCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE15
CHLOROQUINEThe prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.1
CHLOROQUINE PHOSPHATEChloroquine is used to prevent or treat malaria caused by mosquito bites. Chloroquine belongs to a class of drugs known as antimalarials. The United States Centers for Disease Control provide updated guidelines and travel recommendations for the prevention and treatment of malaria in different parts of the world. Discuss the most recent information with your doctor before traveling to areas where malaria occurs. Chloroquine is also used to treat infection caused by a different type of parasite (ameba). Chloroquine is not recommended for coronavirus infection, also known as COVID-19, unless you are enrolled in a study. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits.16
CHLOROTHIAZIDEA thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)This medication is used to treat high blood pressure. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Chlorothiazide is a "water pill" (diuretic) that causes you to make more urine. This helps your body get rid of extra salt and water. This medication is also used to decrease swelling (edema) caused by conditions such as cancer, congestive heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. This effect can help your kidneys work better and lessen symptoms such as trouble breathing and swelling in your ankles, feet, hands, or belly.1
CHLOROTHIAZIDE SODIUM9
CHLOROXYLENOL371
CHLORPHENESINA centrally acting muscle relaxant. Its mode of action is unknown. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1203)2
CHLORPHENIRAMINEA histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.1
CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATEA histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine used to relieve symptoms of allergy, hay fever, and the common cold. These symptoms include rash, watery eyes, itchy eyes/nose/throat/skin, cough, runny nose, and sneezing. This medication works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine) that your body makes during an allergic reaction. By blocking another natural substance made by your body (acetylcholine), it helps dry up some body fluids to relieve symptoms such as watery eyes and runny nose. Cough-and-cold products have not been shown to be safe or effective in children younger than 6 years. Therefore, do not use this product to treat cold symptoms in children younger than 6 years unless specifically directed by the doctor. Some products (such as long-acting tablets/capsules) are not recommended for use in children younger than 12 years. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details about using your product safely. These products do not cure or shorten the length of the common cold and may cause serious side effects. To decrease the risk for serious side effects, carefully follow all dosage directions. Do not use this product to make a child sleepy. Do not give other cough-and-cold medication that might contain the same or similar ingredients (see also Drug Interactions section). Ask the doctor or pharmacist about other ways to relieve cough and cold symptoms (such as drinking enough fluids, using a humidifier or saline nose drops/spray).270
CHLORPROMAZINEThe prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.3
CHLORPROMAZINE HYDROCHLORIDEThe prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.101
CHLORTHALIDONEA benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.Chlorthalidone is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. It is also used to reduce extra salt and water in the body caused by conditions such as heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. Decreasing extra salt and water in the body helps to decrease swelling (edema) and breathing problems caused by fluid in the lungs. Chlorthalidone is a "water pill" (diuretic). It increases the amount of urine you make, especially when you first start the medication. It also helps to relax the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily.89
CHLORZOXAZONEA centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)Chlorzoxazone is used to treat muscle spasms/pain. It is usually used along with rest, physical therapy, and other treatment. It works by helping to relax the muscles.35
CHOLECALCIFEROLDerivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.85
CHOLERA ENTEROTOXIN SUBUNIT B2
CHOLESTEROLThe principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.56
CHOLESTYRAMINECholestyramine is used along with a proper diet to lower cholesterol in the blood. Lowering cholesterol helps decrease the risk for strokes and heart attacks. In addition to a proper diet (such as a low-cholesterol/low-fat diet), other lifestyle changes that may help this medication work better include exercising, losing weight if overweight, and stopping smoking. Consult your doctor for more details. Cholestyramine may also be used to treat itching in people with too much bile acid caused by a certain type of liver/bile duct disease (partial biliary obstruction). This medication is known as a bile acid-binding resin. It works by removing bile acid from the body. In people with high cholesterol, this causes the liver to make more bile acid by using cholesterol in the blood. This helps to lower the cholesterol levels.34
CHOLIC ACIDA major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.3
CHOLINEA basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.5
CHOLINE BITARTRATEA basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.5
CHOLINE C-113
CHOLINE CHLORIDEA basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.4
CHOLINE HYDROXIDEA basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.9
CHOLINE SALICYLATE4
CHONDRODENDRON TOMENTOSUM ROOT36
CHONDROITIN SULFATE (BOVINE)2
CHONDRUS CRISPUSA genus of RED ALGAE, in the family Gigartinaceae. The species Chondrus crispus is a source of CARRAGEENAN.3
CHORIOGONADOTROPIN ALFAThis medication is used as part of a treatment program for certain fertility problems in women. It is generally used in combination with another hormone (FSH). This medication provides the hormone (hCG), which stimulates the release of a mature egg (ovulation) and helps you become pregnant. This medication is not recommended for women whose ovaries no longer make eggs properly (primary ovarian failure). This medication has not been shown to be effective for weight loss and should not be used for this purpose due to risk of serious side effects.1
CHROMIC BROMIDE8
CHROMIC CHLORIDE13
CHROMIC FLUORIDE8
CHROMIC NITRATE NONAHYDRATE8
CHROMIC OXIDE8
CHROMIC PHOSPHATE8
CHROMIC SULFATE9
CHROMIC SULFATE DECAHYDRATE8
CHROMIC SULFATE PENTADECAHYDRATE3
CHROMIUMA trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.35
CHROMIUM GLUCONATE5
CHROMIUM NICOTINATE20
CHROMIUM PICOLINATE4
CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE3
CHRYSOPOGON ZIZANIOIDES ROOT8
CHRYSOPS VITTATUS WHOLE3
CHRYSOSPLENETIN2
CICADA PERIOSTRACUM1
CICHORIUM INTYBUS (CHICORY) ROOT OLIGOSACCHARIDES1
CICHORIUM INTYBUS FLOWER20
CICHORIUM INTYBUS WHOLE16
CICLESONIDECiclesonide is used to prevent and reduce the symptoms (wheezing and shortness of breath) caused by asthma. Controlling asthma symptoms may decrease time lost from work or school. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. It works by reducing the swelling of the airways in the lungs to make breathing easier. This medication must be taken regularly to be effective. It does not work right away and should not be used to relieve sudden asthma attacks. If an asthma attack occurs, use your quick-relief inhaler as prescribed. Keep track of how often you need to use your quick-relief inhaler, and tell your doctor. If your quick-relief inhaler does not seem to work as well, if you need to use more than usual of your quick-relief inhaler for 2 or more days in a row, or if you need to use more than one full canister of your quick-relief inhaler over a 2-month period, seek immediate medical attention.4
CICLOPIROXA cyclohexane and pyridinone derivative that is used for the treatment of fungal infections of the skin and nails, and for treatment of VAGINAL YEAST INFECTIONS.This medication is used to treat fungal infections of the fingernails and toenails. It is used as part of a treatment program that includes the removal of unattached, infected nails by a health care professional as frequently as once a month. Ciclopirox works by stopping the growth of fungus.17
CICLOPIROX OLAMINEA cyclohexane and pyridinone derivative that is used for the treatment of fungal infections of the skin and nails, and for treatment of VAGINAL YEAST INFECTIONS.This medication is used to treat fungal skin infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm. This medication is also used to treat a skin condition known as pityriasis (tinea versicolor), a fungal infection that causes a lightening or darkening of the skin of the neck, chest, arms, or legs. Ciclopirox is an antifungal medication that works by stopping the growth of fungus.14
CICUTA VIROSA ROOT23
CICUTA VIROSA WHOLE4
CIDOFOVIRAn acyclic nucleoside phosphonate that acts as a competitive inhibitor of viral DNA polymerases. It is used in the treatment of RETINITIS caused by CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTIONS and may also be useful for treating HERPESVIRUS INFECTIONS.This drug is used with probenecid to treat a certain viral eye infection (retinitis due to cytomegalovirus-CMV) in people with AIDS. It lowers your risk of blindness and other vision problems. Cidofovir belongs to a class of drugs known as antivirals. It works by stopping the growth of the virus. Cidofovir is not a cure for CMV retinitis, and your disease may still worsen during and after treatment.2
CILASTATINA renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.1
CILASTATIN SODIUMA renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.8
CILOSTAZOLA quinoline and tetrazole derivative that acts as a phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor, with anti-platelet and vasodilating activity. It is used in the treatment of PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE; and in the prevention of stroke.Cilostazol is used to improve the symptoms of a certain blood flow problem in the legs (intermittent claudication). Cilostazol can decrease the muscle pain/cramps that occur during exercise/walking. Claudication pain is caused by too little oxygen getting to the muscles. Cilostazol can increase blood flow and the amount of oxygen that gets to the muscles. Cilostazol is an antiplatelet drug and a vasodilator. It works by stopping blood cells called platelets from sticking together and prevents them from forming harmful clots. It also widens blood vessels in the legs. Cilostazol helps the blood to move more easily and keeps blood flowing smoothly in your body.14
CILTACABTAGENE AUTOLEUCEL1
CIMETIDINEA histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Cimetidine is used to treat ulcers of the stomach and intestines and prevent them from coming back after they have healed. This medication is also used to treat certain stomach and throat (esophagus) problems caused by too much stomach acid (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, erosive esophagitis) or a backward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus (acid reflux disease/GERD). Decreasing extra stomach acid can help relieve symptoms such as stomach pain, heartburn, difficulty swallowing, persistent cough, and trouble sleeping. It can also prevent serious acid damage to your digestive system (e.g., ulcers, cancer of the esophagus). Cimetidine belongs to a class of drugs commonly called H2 blockers. It works by reducing the amount of acid in your stomach. This medication is also available without a prescription. It is used to treat occasional heartburn caused by too much acid in the stomach (also called acid indigestion or sour stomach). It is also used to prevent heartburn and acid indigestion caused by certain foods and beverages. If you are taking this medication for self-treatment, it is important to read the manufacturer's package instructions carefully so you know when to consult your doctor or pharmacist. (See also Precautions.)23
CIMETIDINE HYDROCHLORIDEA histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.4
CIMEX LECTULARIUSParasitic bugs of the family CIMICIDAE. Female bed bugs lay eggs in a sheltered locations such as in mattress seams. Adults and nymphal instars of Cimex feed on warm-blooded hosts. Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus are implicated in human infestations.3
CINACALCET HYDROCHLORIDE63
CINCHONA BARK6
CINCHONA OFFICINALIS BARK287
CINCHONA OFFICINALIS WHOLE2
CINCHONA PUBESCENS BARK2
CINCHONA PUBESCENS WHOLE1
CINNAMIC ACID25
CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA LEAF2
CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA WHOLE2
CINNAMOMUM CASSIA TWIG1
CINNAMOMUM VERUM WHOLE1
CINNAMON36
CINNAMON BARK OIL1
CINNAMON LEAF OIL2
CINNAMON OIL1
CIPROFLOXACINA broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.This medication is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Ciprofloxacin belongs to a class of drugs called quinolone antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for virus infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.12
CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDEA broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.198
CIRSIUM ARVENSE STEM1
CISATRACURIUM BESYLATE42
CISPLATINAn inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Cisplatin is used to treat various types of cancer. It is a chemotherapy drug that contains platinum. It is used to slow or stop cancer cell growth.14
CITALOPRAMA furancarbonitrile that is one of the serotonin uptake inhibitors used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from TARDIVE DYSKINESIA in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate dyskinesia.8
CITALOPRAM HYDROBROMIDEA furancarbonitrile that is one of the serotonin uptake inhibitors used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from TARDIVE DYSKINESIA in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate dyskinesia.Citalopram is used to treat depression. It may improve your energy level and feelings of well-being. Citalopram is known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). This medication works by helping to restore the balance of a certain natural substance (serotonin) in the brain.107
CITHARACANTHUS SPINICRUS16
CITICOLINE1
CITRAL4
CITRIC ACID MONOHYDRATEA key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.68
CITROBACTER FREUNDIIA species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.2
CITRULLINE3
CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS FRUIT4
CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS FRUIT PULP129
CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS WHOLE1
CITRUS AURANTIUM FLOWER OIL1
CITRUS AURANTIUM FRUIT1
CITRUS AURANTIUM FRUIT RIND3
CITRUS BIOFLAVONOIDS2
CITRUS PARADISI SEED1
CITRUS PARADISI WHOLE1
CITRUS SINENSIS FLOWER1
CITRUS SINENSIS POLLEN6
CITRUS X LIMON FLOWERING TOP OIL1
CLADOSPORIUM BRUHNEI1
CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIOIDES22
CLADOSPORIUM HERBARUM8
CLADOSPORIUM SPHAEROSPERMUM46
CLADRIBINEAn antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.Cladribine is used to treat a certain type of cancer (hairy cell leukemia). It works by stopping the growth of cancer cells.4
CLARITHROMYCINA semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Clarithromycin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication can also be used in combination with anti-ulcer medications to treat certain types of stomach ulcers. It may also be used to prevent certain bacterial infections. Clarithromycin is known as a macrolide antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.51
CLASCOTERONE1
CLAVICEPS PURPUREA SCLEROTIUM96
CLAVULANATE POTASSIUMA beta-lactam antibiotic produced by the actinobacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus. It is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.145
