The risk of hypoglycemia after an injection is related to the duration of action of the insulin and, in general, is highest when the glucose lowering effect of the insulin is maximal. As with all insulin preparations, the glucose lowering effect time course of HUMALOG may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and depends on many conditions, including the area of injection as well as the injection site blood supply and temperature [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Other factors which may increase the risk of hypoglycemia include changes in meal pattern (e.g., macronutrient content or timing of meals), changes in level of physical activity, or changes to co-administered medication [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Patients with renal or hepatic impairment may be at higher risk of hypoglycemia [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)].
Patients and caregivers must be educated to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an essential role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia. In patients at higher risk for hypoglycemia and patients who have reduced symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia, increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended.
- Hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
- Hypokalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Insulin initiation and intensification of glucose control
Intensification or rapid improvement in glucose control has been associated with a transitory, reversible ophthalmologic refraction disorder, worsening of diabetic retinopathy, and acute painful peripheral neuropathy. However, long-term glycemic control decreases the risk of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.
Long-term use of insulin, including HUMALOG, can cause lipodystrophy at the site of repeated insulin injections or infusion. Lipodystrophy includes lipohypertrophy (thickening of adipose tissue) and lipoatrophy (thinning of adipose tissue), and may affect insulin absorption. Rotate insulin injection or infusion sites within the same region to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Weight gain can occur with insulin therapy, including HUMALOG, and has been attributed to the anabolic effects of insulin and the decrease in glucosuria.
Insulin, including HUMALOG, may cause sodium retention and edema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.
Adverse Reactions with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) — HUMALOG U-100
In a 12-week, randomized, crossover study in adult patients with type 1 diabetes (n=39), the rates of catheter occlusions and infusion site reactions were similar for HUMALOG U-100 and regular human insulin treated patients (see
Table 3: Catheter Occlusions and Infusion Site Reactions
|Regular human insulin|
|Infusion site reactions
In a randomized, 16-week, open-label, parallel design study of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, adverse event reports related to infusion-site reactions were similar for insulin lispro and insulin aspart (21% of 100 patients versus 17% of 198 patients, respectively). In both groups, the most frequently reported infusion site adverse events were infusion site erythema and infusion site reaction.
Local Allergy — As with any insulin therapy, patients taking HUMALOG may experience redness, swelling, or itching at the site of the injection. These minor reactions usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks, but in some occasions, may require discontinuation of HUMALOG. In some instances, these reactions may be related to factors other than insulin, such as irritants in a skin cleansing agent or poor injection technique.
Systemic Allergy — Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, may occur with any insulin, including HUMALOG. Generalized allergy to insulin may cause whole body rash (including pruritus), dyspnea, wheezing, hypotension, tachycardia, or diaphoresis.
In controlled clinical trials, pruritus (with or without rash) was seen in 17 patients receiving regular human insulin (n=2969) and 30 patients receiving HUMALOG (n=2944).
Localized reactions and generalized myalgias have been reported with injected metacresol, which is an excipient in HUMALOG [see Contraindications (4)].
In large clinical trials with patients with type 1 (n=509) and type 2 (n=262) diabetes mellitus, anti-insulin antibody (insulin lispro-specific antibodies, insulin-specific antibodies, cross-reactive antibodies) formation was evaluated in patients receiving both regular human insulin and HUMALOG (including patients previously treated with human insulin and naive patients). As expected, the largest increase in the antibody levels occurred in patients new to insulin therapy. The antibody levels peaked by 12 months and declined over the remaining years of the study. These antibodies do not appear to cause deterioration in glycemic control or necessitate an increase in insulin dose. There was no statistically significant relationship between the change in the total daily insulin dose and the change in percent antibody binding for any of the antibody types.
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of HUMALOG. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Medication errors in which other insulins have been accidentally substituted for HUMALOG have been identified during post-approval use [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Localized cutaneous amyloidosis at the injection site has occurred. Hyperglycemia has been reported with repeated insulin injections into areas of localized cutaneous amyloidosis; hypoglycemia has been reported with a sudden change to an unaffected injection site.
The limited available data with HUMALOG in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. Published studies with insulin lispro used during pregnancy have not reported an association between insulin lispro and the induction of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data). There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).