CLAVULANIC ACIDA beta-lactam antibiotic produced by the actinobacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus. It is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.5
CLEMASTINE FUMARATEA histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Clemastine is an antihistamine used to relieve symptoms of allergy, hay fever, and the common cold. These symptoms include rash, watery eyes, itchy eyes/nose/throat/skin, cough, runny nose, and sneezing. This medication works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine) that your body makes during an allergic reaction. By blocking another natural substance made by your body (acetylcholine), it helps dry up some body fluids to relieve symptoms such as watery eyes and runny nose. Cough-and-cold products have not been shown to be safe or effective in children younger than 6 years. Therefore, do not use this product to treat cold symptoms in children younger than 6 years unless specifically directed by the doctor. Some products (such as long-acting tablets/capsules) are not recommended for use in children younger than 12 years. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details about using your product safely. These products do not cure or shorten the length of the common cold and may cause serious side effects. To decrease the risk for serious side effects, carefully follow all dosage directions. Do not use this product to make a child sleepy. Do not give other cough-and-cold medication that might contain the same or similar ingredients (see also Drug Interactions section). Ask the doctor or pharmacist about other ways to relieve cough and cold symptoms (such as drinking enough fluids, using a humidifier or saline nose drops/spray).2
CLEMATIS RECTA FLOWERING TOP63
CLEMATIS RECTA WHOLE1
CLEMATIS VITALBA FLOWER49
CLEMATIS VITALBA TOP3
CLEMATIS VITALBA WHOLE7
CLERODENDRANTHUS SPICATUS LEAF6
CLEVIDIPINE3
CLIDINIUM BROMIDE16
CLINDAMYCINAn antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.13
CLINDAMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDEAn antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.81
CLINDAMYCIN PALMITATE HYDROCHLORIDE11
CLINDAMYCIN PHOSPHATEThis medication is used to treat a certain type of vaginal infection (bacterial vaginosis) in women who are not pregnant. Clindamycin is an antibiotic which works by stopping the growth of bacteria.129
CLIOQUINOLA potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.2
CLITORIA TERNATEA FLOWER1
CLOBAZAMA benzodiazepine derivative that is a long-acting GABA-A RECEPTOR agonist. It is used as an antiepileptic in the treatment of SEIZURES, including seizures associated with LENNOX-GASTAUT SYNDROME. It is also used as an anxiolytic, for the short-term treatment of acute ANXIETY.This medication is used with other medications to help control seizures. It belongs to a class of medications called benzodiazepines, which act on the brain and nerves (central nervous system) to produce a calming effect. This drug works by enhancing the effects of a certain natural chemical in the body (GABA).53
CLOBETASOL PROPIONATEA derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.This medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Clobetasol reduces the swelling, itching, and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a very strong (super-high-potency) corticosteroid.120
CLOCORTOLONE PIVALATEThis medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Clocortolone reduces the swelling, itching, and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a medium-strength corticosteroid.4
CLOFARABINEAn adenine arabinonucleoside derivative that acts as an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It is used in the treatment of ACUTE LYMPHOID LEUKEMIA in pediatric patients who have relapsed.Clofarabine is used to treat a certain type of cancer (acute lymphoblastic leukemia-ALL). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.12
CLOMIPHENE CITRATEA triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.This medication is used to treat infertility in women. It works by stimulating an increase in the amount of hormones that support the growth and release of a mature egg (ovulation). This medication is not recommended for women whose ovaries no longer make eggs properly (primary pituitary or ovarian failure).8
CLOMIPRAMINE HYDROCHLORIDEA tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.73
CLONAZEPAMAn anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Clonazepam is used to prevent and control seizures. This medication is known as an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug. It is also used to treat panic attacks. Clonazepam works by calming your brain and nerves. It belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines.111
CLONIDINEAn imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.This medication is used alone or with other medications to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Clonidine belongs to a class of drugs (central alpha agonists) that act in the brain to lower blood pressure. It works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily.17
CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDEAn imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.118
CLONOSTACHYS ROSEA F. ROSEA6
CLOPIDOGREL BISULFATEA ticlopidine analog and platelet purinergic P2Y receptor antagonist that inhibits adenosine diphosphate-mediated PLATELET AGGREGATION. It is used to prevent THROMBOEMBOLISM in patients with ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISEASES; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; STROKE; or ATRIAL FIBRILLATION.Clopidogrel is used to prevent heart attacks and strokes in persons with heart disease (recent heart attack), recent stroke, or blood circulation disease (peripheral vascular disease). It is also used with aspirin to treat new/worsening chest pain (new heart attack, unstable angina) and to keep blood vessels open and prevent blood clots after certain procedures (such as cardiac stent). Clopidogrel works by blocking platelets from sticking together and prevents them from forming harmful clots. It is an antiplatelet drug. It helps keep blood flowing smoothly in your body.64
CLORAZEPATE DIPOTASSIUMA water-soluble benzodiazepine derivative effective in the treatment of anxiety. It has also muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant actions.Clorazepate is used to treat anxiety, acute alcohol withdrawal, and seizures. This medication belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines which act on the brain and nerves (central nervous system) to produce a calming effect. It works by enhancing the effects of a certain natural chemical in the body (GABA).19
CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUMA species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.11
CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE8
CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENSThe most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.10
CLOSTRIDIUM TETANIThe cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.6
CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI TOXOID ANTIGEN (FORMALDEHYDE INACTIVATED)18
CLOTRIMAZOLEAn imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.This medication is used to treat vaginal yeast infections. Clotrimazole reduces vaginal burning, itching, and discharge that may occur with this condition. This medication is an azole antifungal. It works by stopping the growth of yeast (fungus) that causes the infection. The vaginal product comes in 2 forms (a vaginal cream or tablet). Some products come with a skin cream to be applied to the area around the outside of the vagina. Ask your doctor before using this medication for self-treatment if this is your first vaginal infection. This medication only works for vaginal fungal infections. You may have a different type of infection (such as bacterial vaginosis) and may need a different medication. If you have fever, chills, flu-like symptoms, stomach/abdominal pain, or a bad-smelling vaginal discharge, do not use this medication. Contact your doctor right away because these may be signs of a more serious infection.195
CLOVE4
CLOVE OILAn oil from flower buds of SYZYGIUM trees which contains large amounts of EUGENOL.4
CLOZAPINEA tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.See also Warning section. This medication is used to treat certain mental/mood disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders). Clozapine is a psychiatric medication (anti-psychotic type) that works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain. Clozapine decreases hallucinations and helps prevent suicide in people who are likely to try to harm themselves. It helps you to think more clearly and positively about yourself, feel less nervous, and take part in everyday life.51
CNIDIUM MONNIERI FRUIT4
CNIDIUM OFFICINALE ROOT1
COAL TARA by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).55
COBALAMIN8
COBALTA trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.57
COBALT OXIDE8
COBALTOUS ACETATE2
COBALTOUS BROMIDE8
COBALTOUS CARBONATE8
COBALTOUS CHLORIDE8
COBALTOUS GLUCONATE14
COBALTOUS IODIDE8
COBALTOUS NITRATE1
COBALTOUS NITRATE HEXAHYDRATE9
COBALTOUS PHOSPHATE8
COBALTOUS SULFATE HEPTAHYDRATE8
COBAMAMIDE1
COBICISTATA carbamate and thiazole derivative that functions as a CYTOCHROME P450 CYP3A INHIBITOR to enhance the concentration of ANTI-HIV AGENTS, with which it is used in combination, for the treatment of HIV INFECTIONS.This drug is used to increase ("boost") the levels of certain HIV protease inhibitors (atazanavir and darunavir). This helps them work better to help control HIV infection. Cobicistat is not a cure for HIV infection. To decrease your risk of spreading HIV disease to others, do all of the following: (1) continue to take all HIV medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor, (2) always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condoms/dental dams) during all sexual activity, and (3) do not share personal items (such as needles/syringes, toothbrushes, and razors) that may have contacted blood or other body fluids. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.7
COBIMETINIB FUMARATECobimetinib is used to treat a type of skin cancer (melanoma). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.1
COCAINE HYDROCHLORIDEAn alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.4
COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE2
COCARBOXYLASE1
COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS SPHERULE1
COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS WHOLE2
COCHINEAL3
COCHLEARIA OFFICINALIS FLOWERING TOP4
COCHLIOBOLUS SATIVUS45
COCHLIOBOLUS SPICIFER19
COCOA20
COCOA BUTTER29
COCO-GLYCERIDES1
COCONUT12
COCONUT OILOil derived from fruits of the coconut plant, COCOS NUCIFERA.4
COD LIVER OILOil obtained from fresh livers of the cod family, Gadidae. It is a source of VITAMIN A and VITAMIN D.12
COD, UNSPECIFIED4
CODEINE PHOSPHATEAn opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.127
CODEINE SULFATESee also Warning section. This medication is used to help relieve mild to moderate pain. Codeine belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid analgesics. It works in the brain to change how your body feels and responds to pain.5
CODONOPSIS PILOSULA ROOT3
COENZYME A21
COFFEA ARABICA FRUIT3
COFFEA ARABICA SEED, ROASTED35
COFFEA ARABICA WHOLE1
COFFEE BEAN3
COIX LACRYMA-JOBI SEED1
COLA ACUMINATA SEED1
COLA NITIDA SEED1
COLA NUT2
COLCHICEINE5
COLCHICINEA major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).This medication is used to prevent or treat gout attacks (flares). Usually gout symptoms develop suddenly and involve only one or a few joints. The big toe, knee, or ankle joints are most often affected. Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the blood. When uric acid levels in the blood are too high, the uric acid may form hard crystals in your joints. Colchicine works by decreasing swelling and lessening the build up of uric acid crystals that cause pain in the affected joint(s). This medication is also used to prevent attacks of pain in the abdomen, chest, or joints caused by a certain inherited disease (familial Mediterranean fever). It is thought to work by decreasing your body's production of a certain protein (amyloid A) that builds up in people with familial Mediterranean fever. Colchicine is not a pain medication and should not be used to relieve other causes of pain.42
COLCHICUM AUTUMNALE BULB143
COLCHICUM AUTUMNALE FLOWER2
COLCHICUM AUTUMNALE WHOLE8
COLESEVELAM HYDROCHLORIDEAn allylamine derivative that binds BILE ACIDS in the intestine and is used as an ANTICHOLESTEREMIC AGENT in the treatment of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.27
COLESTIPOL HYDROCHLORIDEHighly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.11
COLISTIMETHATE SODIUM8
COLISTIN SULFATECyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.1
COLLAGEN, SOLUBLE, FISH SKIN10
COLLAGENASE CLOSTRIDIUM HISTOLYTICUMA metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.2
COLLINSONIA2
COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS ROOT48
COMBRETUM INDICUM WHOLE1
COMBRETUM MICRANTHUM LEAF2
COMFREYPerennial herb Symphytum officinale, in the family Boraginaceae, used topically for wound healing. It contains ALLANTOIN, carotene, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE); GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, resin, SAPONINS; TANNINS; triterpenoids, VITAMIN B12, and ZINC. Comfrey also contains PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS and is hepatotoxic if ingested.1
COMFREY LEAF11
COMFREY ROOT173
COMMIPHORA MYRRHA WHOLE10
COMMON SHRIMP7
COMOCLADIA DENTATA BARK/LEAF12
CONESTAT ALFA3
CONIFERYL ALCOHOL5
CONIINE1
CONIUM MACULATUM FLOWERING TOP207
CONIUM MACULATUM FRUIT6
CONIUM MACULATUM LEAF1
CONIUM MACULATUM ROOT2
CONIUM MACULATUM WHOLE1
CONSOLIDA REGALIS FLOWER3
CONVALLARIA MAJALISA plant genus of the family Asparagaceae that contains CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES.40
CONVALLARIA MAJALIS FLOWERING TOP2
CONVOLVULUS ARVENSIS WHOLE1
CONYZA CANADENSIS2
COPAIFERA OFFICINALIS RESIN10
COPANLISIB1
COPPERA heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.197
COPPER ARSENATE3
COPPER GLUCONATEDerivatives of gluconic acid (the structural formula HOCH2(CHOH)4COOH), including its salts and esters.20
COPPER OXODOTREOTIDE CU-641
CORAL SNAKE (MICRURUS FULVIUS) IMMUNE GLOBULIN ANTIVENIN (EQUINE)1
CORALLIUM RUBRUM EXOSKELETON14
CORALLIUM RUBRUM WHOLE14
CORCHORUS OLITORIUS LEAF1
CORDYCEPS MILITARIS FRUITING BODY1
CORDYCEPS MILITARIS WHOLE1
CORIANDER10
CORIANDER OIL3
CORN16
CORN GRAIN2
CORN SILK13
CORN SYRUP1
CORNUS NUTTALLII WHOLE5
CORNUS OFFICINALIS FRUIT2
CORNUS RUGOSA WHOLE1
CORNUS SANGUINEA WHOLE4
CORTICORELIN1
CORTICOTROPINThis medication is used to treat a certain type of seizure in children (infantile spasms). This medication is also used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, lupus, eye conditions, skin/kidney/lung diseases, and immune system disorders. It decreases your immune system's response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as swelling, pain, and allergic-type reactions. Corticotropin is a hormone.72
CORTICOTROPIN HUMAN3
CORTISONEA naturally occurring glucocorticoid that has been used in replacement therapy for ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive; it is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)1
CORTISONE ACETATEA naturally occurring glucocorticoid that has been used in replacement therapy for ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive; it is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Cortisone is a corticosteroid hormone (glucocorticoid). It decreases your body's natural defensive response and reduces symptoms such as swelling and allergic-type reactions. This medication is used to treat conditions such as arthritis, blood/hormone/immune system disorders, allergic reactions, certain skin and eye conditions, breathing problems, and certain cancers.95
CORYDINE1
CORYLUS AMERICANA POLLEN10
CORYLUS AVELLANA FLOWER BUD2
CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE CRM197 PROTEIN1
CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE TOXOID ANTIGEN (FORMALDEHYDE INACTIVATED)13
COSMOS SULPHUREUS FLOWERING TOP2
COSYNTROPINA synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.5
COTINUS COGGYGRIA LEAF2
COTTON FIBERA TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM).7
COTTON SEED9
COUMARIN38
COW MILK29
COW MILK FAT1
COXIELLA BURNETIIA species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.3
COXSACKIEVIRUS A215
CRAB LEG, UNSPECIFIED1
CRANBERRYCranberry has been used for reducing the risk of "bladder infections" (urinary tract infections). It has also been used for decreasing the smell of urine in people who are unable to control urination (incontinent). This product should not be used alone to treat bladder infections. It may not work, and the delay could allow the infection to worsen. Some herbal/diet supplement products have been found to contain possibly harmful impurities/additives. Check with your pharmacist for more details about the brand you use. The FDA has not reviewed this product for safety or effectiveness. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.6
CRANGON SHRIMP1
CRASSOSTREA GIGAS SHELL2
CRATAEGUS FRUIT10
CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA FRUIT6
CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA WHOLE2
CRATAEGUS MONOGYNA FLOWER4
CRATEVA MAGNA BARK1
CREATINEAn amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.2
CREATINE MONOHYDRATE1
CRESOL8
CRISABOROLEThis medication is used to treat eczema. It reduces swelling, redness, and itching on the skin.1
CRIZANLIZUMAB1
CRIZOTINIBA piperidine and aminopyridine derivative that acts as an inhibitor of RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including ANAPLASTIC LYMPHOMA KINASE (ALK) and HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (HGFR; c-Met). It is used in the treatment of NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER.Crizotinib is used to treat certain types of lung cancer. Crizotinib works by slowing or stopping the growth of lung cancer cells. It belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors.2
CROCUS SATIVUS FLOWER2
CROFELEMERCrofelemer is used to relieve symptoms of diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients who are taking medicines to treat HIV infection. This medication may reduce the number of watery stools you have and help you better tolerate your HIV medications. It works by preventing water and minerals from entering into the intestines, causing the stools to be more solid. Crofelemer should not be used to treat diarrhea caused by infections.1
CROMOLYN SODIUMA chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized MAST CELLS. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.This medication is used to treat certain allergic eye conditions (vernal keratoconjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, vernal keratitis). It prevents itching of the eyes that can occur with these conditions. Cromolyn is known as a mast cell stabilizer. It works by blocking certain natural substances (histamine, SRS-A) that cause allergic symptoms.17
CROTALUS ADAMANTEUS IMMUNE FAB ANTIVENIN (OVINE)1
CROTALUS ATROX IMMUNE FAB ANTIVENIN (OVINE)1
CROTALUS DURISSUS TERRIFICUS VENOM8
CROTALUS HORRIDUS HORRIDUS VENOM70
CROTALUS SCUTULATUS IMMUNE FAB ANTIVENIN (OVINE)1
CROTAMITONThis medication is used to treat scabies. Scabies is a skin infection caused by mites that burrow into the skin. Irritation from the mites leads to severe itching and small bumps/blisters filled with fluid/pus. Crotamiton works by killing the mites that cause scabies. It also helps relieve itching related to scabies and other skin conditions. Crotamiton belongs to two classes of drugs: scabicides and antipruritics.1
CROTON OILViscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.3
CROTON TIGLIUM SEED55
CROTON TIGLIUM WHOLE1
CRYPTOMERIA JAPONICA BARK1
CRYPTOMERIA JAPONICA WHOLE8
CRYPTOSPORIDIUM HOMINIS5
CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUMA species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.7
CTENOCEPHALIDES CANIS1
CTENOCEPHALIDES FELISA genus of FLEAS in the family Pulicidae. It includes the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), one of the most common species on earth.2
CUCUMBER6
CUCURBITA PEPO FLOWER5
CUCURBITA PEPO SUBSP. OVIFERA WHOLE3
CULEX PIPIENS6
CULLEN CORYLIFOLIUM WHOLE1
CULTIVATED MUSHROOM5
CULVER'S ROOT3
CUPRESSUS ARIZONICA POLLEN29
CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS FRUITING LEAFY TWIG1
CUPRIC ACETATE48
CUPRIC ARSENATE1
CUPRIC ARSENITE8
CUPRIC BROMIDE8
CUPRIC CATION4
CUPRIC CHLORIDE1
CUPRIC CHLORIDE ANHYDROUS8
CUPRIC FLUORIDE DIHYDRATE8
CUPRIC NITRATE HEXAHYDRATE8
CUPRIC OXIDE24
CUPRIC PHOSPHATE8
CUPRIC SULFATE49
CUPRIC SULFATE ANHYDROUS1
CUPROUS IODIDE8
CUPROUS OXIDE5
CURCUMA LONGA WHOLE1
CURCUMINA yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.2
CURDLAN1
CURVULARIA INAEQUALIS4
CX-0244144
CX-034476 OMICRON (BA.4/BA.5)2
CYANOCOBALAMIN144
CYCLACHAENA XANTHIFOLIA POLLEN30
CYCLAMEN PURPURASCENS TUBER27
CYCLAMIC ACID1
CYCLOASTRAGENOL1
CYCLOBENZAPRINE HYDROCHLORIDE192
CYCLOHEXANOLMonohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.1
CYCLOPENTOLATE HYDROCHLORIDE9
CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDEPrecursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer. It is a chemotherapy drug that works by slowing or stopping cell growth. Cyclophosphamide also works by decreasing your immune system's response to various diseases. It is used to treat a certain type of kidney disease in children after other treatments have not worked.44
CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ANHYDROUSPrecursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.9
CYCLOSERINEAntibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.This medication is used with other medications to treat tuberculosis (TB). In some cases, it may also be used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs). It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.2
CYCLOSPORINEA cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Cyclosporine eye drops are used to treat a certain type of dry eyes. They work by increasing the amount of tears you make.42
CYDONIA OBLONGA SEED1
CYNANCHUM OTOPHYLLUM WHOLE1
CYNANCHUM VINCETOXICUM ROOT17
CYNARA SCOLYMUS LEAF34
CYNARA SCOLYMUS WHOLE6
CYNODON DACTYLON POLLEN43
CYNODON DACTYLON WHOLE11
CYNOMORIUM SONGARICUM STEM1
CYPERUS ROTUNDUS TUBER1
CYPRIPEDIUM PARVIFLORUM VAR. PUBESCENS ROOT22
CYPROHEPTADINEA serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.2
CYPROHEPTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE32
CYSTEAMINE BITARTRATEA mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.This medication is used to help preserve kidney function and manage kidney damage and other problems in people with an inherited disorder that causes build-up of a certain natural substance (cystine) in the body (nephropathic cystinosis). Cystine build-up can cause problems such as kidney problems, slow growth, weak bones, and eye problems. Cysteamine helps the body get rid of cystine.6
CYSTEAMINE HYDROCHLORIDEA mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.2
CYSTEINEA thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.48
CYSTEINE HYDROCHLORIDEA thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.7
CYSTINEA covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.3
CYTARABINEA pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Cytarabine is used to treat various types of cancer. It is a chemotherapy drug that works by slowing or stopping cancer cell growth.12
CYTISUS SCOPARIUS FLOWER5
CYTISUS SCOPARIUS FLOWERING TOP9
CYTISUS SCOPARIUS WHOLE3
D&C BLACK NO. 22
DABIGATRAN ETEXILATE MESYLATEA THROMBIN inhibitor which acts by binding and blocking thrombogenic activity and the prevention of thrombus formation. It is used to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic EMBOLISM in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.Dabigatran is used to prevent stroke and harmful blood clots (such as in your legs or lungs) if you have a certain type of irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation). Dabigatran is also used to treat blood clots in the veins of your legs (deep vein thrombosis) or lungs (pulmonary embolism) and to reduce the risk of them occurring again. This medication may also be used to prevent these blood clots from forming after hip replacement surgery. Dabigatran is an anticoagulant that works by blocking a certain substance (a clotting protein called thrombin) in your blood. This helps to keep blood flowing smoothly in your body. Dabigatran should not be used to prevent blood clots from forming after artificial heart valve replacement. If you have had heart valve surgery, talk to your doctor about the best medication for you. Do not stop taking any medication, including dabigatran, without talking to your doctor first.15
DABRAFENIB MESYLATEDabrafenib may be used alone or in combination with another medication (trametinib) to treat a type of skin cancer (melanoma). It is also used with trametinib to treat thyroid cancer and a type of lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer-NSCLC). Dabrafenib works by slowing the growth of cancer cells.2
DACARBAZINEAn antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Dacarbazine is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as skin cancer and Hodgkin's disease. It is a cancer chemotherapy drug that is used to slow or stop cancer cell growth.4
DACOMITINIBDacomitinib is used to treat a certain type of lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.4
DACTINOMYCINA compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Dactinomycin is used to treat cancer. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.8
DACTYLIS GLOMERATA9
DACTYLIS GLOMERATA POLLEN76
DACTYLIS GLOMERATA TOP6
DAIKON4
DALBAVANCIN HYDROCHLORIDE1
DALEA FOLIOLOSA WHOLE2
DALFAMPRIDINEOne of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS with secondary effect on calcium currents which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Dalfampridine is used to improve walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is a potassium channel blocker. It is thought to work by improving nerve conduction.11
DALFOPRISTIN1
DALOTUZUMAB3
DALTEPARIN SODIUMA low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)9
DANAZOLA synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.This medication is used in women to treat pelvic pain and infertility due to a certain uterus disorder (endometriosis) and also to treat breast pain/tenderness/nodules due to a certain breast condition (fibrocystic breast disease). It is also used in both men and women to prevent swelling of the abdomen/arms/legs/face/airway due to a certain congenital disease (hereditary angioedema). Danazol is an androgen similar to testosterone. For the treatment of endometriosis and fibrocystic breast disease, it works by decreasing the amount of hormones made by the ovaries. These hormones usually make the conditions worse. For the treatment of angioedema, danazol helps to increase the amount of a certain protein in your body's defense system (immune system).8
DANIO RERIO EGG1
DANTROLENE SODIUMSkeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.This medication is used to treat muscle tightness and cramping (spasms) caused by certain nerve disorders such as spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis. It works by relaxing the muscles. Dantrolene helps reduce muscle pain and stiffness, improves your ability to move around, and lets you do more of your daily activities. Dantrolene is also used with other treatments to prevent or treat special cases of high fever (malignant hyperthermia) related to anesthesia and surgery.25
DAPAGLIFLOZIN2
DAPAGLIFLOZIN PROPANEDIOLDapagliflozin is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. This medication is also used in people with type 2 diabetes and heart disease to lower the risk of going to the hospital for heart failure. Dapagliflozin works by increasing the removal of sugar by your kidneys. Dapagliflozin is also used to treat heart failure. It may help you live longer and lower your risk of going to the hospital for heart failure. Dapagliflozin works by increasing the removal of sodium by your kidneys.11
DAPHNE MEZEREUM BARK123
DAPHNE MEZEREUM WHOLE4
DAPHNE ODORA BARK9
DAPSONEA sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)This medication is used to treat acne. It helps decrease the number and severity of acne pimples and helps pimples that do develop to heal more quickly. Dapsone is an antibiotic. It is not known how dapsone works to treat acne.26
DAPTOMYCINA cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.This medication is an antibiotic used to treat serious bacterial infections. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This medication is not recommended for use in children younger than 12 months due to possible risk of serious side effects.48
DARATUMUMABThis medication is used to treat a certain type of cancer (multiple myeloma). Daratumumab belongs to a class of drugs known as monoclonal antibodies. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.3
DARBEPOETIN ALFAA recombinant protein which stimulates ERYTHROPOIESIS used to treat ANEMIA.15
DARIDOREXANT2
DARIFENACIN HYDROBROMIDEDarifenacin is used to treat an overactive bladder. By relaxing the muscles in the bladder, darifenacin improves your ability to control your urination. It helps to reduce leaking of urine, feelings of needing to urinate right away, and frequent trips to the bathroom. This medication belongs to the class of drugs known as antispasmodics.18
DAROLUTAMIDEDarolutamide is used to treat a certain type of prostate cancer. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as anti-androgens (anti-testosterone). It works by blocking the effects of testosterone to slow the growth and spread of prostate cancer.1
DARUNAVIRAn HIV PROTEASE INHIBITOR that is used in the treatment of AIDS and HIV INFECTIONS. Due to the emergence of ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE when used alone, it is administered in combination with other ANTI-HIV AGENTS.1
DARUNAVIR ETHANOLATEAn HIV PROTEASE INHIBITOR that is used in the treatment of AIDS and HIV INFECTIONS. Due to the emergence of ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE when used alone, it is administered in combination with other ANTI-HIV AGENTS.This drug is used with other HIV medications to help control HIV infection. It helps to decrease the amount of HIV in your body so your immune system can work better. This lowers your chance of getting HIV complications (such as new infections, cancer) and improves your quality of life. Darunavir belongs to a class of drugs known as protease inhibitors. Darunavir must be given with certain other medications (such as cobicistat, ritonavir) to increase ("boost") the levels of darunavir. This helps darunavir work better. Darunavir is not a cure for HIV infection. To decrease your risk of spreading HIV disease to others, do all of the following: (1) continue to take all HIV medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor, (2) always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condoms/dental dams) during all sexual activity, and (3) do not share personal items (such as needles/syringes, toothbrushes, and razors) that may have contacted blood or other body fluids. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details. This medication is not recommended for use in children younger than 3 years due to the increased risk of serious side effects.7
DASATINIBA pyrimidine and thiazole derived ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT and PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITOR of BCR-ABL KINASE. It is used in the treatment of patients with CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA who are resistant or intolerant to IMATINIB.This medication is used to treat certain types of cancer (chronic myeloid leukemia-CML, acute lymphoblastic leukemia-ALL). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.6
DASIGLUCAGON2
DATURA METEL FLOWER2
DATURA STRAMONIUMA plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.99
DATURA STRAMONIUM FLOWERING TOP1
DATURA STRAMONIUM WHOLE1
DAUNORUBICINA very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.1
DAUNORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDEA very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.6
DEANOLAn antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.1
DECITABINEAn azacitidine derivative and antineoplastic antimetabolite. It inhibits DNA methyltransferase to re-activate silent genes, limiting METASTASIS and NEOPLASM DRUG RESISTANCE. Decitabine is used in the treatment of MYELODISPLASTIC SYNDROMES, and ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.This medication is used to treat a group of blood/bone marrow disorders (myelodysplastic syndromes-MDS) in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. People with MDS may have problems such as infections, anemia, and easy bleeding/bruising. Decitabine is a chemotherapy drug. It is believed to work by helping your bone marrow grow normal blood cells so you will need fewer blood transfusions. Decitabine also kills abnormal blood cells that have grown too fast and do not work properly.27
DECYL OLEATE3
DEFERASIROXA triazole and benzoate derivative that acts as a selective iron chelator. It is used in the management of chronic IRON OVERLOAD due to blood transfusion or non-transfusion dependent THALASSEMIA.This medication is used to treat ongoing high levels of iron in the body caused by multiple blood transfusions. It is also used to treat high levels of iron in people with a certain blood disorder who do not require blood transfusions (non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia). It works by binding to iron, allowing the body to pass extra iron out in the stool. Deferasirox belongs to a class of drugs known as iron-chelating agents. Frequent blood transfusions are often needed in certain types of blood diseases (such as sickle cell disease, anemia). Blood transfusions have very helpful benefits, but they can cause the body to hold on to too much iron. The extra iron can build up in the body and cause problems such as heart failure, liver disease, and diabetes. Getting rid of extra iron can decrease the risk of these diseases.99
DEFERIPRONEA pyridone derivative and iron chelator that is used in the treatment of IRON OVERLOAD in patients with THALASSEMIA.This medication is used by people with a certain type of blood disorder (thalassemia) who have too much iron in the body, caused by repeated blood transfusions. Blood transfusions help people with blood disorders but they also bring extra iron into the body. It is important to get rid of the extra iron because high levels of iron can cause health problems (such as heart failure, liver disease, diabetes, delayed growth in children). Deferiprone is used if you have trouble taking other traditional iron-removal medications or you continue to have high iron levels after taking other iron-removal medications. Deferiprone belongs to a class of drugs known as iron chelators. It works by attaching to iron which helps your body pass the extra iron out in the urine.8
DEFEROXAMINE MESYLATENatural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.This medication is used along with other treatments (such as causing vomiting with syrup of ipecac, stomach pumping) to treat sudden iron poisoning. It is most effective when given as soon as possible after the iron was eaten. This medication can also be used to help get rid of iron in patients with high iron levels due to many blood transfusions. Deferoxamine is an iron-binding agent that belongs to a class of drugs known as heavy metal antagonists. It works by helping the kidneys and gallbladder get rid of the extra iron. This medication is not recommended for use in children less than 3 years old (see also Precautions section).10
DEFIBROTIDE SODIUM1
DEHYDRATED ALCOHOL2
DEHYDROACETIC ACID5
DELAFLOXACIN MEGLUMINEDelafloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as quinolone antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.2
DELPHINIUM AJACIS SEED1
DELPHINIUM STAPHISAGRIA SEED159
DEMECLOCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDEA TETRACYCLINE analog having a 7-chloro and a 6-methyl. Because it is excreted more slowly than tetracycline, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.12
DENDRYPHIELLA VINOSA4
DENOSUMABA humanized monoclonal antibody and an inhibitor of the RANK LIGAND, which regulates OSTEOCLAST differentiation and bone remodeling. It is used as a BONE DENSITY CONSERVATION AGENT in the treatment of OSTEOPOROSIS.Denosumab is used to treat bone loss (osteoporosis) in people who have a high risk of getting fractures. Osteoporosis causes bones to become thinner and break more easily. Your chance of developing osteoporosis increases after menopause (in women), as you age, if someone in your family has osteoporosis, or if you take certain medications (such as prednisone) for long periods. This medication works by slowing bone loss to help maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of broken bones (fractures). Denosumab belongs to a class of drugs called monoclonal antibodies. It prevents certain cells in the body (osteoclasts) from breaking down bone.2
DEOXYCHOLIC ACIDA bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.1
DEOXYMUTAASPERGILLIC ACID1
DERMATOPHAGOIDES FARINAESpecies of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.23
DERMATOPHAGOIDES PTERONYSSINUSSpecies of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.18
DESCURAINIA SOPHIA SEED1
DESETHYL ATRAZINE1
DESFLURANEA fluorinated ether that is used as a volatile anesthetic for maintenance of general anesthesia.6
DESIPRAMINE HYDROCHLORIDEA tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.41
DESIRUDIN1
DESLORATADINEDesloratadine is an antihistamine used to relieve allergy symptoms such as watery eyes, runny nose, itching eyes/nose, sneezing, hives, and itching. It works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine) that your body makes during an allergic reaction.11
DESMOPRESSIN ACETATEA synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Desmopressin is used to control the amount of urine your kidneys make. Normally, the amount of urine you make is controlled by a certain substance in the body called vasopressin. In people who have "water diabetes" (diabetes insipidus) or certain kinds of head injury or brain surgery, the body does not make enough vasopressin. Desmopressin is a man-made form of vasopressin and is used to replace a low level of vasopressin. This medication helps to control increased thirst and too much urination due to these conditions, and helps prevent dehydration. Desmopressin is also used to control bleeding caused by surgery or injuries in people with certain bleeding problems (hemophilia A, type 1 von Willebrand's disease). It works by helping the body with normal blood clotting.51
DESONIDEA nonfluorinated corticosteroid anti-inflammatory agent used topically for DERMATOSES.This medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Desonide reduces the swelling, itching and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. Desonide is a mild corticosteroid.35
DESOXIMETASONEA topical anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used in DERMATOSES, skin allergies, PSORIASIS, etc.This medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Desoximetasone reduces the swelling, itching and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a strong corticosteroid.38
DESVENLAFAXINEA cyclohexanol and phenol derivative and metabolite of venlafaxine that functions as a SEROTONIN AND NORADRENALINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR (SNRI) and is used as an ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENT.Desvenlafaxine is used to treat depression. It may improve your mood, feelings of well-being, and energy level. Desvenlafaxine is known as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances (serotonin and norepinephrine) in the brain.8
DESVENLAFAXINE SUCCINATEA cyclohexanol and phenol derivative and metabolite of venlafaxine that functions as a SEROTONIN AND NORADRENALINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR (SNRI) and is used as an ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENT.Desvenlafaxine is used to treat depression. It may improve your mood, feelings of well-being, and energy level. Desvenlafaxine is known as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances (serotonin and norepinephrine) in the brain.38
DEUCRAVACITINIB1
DEUTETRABENAZINEDeutetrabenazine is used to decrease involuntary movements (chorea) caused by Huntington's disease. It is also used to treat involuntary movements of the face, tongue, or other body parts (tardive dyskinesia). However, it is not a cure for the Huntington's disease or tardive dyskinesia. Reducing involuntary movements will help you take part in more of your normal daily activities. This medication is thought to work by decreasing the amount of certain natural substances in the brain that affect how your nerves and muscles work (monoamines such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine).3
DEXAMETHASONEAn anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Dexamethasone is used to treat conditions such as arthritis, blood/hormone disorders, allergic reactions, skin diseases, eye problems, breathing problems, bowel disorders, cancer, and immune system disorders. It is also used as a test for an adrenal gland disorder (Cushing's syndrome). Dexamethasone belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. It decreases your immune system's response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as swelling and allergic-type reactions.122
DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATEDexamethasone is used to treat conditions such as arthritis, blood/hormone disorders, allergic reactions, skin diseases, eye problems, breathing problems, bowel disorders, cancer, and immune system disorders. It is also used as a test for an adrenal gland disorder (Cushing's syndrome). Dexamethasone belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. It decreases your immune system's response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as swelling and allergic-type reactions. This injectable form of dexamethasone is used when a similar drug cannot be taken by mouth or when a very fast response is needed, especially in patients with severe medical conditions. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of dexamethasone, especially if it is to be injected near your spine (epidural). Rare but serious side effects may occur with epidural use.76
DEXBROMPHENIRAMINE MALEATE23
DEXCHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATEDexchlorpheniramine is an antihistamine used to relieve symptoms of allergy, hay fever, and the common cold. These symptoms may include rash, watery eyes, itchy eyes/nose/throat/skin, cough, runny nose, and sneezing. This medication works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine) that your body makes during an allergic reaction. It also blocks another natural substance made by your body (acetylcholine). Blocking acetylcholine helps lessen symptoms such as watery eyes and runny nose. Cough-and-cold products have not been shown to be safe or effective in children younger than 6 years. Do not use this product to treat cold symptoms in children younger than 6 years unless specifically directed by the doctor. Some products (such as long-acting tablets/capsules) are not recommended for use in children younger than 12 years. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details about using your product safely. These products do not cure or shorten the length of the common cold and may cause serious side effects. To decrease the risk for serious side effects, carefully follow all dosage directions. Do not use this product to make a child sleepy. Do not give other cough-and-cold medications that contain the same or similar ingredients (see also Drug Interactions section). Ask the doctor or pharmacist about other ways to relieve cough and cold symptoms (such as drinking enough fluids, using a humidifier or saline nose drops/spray).9
DEXLANSOPRAZOLEThe R-isomer of lansoprazole that is used to treat severe GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE.Dexlansoprazole is used to treat certain stomach and esophagus problems (such as acid reflux). It works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach makes. It relieves symptoms such as heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and persistent cough. This medication helps heal acid damage to the stomach and esophagus, helps prevent ulcers, and may help prevent cancer of the esophagus. Dexlansoprazole belongs to a class of drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).9
DEXMEDETOMIDINEA imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.2
DEXMEDETOMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDEA imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.72
DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDEA methylphenidate derivative, DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITOR and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANT that is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.130
DEXPANTHENOL25
DEXRAZOXANE HYDROCHLORIDEThe (+)-enantiomorph of razoxane.8
DEXTRAN 70A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.32
DEXTROAMPHETAMINEThe d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.4
DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SACCHARATE281
DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SULFATEThe d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.This medication is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - ADHD. It works by changing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain. Dextroamphetamine belongs to a class of drugs known as stimulants. It can help increase your ability to pay attention, stay focused on an activity, and control behavior problems. It may also help you to organize your tasks and improve listening skills. This drug is also used to treat a certain sleeping disorder (narcolepsy) to help you stay awake during the day. It should not be used to treat tiredness or to hold off sleep in people who do not have a sleep disorder.334
DEXTROMETHORPHANMethyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.12
DEXTROMETHORPHAN HYDROBROMIDEMethyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.2000
DEXTROSEThis product is used to treat low blood sugar levels. Symptoms of low blood sugar include sudden sweating, cold skin, shaking, irritability, fast heartbeat, hunger, blurred vision, dizziness, or tingling hands/feet. It is a good habit to carry glucose tablets, liquid, or gel to treat low blood sugar. If you don't have these reliable forms of glucose, rapidly raise your blood sugar by eating a quick source of sugar such as table sugar, honey, or candy, or drink fruit juice or non-diet soda. To help prevent low blood sugar, eat meals on a regular schedule, and do not skip meals. Check with your doctor or pharmacist about what to do if you miss a meal.59
DEXTROSE MONOHYDRATE213
DEXTROSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM24
DIAMONDDiamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)21
DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS WHOLE1
DIANTHUS SUPERBUS FLOWERING TOP2
DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINEA versatile contrast medium used for DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RADIOLOGY.6
DIATRIZOATE SODIUMA commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.4
DIAZEPAMA benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.This medication is used to treat episodes of increased seizures (such as cluster or breakthrough seizures) in people who are already taking medications to control their seizures. This product is only recommended for short-term treatment of seizure attacks. It is not for ongoing daily use to prevent seizures. Uncontrolled seizures can turn into serious (possibly fatal) seizures that do not stop (status epilepticus). This medication is not recommended for children younger than 6 months of age because of the risk of serious side effects. Diazepam works by calming the brain and nerves. It belongs to a class of drugs known as benzodiazepines.114
DIAZOLIDINYL UREA1
DIAZOXIDEA benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.This medication is used to treat very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Certain conditions (such as tumor on the pancreas, cancer, leucine sensitivity) can cause the release of too much insulin. Insulin is a natural substance that lowers blood sugar. This drug works by preventing insulin release from the pancreas, helping to return the blood sugar to normal levels. Diazoxide is a thiazide drug, but has no diuretic ("water pill") effects like other thiazides. Diazoxide should not be used to treat low blood sugar from poor nutrition/diet (functional hypoglycemia).3
DIBASIC POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE103
DIBUCAINEA local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)6
DICAPRYLYL ETHER2
DICENTRA CANADENSIS ROOT1
DICENTRA FORMOSA WHOLE4
DICHLORPHENAMIDEA carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of glaucoma.This medication is used to treat a certain inherited condition that causes attacks of muscle weakness or loss of muscle movement that come and go (primary periodic paralysis). Dichlorphenamide belongs to a class of drugs known as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. It is not known how it works for this condition, but it can decrease the number of attacks of muscle weakness.3
DICHLORVOSAn organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.2
DICHROMATE ION3
DICLOFENACA non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.2
DICLOFENAC EPOLAMINEDiclofenac patches are used to relieve pain from various conditions (e.g., sprained ankle). This medication is known as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). If you are treating a chronic condition such as arthritis, ask your doctor about non-drug treatments and/or using other medications to treat your pain. See also Warning section.10
DICLOFENAC POTASSIUMA non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Diclofenac is used to relieve pain from various conditions. This form of diclofenac is used to treat migraine headaches. Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It works by blocking your body's production of certain natural substances that cause inflammation. This effect helps to decrease swelling, pain, or fever.38
DICLOFENAC SODIUMA non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Diclofenac is used to relieve pain, swelling (inflammation), and joint stiffness caused by arthritis. Reducing these symptoms helps you do more of your normal daily activities. This medication is known as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). If you are treating a chronic condition such as arthritis, ask your doctor about non-drug treatments and/or using other medications to treat your pain. See also Warning section.274
DICLOXACILLIN SODIUMOne of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Dicloxacillin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It is a penicillin-type antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.15
DICYCLOMINE HYDROCHLORIDEA muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. It has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms.75
DIDECYLDIMONIUM CHLORIDE18
DIEFFENBACHIA SEGUINE36
DIEFFENBACHIA SEGUINE WHOLE5
DIENTAMOEBA FRAGILIS2
DIETHYLAMINO HYDROXYBENZOYL HEXYL BENZOATE4
DIETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOETHYL ETHER1
DIETHYLPROPION HYDROCHLORIDEA appetite depressant considered to produce less central nervous system disturbance than most drugs in this therapeutic category. It is also considered to be among the safest for patients with hypertension. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2290)13
DIETHYLSTILBESTROLA synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)1
DIETHYLTOLUAMIDE1
DIFELIKEFALIN ACETATE1
DIFENOXIN HYDROCHLORIDE1
DIFLORASONE DIACETATEDiflorasone is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (e.g., eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Diflorasone reduces the swelling, itching and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a strong (high-potency) corticosteroid.9
DIFLUNISALA salicylate derivative and anti-inflammatory analgesic with actions and side effects similar to those of ASPIRIN.Diflunisal is used to relieve mild to moderate pain from various conditions. It also reduces pain, swelling, and joint stiffness caused by arthritis. Reducing these symptoms helps you do more of your normal daily activities. This medication is known as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).5
DIFLUPREDNATEThis medication is used to treat swelling and pain after eye surgery. It may also be used to treat a certain serious eye problem (endogenous anterior uveitis). This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids.7
DIGITALIN1
DIGITALISA genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.79
DIGOXINA cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Digoxin is used to treat heart failure, usually along with other medications. It is also used to treat certain types of irregular heartbeat (such as chronic atrial fibrillation). Treating heart failure may help maintain your ability to walk and exercise and may improve the strength of your heart. Treating an irregular heartbeat can also improve your ability to exercise. Digoxin belongs to a class of medications called cardiac glycosides. It works by affecting certain minerals (sodium and potassium) inside heart cells. This reduces strain on the heart and helps it maintain a normal, steady, and strong heartbeat.53
DIHYDRO-.ALPHA.-ERGOCRYPTINE MESYLATE1
DIHYDRO-.BETA.-ERGOCRYPTINE MESYLATE1
DIHYDROCODEINE BITARTRATE4
DIHYDROERGOCORNINE MESYLATE1
DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE MESYLATE1
DIHYDROERGOTAMINE MESYLATEA 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Dihydroergotamine is used to treat migraine headaches and cluster headaches. It is not recommended for migraines that affect only one side of the brain (hemiplegic migraine) or the base of the brain/neck area (basilar migraine), or to prevent migraines from occurring. Dihydroergotamine is an ergot medication that helps narrow widened blood vessels in the head, thereby reducing the throbbing effects of these headaches.12
DILLAnethum graveolens L. is a plant species of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are considered as a spice (SPICES).7
DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDEA benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.236
DIMENHYDRINATEA drug combination that contains diphenhydramine and theophylline. It is used for treating VERTIGO, MOTION SICKNESS, and NAUSEA associated with PREGNANCY.Dimenhydrinate is an antihistamine used to prevent and treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness caused by motion sickness when medication cannot be given by mouth. Dimenhydrinate injection should not be used in newborns because of an increased risk of side effects.33
DIMERCAPROLAn anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.1
DIMETHICONEThis medication is used as a moisturizer to treat or prevent dry, rough, scaly, itchy skin and minor skin irritations (e.g., diaper rash, skin burns from radiation therapy). Emollients are substances that soften and moisturize the skin and decrease itching and flaking. Some products (e.g., zinc oxide, white petrolatum) are used mostly to protect the skin against irritation (e.g., from wetness). Dry skin is caused by a loss of water in the upper layer of the skin. Emollients/moisturizers work by forming an oily layer on the top of the skin that traps water in the skin. Petrolatum, lanolin, mineral oil and dimethicone are common emollients. Humectants, including glycerin, lecithin, and propylene glycol, draw water into the outer layer of skin. Many products also have ingredients that soften the horny substance (keratin) that holds the top layer of skin cells together (including urea, alpha hydroxy acids such as lactic/citric/glycolic acid, and allantoin). This helps the dead skin cells fall off, helps the skin keep in more water, and leaves the skin feeling smoother and softer.694
DIMETHICONE 1001
DIMETHICONE 4101
DIMETHYL FUMARATEA fumarate derivative that is used as a DERMATOLOGIC AGENT in the treatment of PSORIASIS and SKIN DISEASES. It also may be used as an IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENT in the treatment of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Dimethyl fumarate is used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS). It is not a cure for MS. It helps decrease the number of episodes of worsening MS.35
DIMETHYL PHTHALATE1
DIMETHYL SULFONE3
DIMETHYL SULFOXIDEA highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.This medication is used to treat a certain bladder condition (interstitial cystitis). Dimethyl sulfoxide is also known as DMSO. It is believed to reduce swelling and pain due to interstitial cystitis and may improve blood supply to the treated area.1
DIMPYLATEA cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.1
DIMYRISTOYLPHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE, DL-1
DIMYRISTOYLPHOSPHATIDYLGLYCEROL, DL-1
DINOPROSTONEThe most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.This medication is used to help prepare your cervix (the lower opening of the womb) for labor and delivery. It is used in women who are having a normal pregnancy and who are at or near their delivery due date. Dinoprostone is a natural substance that your body makes in preparation for labor. It relaxes and softens your cervix (cervical ripening) to allow the baby to pass through the birth canal during delivery.2
DINUTUXIMAB1
DIORNITHINE OXOGLURATE1
DIOSCOREA VILLOSA ROOT8
DIOSCOREA VILLOSA TUBER45
DIPHENHYDRAMINEA histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.5
DIPHENHYDRAMINE CITRATEA histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.44
DIPHENHYDRAMINE HYDROCHLORIDEA histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.1125
DIPHENOXYLATEA MEPERIDINE congener used as an antidiarrheal, usually in combination with ATROPINE. At high doses, it acts like morphine. Its unesterified metabolite difenoxin has similar properties and is used similarly. It has little or no analgesic activity.1
DIPHENOXYLATE HYDROCHLORIDEA MEPERIDINE congener used as an antidiarrheal, usually in combination with ATROPINE. At high doses, it acts like morphine. Its unesterified metabolite difenoxin has similar properties and is used similarly. It has little or no analgesic activity.33
DIPHENYLTRICHLOROETHANE1
DIPHTHERIAL RESPIRATORY PSEUDOMEMBRANE HUMAN7
DIPLACUS AURANTIACUS WHOLE5
DIPSACUS FULLONUM WHOLE1
DIPYRIDAMOLEA phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)This medication is used in combination with "blood thinners" such as warfarin to keep clots from forming after heart valve replacements. Clots are a serious complication that can cause strokes, heart attacks, or blocked blood vessels in the lungs (pulmonary embolisms). Dipyridamole is an antiplatelet drug. It helps to keep blood flowing by stopping platelets from clumping together and by keeping heart blood vessels open.37
DIROXIMEL FUMARATEDiroximel fumarate is used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS). It is not a cure for MS. It helps decrease the number of episodes of worsening MS.1
DISOPYRAMIDE PHOSPHATEA class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.This medication is used to treat certain types of serious (possibly fatal) irregular heartbeat, such as persistent ventricular tachycardia. It is used to restore normal heart rhythm and maintain a regular, steady heartbeat. Disopyramide is known as an anti-arrhythmic drug. It works by blocking certain electrical signals in the heart that can cause an irregular heartbeat. Treating an irregular heartbeat can decrease the risk for blood clots, and this effect can reduce your risk of heart attack or stroke.10
DISPERSE BLUE 11
DISTEAROYLPHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE, DL-2
DISTICHLIS SPICATA POLLEN8
DISULFIRAMA carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.This medication is used along with counseling and support to treat alcoholism. Disulfiram works by blocking the processing of alcohol in the body. This causes you to have a bad reaction when you drink alcohol.9
DIVALPROEX SODIUMA fatty acid with anticonvulsant and anti-manic properties that is used in the treatment of EPILEPSY and BIPOLAR DISORDER. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.This medication is used to treat seizure disorders, certain psychiatric conditions (manic phase of bipolar disorder), and to prevent migraine headaches. It works by restoring the balance of certain natural substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain.151
DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE SUBUNIT BETA (M. TUBERCULOSIS)1
DNOC1
DOBUTAMINE HYDROCHLORIDEA catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.13
DOCETAXELA semisynthetic analog of PACLITAXEL used in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic BREAST NEOPLASMS and NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER.This medication is used to treat cancer (such as breast, lung, prostate, stomach, and head/neck cancer). Docetaxel is a member of a family of drugs called taxanes. This drug works by slowing cell growth.30
DOCETAXEL ANHYDROUSA semisynthetic analog of PACLITAXEL used in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic BREAST NEOPLASMS and NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER.30
DOCONEXENT14
DOCOSANOL44
DOCUSATE CALCIUMAll-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.This medication is used to treat occasional constipation. Some medications and conditions can make constipation more likely. Stool softeners such as docusate are often the first method used for preventing and treating this type of constipation. Docusate is often used when straining to have a bowel movement should be avoided (e.g., after a heart attack or surgery). Docusate is a stool softener. It works by increasing the amount of water the stool absorbs in the gut, making the stool softer and easier to pass.15
DOCUSATE SODIUMAll-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.This medication is used to treat occasional constipation. Some medications and conditions can make constipation more likely. Stool softeners such as docusate are often the first method used for preventing and treating this type of constipation. Docusate is often used when straining to have a bowel movement should be avoided (e.g., after a heart attack or surgery). Docusate is a stool softener. It works by increasing the amount of water the stool absorbs in the gut, making the stool softer and easier to pass.421
DODECAHYDROXYCYCLOHEXANE DIHYDRATE3
DOFETILIDEThis medication is used to treat certain types of serious (possibly fatal) irregular heartbeat (such as atrial fibrillation/flutter). It is used to restore normal heart rhythm and maintain a regular, steady heartbeat. Dofetilide is known as an anti-arrhythmic drug. It works by blocking the activity of certain electrical signals in the heart that can cause an irregular heartbeat. Treating an irregular heartbeat can decrease the risk for blood clots, and this effect can reduce your risk of heart attack or stroke.39
DOLICHOVESPULA ARENARIA VENOM PROTEIN5
DOLICHOVESPULA MACULATA VENOM PROTEIN5
DOLUTEGRAVIR SODIUMDolutegravir is used with other HIV medications to help control HIV infection. It helps to decrease the amount of HIV in your body so your immune system can work better. This lowers your chance of getting HIV complications (such as new infections, cancer) and improves your quality of life. Dolutegravir belongs to a class of drugs known as integrase inhibitors. It blocks the virus from growing and infecting more cells. Dolutegravir is not a cure for HIV infection. To decrease your risk of spreading HIV disease to others, do all of the following: (1) continue to take all HIV medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor, (2) always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condoms/dental dams) during all sexual activity, and (3) do not share personal items (such as needles/syringes, toothbrushes, and razors) that may have contacted blood or other body fluids. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.8
DOMIPHEN BROMIDE1
DONEPEZIL HYDROCHLORIDEAn indan and piperidine derivative that acts as a selective and reversible inhibitor of ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE. Donepezil is highly selective for the central nervous system and is used in the management of mild to moderate DEMENTIA in ALZHEIMER DISEASE.98
DONOR HUMAN STOOL1
DOPAMINEOne of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.8
DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDEOne of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.63
DORAVIRINEThis drug is used with other HIV medications to help control HIV infection. It helps to decrease the amount of HIV in your body so your immune system can work better. This lowers your chance of getting HIV complications (such as new infections, cancer) and improves your quality of life. Doravirine belongs to a class of drugs known as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Doravirine is not a cure for HIV infection. To decrease your risk of spreading HIV disease to others, do all of the following: (1) continue to take all HIV medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor, (2) always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condoms/dental dams) during all sexual activity, and (3) do not share personal items (such as needles/syringes, toothbrushes, and razors) that may have contacted blood or other body fluids. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.4
DORNASE ALFAThis medication is used to improve breathing and reduce the risk of lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis. It is used along with other treatments for this disease (e.g., chest physical therapy, medications, nutritional supplements). Dornase alfa is the same as a substance (DNase I enzyme) that is naturally produced by the body. It works in the airways by decreasing stickiness/thickness of mucus so that it can be cleared from the lungs more easily.1
DORZOLAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE32
DOSTARLIMAB1
DOXAPRAM HYDROCHLORIDEA central respiratory stimulant with a brief duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p1225)2
DOXAZOSIN MESYLATEDoxazosin is used alone or with other drugs to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. This medication works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily. Doxazosin is also used in men to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia-BPH). It does not shrink the prostate, but it works by relaxing the muscles in the prostate and part of the bladder. This helps to relieve symptoms of BPH such as difficulty in beginning the flow of urine, weak stream, and the need to urinate frequently or urgently (including during the middle of the night). Doxazosin belongs to a class of drugs known as alpha blockers.91
DOXEPIN HYDROCHLORIDEA dibenzoxepin tricyclic compound. It displays a range of pharmacological actions including maintaining adrenergic innervation. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it appears to block reuptake of monoaminergic neurotransmitters into presynaptic terminals. It also possesses anticholinergic activity and modulates antagonism of histamine H(1)- and H(2)-receptors.183
DOXERCALCIFEROLThis medication is used to treat people with serious kidney disease on dialysis who have high levels of a certain substance (parathyroid hormone-PTH), which your body normally makes. High PTH levels affect the balance of other minerals in your body (calcium and phosphorus) and may cause weak bones. Doxercalciferol is a form of vitamin D. It works by decreasing PTH levels and increasing calcium/phosphorus levels in the body.22
DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDEAntineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.67
DOXYCYCLINEA synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.110
DOXYCYCLINE CALCIUMA synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.This medication is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections, including those that cause acne. This medication is also used to prevent malaria. This medication is known as a tetracycline antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.1
DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATEA synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.This medication is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections, including those that cause acne. This medication is also used to prevent malaria. This medication is known as a tetracycline antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.200
DOXYLAMINE SUCCINATE438
DOXYLAMINE SUCCINATE, (R)-1
DRABA VERNA WHOLE3
DRIMIA MARITIMA BULB26
DRIMIA MARITIMA WHOLE1
DROMETRIZOLE TRISILOXANE1
DRONABINOLA psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Dronabinol is used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy. It is usually used when other drugs to control nausea and vomiting have not been successful. Dronabinol is also used to treat loss of appetite and weight loss in patients with HIV infection. Dronabinol (also called THC) is a man-made form of the active natural substance in marijuana (cannabis).32
DRONEDARONEA non-iodinated derivative of amiodarone that is used for the treatment of ARRHYTHMIA.2
DROPERIDOLA butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)3
DROSERA ANGLICA15
DROSERA ANGLICA WHOLE1
DROSERA INTERMEDIA1
DROSERA INTERMEDIA WHOLE1
DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA42
DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA FLOWERING TOP34
DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA WHOLE18
DROSPIRENONEThis medication is used to prevent pregnancy. Drospirenone (a progestin) is a hormone that works mainly by preventing the release of an egg (ovulation) during your menstrual cycle. It also makes vaginal fluid thicker to help prevent sperm from reaching an egg (fertilization) and changes the lining of the uterus (womb) to prevent attachment of a fertilized egg. Besides preventing pregnancy, birth control pills may make your periods more regular, decrease blood loss and painful periods, and decrease your risk of ovarian cysts. Using this product does not protect you or your partner against sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV, hepatitis B, gonorrhea, syphilis). To decrease your risk of infection, always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condom/dental dams) during all sexual activity.2
DROXIDOPAA synthetic precursor of norepinephrine that is used in the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION.Droxidopa is used to treat symptoms of low blood pressure when standing, caused by a certain medical condition (neurogenic orthostatic hypotension-NOH). This medication can lessen symptoms of low blood pressure when standing (orthostatic hypotension), such as dizziness, lightheadedness, or the "feeling that you are about to black out." Droxidopa is used by people whose daily activities are severely affected by this condition, even after other treatments are used (such as support stockings, water bolus). It is thought to work by making the blood vessels become more narrow, which increases blood pressure.51
DRYOPTERIS FILIX-MAS ROOT31
DULAGLUTIDEDulaglutide is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. This medication is also used to lessen the risk of a major cardiovascular event (such as heart attack or stroke) in people who already have, or are at high risk for heart/blood vessel disease. Dulaglutide is similar to a natural hormone in your body (incretin). It works by causing insulin release in response to high blood sugar (such as after a meal) and by decreasing the amount of sugar your liver makes. Dulaglutide is not a substitute for insulin if you need insulin treatment.7
DULOXETINE HYDROCHLORIDEA thiophene derivative and selective NEUROTRANSMITTER UPTAKE INHIBITOR for SEROTONIN and NORADRENALINE (SNRI). It is an ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENT and ANXIOLYTIC, and is also used for the treatment of pain in patients with DIABETES MELLITUS and FIBROMYALGIA.181
DUNGENESS CRAB, COOKED1
DUPILUMABThis medication is used to treat a skin condition called eczema (atopic dermatitis). It is also used along with other medications to help control and prevent symptoms (such as wheezing and shortness of breath) caused by asthma. In addition, dupilumab may be used to reduce symptoms caused by nasal polyps and the long-term swelling of the sinuses and nasal passage (chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis). Dupilumab belongs to a class of drugs known as monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking certain natural proteins in your body (interleukin-4 and interleukin-13) that may cause inflammation and swelling. This medication should not be used to relieve sudden asthma attacks. If an asthma attack occurs, use your quick-relief inhaler (such as albuterol, also called salbutamol in some countries) as prescribed.5
DURVALUMABDurvalumab is used to treat a certain type of bladder and urinary tract cancer. It is also used to treat lung cancer. It works by helping your immune system fight the cancer. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as monoclonal antibodies.2
DUTASTERIDEA 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE INHIBITOR that is reported to inhibit both type-1 and type2 isoforms of the enzyme and is used to treat BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.This medication is used in men to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia-BPH). It works by reducing the size of the enlarged prostate. This helps to relieve symptoms of BPH such as difficulty in beginning the flow of urine, weak stream, and the need to urinate frequently or urgently (including during the middle of the night). It may also reduce the need for surgery to treat BPH. Dutasteride is not approved for prevention of prostate cancer. It may slightly increase the risk of developing a very serious form of prostate cancer. Talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks. This medication should not be used by women or children.24
DUVELISIBThis medication is used to treat certain types of cancer (such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma). Duvelisib belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.4
DYCLONINE HYDROCHLORIDE16
DYSPHANIA AMBROSIOIDES17
DYSPHANIA AMBROSIOIDES POLLEN1
DYSPHANIA AMBROSIOIDES WHOLE12
DYSPHANIA BOTRYS POLLEN1
DYSPROSIUMAn element of the rare earth family that has the atomic symbol Dy, atomic number 66, and atomic weight 162.50. Dysprosium is a silvery metal used primarily in the form of various salts.29
EAST INDIAN LEMONGRASS OIL5
EASTERN OYSTERA genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.5
ECALLANTIDEThis medication is used to treat an acute attack of a certain immune disease passed down through families (hereditary angioedema-HAE). Ecallantide blocks a natural substance produced by the body (kallikrein) which acts to increase amounts of another natural substance (bradykinin) thought to cause the symptoms seen during an acute attack of HAE. This medication does not cure HAE. Ecallantide may lessen the symptoms during an acute attack of HAE such as rapid swelling and pain of the hands, feet, limbs, face, tongue, or throat. When attacks involve the intestines, symptoms may include abdominal pain/cramps, diarrhea or vomiting. Attacks of swelling may occur without reason. However, anxiety, stress, sickness, and surgery may trigger attacks in some people.1
ECAMSULE2
ECBALLIUM ELATERIUM FRUIT2
ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIAA genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.318
ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA ROOT2
ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA WHOLE86
ECHINACEA PALLIDAA genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.6
ECHINACEA PURPUREAA genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.63
ECHINACEA PURPUREA FLOWERING TOP3
ECHINACEA PURPUREA ROOT1
ECHINACEA PURPUREA WHOLE14
ECHINACEA, UNSPECIFIED254
ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUSA species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.4
ECLIPTA PROSTRATA WHOLE1
ECONAZOLE NITRATEAn imidazole derivative that is commonly used as a topical antifungal agent.Econazole is used to treat a variety of fungal skin infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm. This medication is also used to treat a skin condition known as pityriasis (tinea versicolor), a fungal infection that causes a lightening or darkening of the skin of the neck, chest, arms, or legs. Econazole is an azole antifungal that works by preventing the growth of fungus.9
ECULIZUMABThis medication is used to treat a certain blood disorder (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria). This disorder can cause a decrease in red blood cells (anemia). This medication helps to block the decrease in red blood cells and can improve the symptoms of anemia (e.g., tiredness, shortness of breath) and decrease the need for blood transfusions. This medication may also be used to treat a certain immune system disorder (atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome). It helps to prevent blood clots caused by this disorder. Eculizumab is also used to treat a certain muscle condition (generalized Myasthenia Gravis). It may help to improve symptoms of this condition (such as difficulty swallowing, trouble breathing). Eculizumab is also used to treat a certain nervous system disorder that affects the spinal cord and eye nerve (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder). It may help to reduce the number of hospital stays due to the disease.1
EDARAVONEAn antipyrine derivative that functions as a free radical scavenger and neuroprotective agent. It is used in the treatment of AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS and STROKE.Edaravone is used to treat a certain type of nerve disease called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also commonly called Lou Gehrig's disease). It helps to slow down the worsening of this disease. However, it is not a cure for ALS, and it does not reverse nerve damage or muscle weakness.1
EDETATE CALCIUM DISODIUM1
EDETATE CALCIUM DISODIUM ANHYDROUS1
EDETATE DISODIUM3
EDETIC ACIDA chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.3
EDIBLE OYSTER1
EDIBLE ROCK CRAB5
EDODEKIN ALFA1
EDOTREOTIDE GALLIUM GA-681
EDOXABAN TOSYLATEEdoxaban is used to prevent serious blood clots from forming due to a certain irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation). It is also used to treat certain blood clots (such as in deep vein thrombosis-DVT or pulmonary embolus-PE). Edoxaban is an anticoagulant that works by blocking certain clotting proteins in your blood.3
EFAVIRENZThis drug is used with other HIV medications to help control HIV infection. It helps to decrease the amount of HIV in your body so your immune system can work better. This lowers your chance of getting HIV complications (such as new infections, cancer) and improves your quality of life. Efavirenz belongs to a class of drugs known as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Efavirenz is not a cure for HIV infection. To decrease your risk of spreading HIV disease to others, do all of the following: (1) continue to take all HIV medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor, (2) always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condoms/dental dams) during all sexual activity, and (3) do not share personal items (such as needles/syringes, toothbrushes, and razors) that may have contacted blood or other body fluids. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.29
EFGARTIGIMOD ALFA1
EFINACONAZOLEThis medication is used to treat toenail infection caused by fungus. It works by stopping the growth of certain types of fungus. Efinaconazole belongs to a class of drugs known as azole antifungals. This medication treats only fungal infections. It will not work for other types of infection, such as those caused by bacteria. Unnecessary use or overuse of any drug used to treat infection can lead to its decreased effectiveness.1
EFLAPEGRASTIM1
EFLORNITHINE HYDROCHLORIDEAn inhibitor of ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.2
EGG12
EGG PHOSPHOLIPIDS10
EGG SHELLA hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.1
EGG SHELL, COOKED5
EGG WHITEThe white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)5
EGG YOLKCytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.5
EGGPLANT11
EHRENDORFERIA CHRYSANTHA WHOLE6
EHRLICHIA CANISSpecies of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.10
EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSISA species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.2
EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES WHOLE2
ELAEAGNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA POLLEN7
ELAEIS GUINEENSIS FRUIT1
ELAGOLIX SODIUMThis medication is used by women to help relieve moderate to severe pain due to a condition called endometriosis. Endometriosis is the growth of tissue that normally lines the inside of the womb (uterus) in a different place, such as on the outside surface of the uterus, on the ovaries, or on other organs. This condition may cause symptoms such as painful/heavy/irregular menstrual periods, pain during or after sex, or infertility. Elagolix works by decreasing your body's production of certain hormones (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone), which leads to lower amounts of female sex hormones (estrogens). These lower levels may help decrease some symptoms of endometriosis.2
ELAPEGADEMASE1
ELASOMERAN3
ELBASVIR1
ELETRIPTAN HYDROBROMIDEEletriptan is used to treat migraines. It helps to relieve headache, pain, and other migraine symptoms (including nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light/sound). Prompt treatment helps you return to your normal routine and may decrease your need for other pain medications. Eletriptan belongs to a class of drugs known as triptans. It affects a certain natural substance (serotonin) that causes narrowing of blood vessels in the brain. It may also relieve pain by affecting certain nerves in the brain. Eletriptan does not prevent future migraines or lessen how often you get migraine attacks.19
ELETRIPTAN HYDROBROMIDE MONOHYDRATE2
ELETTARIA ENSAL WHOLE1
ELEUTHERO3
ELEUTHEROCOCCUS NODIFLORUS ROOT BARK2
ELEUTHEROCOCCUS SENTICOSUS ROOT OIL1
ELEUTHEROCOCCUS SENTICOSUS STEM1
ELEUTHEROCOCCUS SENTICOSUS WHOLE3
ELIGLUSTAT1
ELIVALDOGENE AUTOTEMCEL1
ELM6
ELOSULFASE ALFA1
ELOTUZUMABThis medication is used to treat a certain type of cancer (multiple myeloma). Elotuzumab belongs to a class of dugs known as monoclonal antibodies. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.2
ELTROMBOPAG OLAMINEThis medication is used to treat low platelet levels in people who have a certain blood disorder called chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) or who have chronic hepatitis C. It may also be used to treat people with a certain blood disorder (aplastic anemia). Platelets are a type of blood cell needed to form blood clots and prevent bleeding. Eltrombopag decreases your risk of bleeding by increasing the number of platelets. Eltrombopag acts like a certain natural substance (thrombopoietin) that causes the body to produce platelets.6
ELUXADOLINEThis medication is used to treat a certain stomach/abdominal disorder (irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, or IBS-D). It works by slowing down the motion in your gut. This effect helps lessen symptoms such as belly pain and diarrhea.2
ELVITEGRAVIR2
ELYMUS REPENS POLLEN23
ELYMUS REPENS ROOT32
ELYMUS REPENS TOP1
ELYMUS REPENS WHOLE2
EMAPALUMAB3
EMICIZUMAB4
EMPAGLIFLOZINEmpagliflozin is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Empagliflozin is also used in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart disease to lower the risk of death from heart attack or stroke. Empagliflozin works by increasing the removal of sugar by your kidneys.23
EMTRICITABINEA deoxycytidine analog and REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITOR with antiviral activity against HIV-1 and HEPATITIS B viruses. It is used to treat HIV INFECTIONS.Emtricitabine is used with other HIV medications to help control HIV infection. It helps to decrease the amount of HIV in your body so your immune system can work better. This lowers your chance of getting HIV complications (such as new infections, cancer) and improves your quality of life. Emtricitabine belongs to a class of drugs known as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors-NRTI. Emtricitabine is not a cure for HIV infection. To decrease your risk of spreading HIV disease to others, do all of the following: (1) continue to take all HIV medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor, (2) always use an effective barrier method (latex or polyurethane condoms/dental dams) during all sexual activity, and (3) do not share personal items (such as needles/syringes, toothbrushes, and razors) that may have contacted blood or other body fluids. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.67
ENALAPRIL MALEATEEnalapril is used to treat high blood pressure. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. It is also used to treat heart failure and to help prevent people with a certain heart problem (left ventricular dysfunction) from developing heart failure. Enalapril belongs to a class of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. It works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily.104
ENALAPRILATThe active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and one of the potent, intravenously administered, ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.3
ENASIDENIB MESYLATEThis medication is used to treat a certain type of blood cell cancer (acute myeloid leukemia-AML). Enasidenib works by helping your bone marrow grow normal blood cells so you will need fewer blood transfusions.2
ENCORAFENIBEncorafenib is used to treat certain types of cancer (such as melanoma skin cancer, cancer in the colon or rectum). Encorafenib belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.1
ENFORTUMAB VEDOTIN2
ENGLISH SOLE1
ENGLISH WALNUTA plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.31
ENOXAPARIN SODIUMEnoxaparin is used to prevent and treat harmful blood clots. This helps to reduce the risk of a stroke or heart attack. This medication helps keep your blood flowing smoothly by lowering the activity of clotting proteins in the blood. Enoxaparin is an anticoagulant, also known as a "blood thinner." It is a type of heparin. Conditions which increase your risk of developing blood clots include certain types of surgeries (such as knee/hip replacement, abdominal), long periods of being immobile, certain types of heart attack, and a specific type of chest pain called unstable angina. For some medical conditions, enoxaparin may be used in combination with other "blood thinners."137
ENSULIZOLE85
ENTACAPONEThis medication is used with other medications (levodopa/carbidopa) to treat Parkinson's disease. Entacapone belongs to a class of drugs known as COMT inhibitors. Many people taking levodopa for Parkinson's have problems with the effects of the levodopa wearing off between scheduled doses, causing symptoms to return or worsen. Entacapone blocks a certain natural substance (COMT enzyme) that breaks down the levodopa in the body. This effect allows the levodopa to last longer in the system so that it doesn't wear off before the next dose.39
ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICAA species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.8
ENTECAVIRSee also Warning section. Entecavir is used to treat long-term hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. Long-term infection can cause liver damage, rarely liver cancer, and liver failure. Entecavir helps to decrease the amount of hepatitis B virus in your body. It is unknown if this medication lowers your chance of getting liver cancer or liver damage. Entecavir is an antiviral that belongs to a class of drugs known as hepatitis B virus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Entecavir is not a cure for hepatitis B. It does not prevent the spread of the virus to others through sexual contact or blood/body fluid contamination (such as sharing used needles).28
ENTECAVIR ANHYDROUS5
ENTEROBACTER AEROGENESGram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections1
ENTEROBACTER CLOACAEA species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.6
ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS9
ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALISA species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.17
ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUMA species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.6
ENTEROVIRUS 711
ENTRECTINIBThis medication is used to treat various types of cancer. Entrectinib belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.2
ENZALUTAMIDEEnzalutamide is used to treat prostate cancer. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as anti-androgens (anti-testosterone). It works by blocking the effects of testosterone to slow the growth and spread of prostate cancer.5
EPHEDRA DISTACHYA FLOWERING TWIG17
EPHEDRA NEVADENSIS WHOLE1
EPHEDRINE HYDROCHLORIDEA phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.8
EPHEDRINE SULFATEA phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.31
EPICHLOROHYDRINA chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.2
EPICOCCUM NIGRUM27
EPIDERMOPHYTON FLOCCOSUM9
EPIFAGUS VIRGINIANA3
EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATYL GLUCOSIDE1
EPIMEDIUM GRANDIFLORUM TOP2
EPIMEDIUM WUSHANENSE WHOLE1
EPINASTINE HYDROCHLORIDE2
EPINEPHRINEThe active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.This medication is used in emergencies to treat very serious allergic reactions to insect stings/bites, foods, drugs, or other substances. Epinephrine acts quickly to improve breathing, stimulate the heart, raise a dropping blood pressure, reverse hives, and reduce swelling of the face, lips, and throat.206
EPINEPHRINE BITARTRATEThe active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.82
EPINEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDEThe active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.17
EPIRUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDEAn anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.4
EPLERENONEA spironolactone derivative and selective ALDOSTERONE RECEPTOR antagonist that is used in the management of HYPERTENSION and CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, post-MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.This medication is used alone or in combination with other medicines to treat high blood pressure. It works by blocking a chemical (aldosterone) in your body which in turn lowers the amount of sodium and water the body retains. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks and kidney problems. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure following a heart attack.22
EPOETIN13
EPOPROSTENOLA prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).2
EPOPROSTENOL SODIUMA prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).This medication is used to treat high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary arterial hypertension). It helps to increase your ability to exercise and improve symptoms such as shortness of breath and tiredness. It works by relaxing and widening the blood vessels (arteries) in the lungs and other parts of the body so that blood can flow more easily. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as vasodilators.6
EPOXICONAZOLE1
EPTIFIBATIDECyclic peptide that acts as a platelet glycoprotein IIB-IIIA antagonist, reversibly inhibiting the binding of FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; and other adhesive molecules to the GPIIB-IIIA RECEPTORS of platelets. It is used in the management of UNSTABLE ANGINA and in patients undergoing coronary ANGIOPLASTY and stenting procedures.24
EPTINEZUMAB1
EQUINE BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN A IMMUNE FAB21
EQUINE BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN B IMMUNE FAB21
EQUINE BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN C IMMUNE FAB21
EQUINE BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN D IMMUNE FAB21
EQUINE BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN E IMMUNE FAB21
EQUINE BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN F IMMUNE FAB21
EQUINE BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN G IMMUNE FAB21
EQUINE THYMOCYTE IMMUNE GLOBULIN4
EQUISETUM ARVENSE BRANCH7
EQUISETUM ARVENSE TOP105
EQUISETUM HYEMALE73
EQUISETUM HYEMALE WHOLE16
EQUOL, (-)-3
EQUOL, (+/-)-9
EQUUS CABALLUS DANDER5
EQUUS CABALLUS HAIR4
EQUUS CABALLUS SKIN21
EQUUS CABALLUS WHOLE2
ERAVACYCLINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE2
ERBIUMErbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.29
ERBIUM SULFATE OCTAHYDRATE1
ERDAFITINIBThis medication is used to treat bladder cancer. Erdafitinib belongs to a class of drugs known as kinase inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells that have a certain type of abnormal gene ("FGFR").3
ERECHTITES HIERACIIFOLIUS WHOLE2
ERENUMAB4
ERGOCALCIFEROLDerivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Vitamin D (ergocalciferol-D2, cholecalciferol-D3, alfacalcidol) is a fat-soluble vitamin that helps your body absorb calcium and phosphorus. Having the right amount of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus is important for building and keeping strong bones. Vitamin D is used to treat and prevent bone disorders (such as rickets, osteomalacia). Vitamin D is made by the body when skin is exposed to sunlight. Sunscreen, protective clothing, limited exposure to sunlight, dark skin, and age may prevent getting enough vitamin D from the sun. Vitamin D with calcium is used to treat or prevent bone loss (osteoporosis). Vitamin D is also used with other medications to treat low levels of calcium or phosphate caused by certain disorders (such as hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, familial hypophosphatemia). It may be used in kidney disease to keep calcium levels normal and allow normal bone growth. Vitamin D drops (or other supplements) are given to breast-fed infants because breast milk usually has low levels of vitamin D.40
ERGOTAMINE TARTRATEThis medication is used to treat or prevent a certain type of headache (vascular headaches such as migraine headaches and cluster headaches). Ergotamine helps narrow widened blood vessels in the head, which reduces the throbbing effects of vascular headaches.5
ERIBULIN MESYLATEEribulin is used to treat certain types of cancer (breast, liposarcoma). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.2
ERICAMERIA NAUSEOSA WHOLE2
ERIGERON CANADENSIS9
ERIGERON CANADENSIS WHOLE4
ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA WHOLE2
ERIODICTYON CALIFORNICUM FLOWERING TOP9
ERIODICTYON CALIFORNICUM LEAF11
ERLOTINIBA quinazoline derivative and ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT that functions as a PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITOR for EGFR associated tyrosine kinase. It is used in the treatment of NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER.3
ERLOTINIB HYDROCHLORIDEA quinazoline derivative and ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT that functions as a PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITOR for EGFR associated tyrosine kinase. It is used in the treatment of NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER.33
ERODIUM CICUTARIUM2
ERSOFERMIN4
ERTAPENEM SODIUMA carbapenem derivative antibacterial agent that is more stable to renal dehydropeptidase I than IMIPENEM, but does not need to be given with an enzyme inhibitor such as CILASTATIN. It is used in the treatment of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections including intra-abdominal infections, acute gynecological infections, complicated urinary tract infections, skin infections, and respiratory tract infections. It is also used to prevent infection in colorectal surgery.Ertapenem is used to prevent and treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is known as a carbapenem-type antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.16
ERTUGLIFLOZIN PIDOLATEErtugliflozin is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Ertugliflozin works by increasing the removal of sugar by your kidneys.13
ERYNGIUM YUCCIFOLIUM ROOT1
ERYTHRANTHE CARDINALIS WHOLE1
ERYTHROMYCINA bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.This medication is used to treat certain eye infections (such as conjunctivitis). It is also used to prevent certain eye infections in newborns. It belongs to a class of drugs known as macrolide antibiotics. Erythromycin works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This medication treats only bacterial eye infections. It will not work for other types of eye infections. Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.66
ERYTHROMYCIN ETHYLSUCCINATEA macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. This compound is an ester of erythromycin base and succinic acid. It acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Erythromycin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent certain bacterial infections. Erythromycin is known as a macrolide antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats or prevents only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.18
ERYTHROMYCIN LACTOBIONATEThis medication is an antibiotic given by vein (IV) to treat certain bacterial infections when medications cannot be taken by mouth. This medication is known as a macrolide (erythromycin-type) antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.4
ERYTHROMYCIN STEARATEErythromycin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent certain bacterial infections. Erythromycin is known as a macrolide antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats or prevents only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.2
ERYTHROPOIETINGlycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.13
ESCARGOT SHELL, COOKED2
ESCHERICHIA COLIA species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.76
ESCHSCHOLZIA CALIFORNICAA plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids.6
ESCHSCHOLZIA CALIFORNICA FLOWER1
ESCHSCHOLZIA CALIFORNICA FLOWERING TOP2
ESCHSCHOLZIA CALIFORNICA WHOLE4
ESCITALOPRAM OXALATES-enantiomer of CITALOPRAM. Belongs to a class of drugs known as SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS, used to treat depression and generalized anxiety disorder.Escitalopram is used to treat depression and anxiety. It works by helping to restore the balance of a certain natural substance (serotonin) in the brain. Escitalopram belongs to a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). It may improve your energy level and feelings of well-being and decrease nervousness.113
ESKETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE1
ESLICARBAZEPINE ACETATEEslicarbazepine is used alone or with other medications to treat a certain type of seizure disorder (focal seizures). It belongs to a class of drugs known as anticonvulsants. Eslicarbazepine may reduce the number of seizures you have.4
ESMOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE34
ESOMEPRAZOLEThe S-isomer of omeprazole.30
ESOMEPRAZOLE MAGNESIUMThe S-isomer of omeprazole.Esomeprazole is used to treat certain stomach and esophagus problems (such as acid reflux, ulcers). It works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach makes. It relieves symptoms such as heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and persistent cough. This medication helps heal acid damage to the stomach and esophagus, helps prevent ulcers, and may help prevent cancer of the esophagus. Esomeprazole belongs to a class of drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). If you are self-treating with this medication, over-the-counter esomeprazole products are used to treat frequent heartburn (occurring 2 or more days a week). Since it may take 1 to 4 days to have full effect, these products do not relieve heartburn right away. For over-the-counter products, carefully read the package instructions to make sure the product is right for you. Check the ingredients on the label even if you have used the product before. The manufacturer may have changed the ingredients. Also, products with similar brand names may contain different ingredients meant for different purposes. Taking the wrong product could harm you.124
ESOMEPRAZOLE MAGNESIUM DIHYDRATE33
ESOMEPRAZOLE SODIUMThe S-isomer of omeprazole.7
ESOMEPRAZOLE STRONTIUMThe S-isomer of omeprazole.Esomeprazole is used to treat certain stomach and esophagus problems (such as acid reflux, ulcers). It works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach makes. It relieves symptoms such as heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and persistent cough. This medication helps heal acid damage to the stomach and esophagus, helps prevent ulcers, and may help prevent cancer of the esophagus. Esomeprazole belongs to a class of drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). If you are self-treating with this medication, over-the-counter esomeprazole products are used to treat frequent heartburn (occurring 2 or more days a week). Since it may take 1 to 4 days to have full effect, these products do not relieve heartburn right away. For over-the-counter products, carefully read the package instructions to make sure the product is right for you. Check the ingredients on the label even if you have used the product before. The manufacturer may have changed the ingredients. Also, products with similar brand names may contain different ingredients meant for different purposes. Taking the wrong product could harm you.6
ESTAZOLAMA benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant properties. It has been shown in some cases to be more potent than DIAZEPAM or NITRAZEPAM.This medication is used to treat a certain sleep problem (insomnia). It may help you fall asleep faster, stay asleep longer, and lessen how often you wake up during the night, so you can get a better night's rest. Estazolam belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It acts on your brain to produce a calming effect. Use of this medication is usually limited to short treatment periods of 1 to 2 weeks or less. If your insomnia continues for a longer time, talk to your doctor to see if you need other treatment.6
ESTRADIOLThe 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.This medication is a female hormone (estrogen). It is used by women to help reduce symptoms of menopause (such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness). These symptoms are caused by the body making less estrogen. If you are using this medication to treat symptoms only in and around the vagina, products applied directly inside the vagina should be considered before medications that are taken by mouth, absorbed through the skin, or injected. This medication may also be used by women who are not able to produce enough estrogen (for example, due to hypogonadism, primary ovarian failure). Certain estrogen products may also be used by women after menopause to prevent bone loss (osteoporosis). However, there are other medications (such as raloxifene, bisphosphonates including alendronate) that are also effective in preventing bone loss and may be safer. These medications should be considered for use before estrogen treatment.205
ESTRADIOL ACETATEThis medication is a female hormone (estrogen). It is used by women to help reduce symptoms of menopause (such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness). These symptoms are caused by the body making less estrogen. If you are using this medication to treat symptoms only in and around the vagina, other products applied directly inside the vagina (such as cream, vaginal tablet) should be considered before this product.2
ESTRADIOL BENZOATE1
ESTRADIOL CYPIONATEThis medication is a female hormone (estrogen). It is used by women to help reduce symptoms of menopause (such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness). These symptoms are caused by the body making less estrogen. If you are using this medication to treat symptoms only in and around the vagina, products applied directly inside the vagina should be considered before medications that are taken by mouth, absorbed through the skin, or injected. This medication may also be used by women who are not able to produce enough estrogen (for example, due to hypogonadism, primary ovarian failure).1
ESTRADIOL HEMIHYDRATEThe 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.4
ESTRADIOL VALERATEThe 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.This medication is a female hormone (estrogen). It is used by women to help reduce symptoms of menopause (such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness). These symptoms are caused by the body making less estrogen. If you are using this medication to treat symptoms only in and around the vagina, products applied directly inside the vagina should be considered before medications that are taken by mouth, absorbed through the skin, or injected. This medication may also be used by women who are not able to produce enough estrogen (for example, due to hypogonadism, primary ovarian failure) and by men to treat prostate cancer.8
ESTRAMUSTINE PHOSPHATE SODIUMA nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.This medication is used to treat some types of prostate cancer. In the body, estramustine breaks down into estrogens (estrone, estradiol) and a type of cancer drug (estromustine). This medication is thought to work by increasing estrogens, which interfere with prostate cancer, and by slowing/stopping the growth of cancer cells.1
ESTRIOLA hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.11
ESTROGENS, CONJUGATEDA pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.This medication is a female hormone. It is used by women to help reduce symptoms of menopause (such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness). These symptoms are caused by the body making less estrogen. If you are using this medication to treat symptoms only in and around the vagina, products applied directly inside the vagina should be considered before medications that are taken by mouth, absorbed through the skin, or injected. Certain estrogen products may also be used by women after menopause to prevent bone loss (osteoporosis). However, there are other medications (such as raloxifene, bisphosphonates including alendronate) that are also effective in preventing bone loss and may be safer. These medications should be considered for use before estrogen treatment. Certain estrogen products may also be used by men and women to treat cancers (certain types of prostate cancer, breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body) and by women who are not able to produce enough estrogen (for example, due to hypogonadism, primary ovarian failure).18
ESTROGENS, ESTERIFIED23
ESTRONEAn aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.77
ESZOPICLONEA pyridine, pyrazine, and piperazine derivative that is used as a HYPNOTIC AND SEDATIVE in the treatment of INSOMNIA.This medication is used to treat a certain sleep problem (insomnia). It may help you fall asleep faster, stay asleep longer, and lessen how often you wake up during the night, so you can get a better night's rest. Eszopiclone belongs to a class of drugs called sedative-hypnotics. It acts on your brain to produce a calming effect. Use of this medication is usually limited to short treatment periods of 1 to 2 weeks or less. If your insomnia continues for a longer time, talk to your doctor to see if you need other treatment.99
ETANERCEPTA recombinant version of soluble human TNF receptor fused to an IgG FC fragment that binds specifically to TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR and inhibits its binding with endogenous TNF receptors. It prevents the inflammatory effect of TNF and is used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS and ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS.This medication is used alone or in combination with an immunosuppressant (such as methotrexate) to treat certain types of arthritis (such as rheumatoid, psoriatic, juvenile idiopathic, and ankylosing spondylitis). Some brands of this medication are also used to treat a skin condition called psoriasis. These conditions are caused by an overactive immune system (autoimmune disease). The immune system attacks the body's own healthy cells, causing inflammation in the joints and skin. Etanercept controls your body's defensive response by blocking the action of a certain natural substance (TNF) that is used by the immune system. Treatment decreases redness, itching and scaly patches in psoriasis as well as the pain, swelling and stiffness of joints in arthritis. This medication can stop the progression of disease and joint damage, resulting in improved daily functioning and quality of life. This medication treats but does not cure autoimmune diseases. Symptoms usually return within 1 month of stopping the medication.10
ETELCALCETIDE HYDROCHLORIDEThis medication is used to treat increased amounts of a certain hormone (parathyroid) in people with long-term kidney disease who are on dialysis. Dialysis treatment usually causes higher than normal amounts of certain substances (such as parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus) in your body. This medication works by decreasing how much parathyroid hormone your body makes. This effect helps lower calcium and phosphorus levels in your blood. Having the right amounts of parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus in your body can help prevent bone problems.3
ETEPLIRSENEteplirsen is used to treat a certain inherited muscle disorder (Duchenne muscular dystrophy-DMD). This disorder is caused by a lack of a certain muscle protein (dystrophin). This medication can increase the amount of dystrophin in your body.2
ETESEVIMAB1
ETHACRYNATE SODIUMA compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.9
ETHACRYNIC ACIDA compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.Ethacrynic acid is a "water pill" (diuretic) that works in your kidneys to increase the amount of urine you make. This helps your body get rid of extra water. This medication is used to decrease swelling (edema) caused by conditions such as cancer, congestive heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. This effect can help your kidneys work better and lessen symptoms such as trouble breathing and swelling in your ankles, feet, hands, or belly. This medication should not be used for infants.9
ETHAMBUTOL HYDROCHLORIDEAn antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its l