Pregnant rats and rabbits were exposed to insulin lispro in animal reproduction studies during organogenesis. No adverse effects on embryo/fetal viability or morphology were observed in offspring of rats exposed to insulin lispro at a dose approximately 3 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit insulin lispro/kg/day. No adverse effects on embryo/fetal development were observed in offspring of rabbits exposed to insulin lispro at doses up to approximately 0.2 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1c >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with a HbA1c >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Published data from retrospective studies and meta-analyses do not report an association with insulin lispro and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when insulin lispro is used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish or exclude the absence of any risk because of methodological limitations including small sample size, selection bias, confounding by unmeasured factors, and some lacking comparator groups.
In a combined fertility and embryo-fetal development study, female rats were given subcutaneous insulin lispro injections of 1, 5, and 20 units/kg/day (0.2, 0.8, and 3 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit insulin lispro/kg/day, based on units/body surface area, respectively) from 2 weeks prior to cohabitation through Gestation Day 19. There were no adverse effects on female fertility, implantation, or fetal viability and morphology. However, fetal growth retardation was produced at the 20 units/kg/day-dose as indicated by decreased fetal weight and an increased incidence of fetal runts/litter.
In an embryo-fetal development study in pregnant rabbits, insulin lispro doses of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.75 unit/kg/day (0.03, 0.08, and 0.2 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit insulin lispro/kg/day, based on units/body surface area, respectively) were injected subcutaneously on Gestation days 7 through 19. There were no adverse effects on fetal viability, weight, and morphology at any dose.
There are no data on the presence of HUMALOG in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effect on milk production. One small published study reported that exogenous insulin was present in human milk. However, there is insufficient information to determine the effects of HUMALOG on the breastfed infant and no available information on the effects of HUMALOG on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for insulin, any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from HUMALOG or from the underlying maternal condition.
Intravenous Administration of HUMALOG U-100 — The glucose lowering effect of intravenously administered HUMALOG was tested in 21 patients with type 1 diabetes. For the study, the patients' usual doses of insulin were held and blood glucose concentrations were allowed to reach a stable range of 200 to 260 mg/dL during a one to three hours run-in phase. The run-in phase was followed by a 6-hour assessment phase. During the assessment phase, patients received intravenous HUMALOG at an initial infusion rate of 0.5 units/hour. The infusion rate of HUMALOG could be adjusted at regular timed intervals to achieve and maintain blood glucose concentrations between 100 to 160 mg/dL.
The mean blood glucose levels during the assessment phase for patients on HUMALOG therapy are summarized below in Table 4. All patients achieved the targeted glucose range at some point during the 6-hour assessment phase. At the endpoint, blood glucose was within the target range (100 to 160 mg/dL) for 17 of 20 patients treated with HUMALOG. The average time (±SE) required to attain near normoglycemia was 129 ± 14 minutes for HUMALOG.
Table 4: Mean Blood Glucose Concentrations (mg/dL) During Intravenous Infusions of HUMALOG U-100
|Time from Start of Infusion (minutes)
||Mean Blood Glucose (mg/dL) Intravenousa|
||224 ± 16
||205 ± 21
||195 ± 20
||165 ± 26
||140 ± 26
||123 ± 20
||120 ± 27
||122 ± 25
The pharmacodynamics of a single 20 unit dose of HUMALOG U-200 administered subcutaneously were compared to the pharmacodynamics of a single 20 unit dose of HUMALOG U-100 administered subcutaneously in a euglycemic clamp study enrolling healthy subjects. In this study, the overall, maximum, and time to maximum glucose lowering effect were similar between HUMALOG U-200 and HUMALOG U-100. The mean area under the glucose infusion rate curves (measure of overall pharmacodynamic effect) were 125 g and 126 g for HUMALOG U-200 and HUMALOG U-100, respectively. The maximum glucose infusion rate was 534 mg/min and 559 mg/min and the corresponding median time (min, max) to maximum effect were 2.8 h (0.5 h – 6.3 h) and 2.4 h (0.5 h – 4.7 h) for HUMALOG U-200 and HUMALOG U-100, respectively.
Absorption and Bioavailability — Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with diabetes demonstrated that HUMALOG is absorbed more quickly than regular human insulin. In healthy volunteers given subcutaneous doses of HUMALOG ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 unit/kg, peak serum levels were seen 30 to 90 minutes after dosing. When healthy volunteers received equivalent doses of regular human insulin, peak insulin levels occurred between 50 to 120 minutes after dosing. Similar results were seen in patients with type 1 diabetes (see
Figure 2: Serum HUMALOG and Insulin Levels After Subcutaneous Injection of Regular Human Insulin or HUMALOG (0.2 unit/kg) Immediately Before a High Carbohydrate Meal in 10 Patients with Type 1 Diabetesa.
a Baseline insulin concentration was maintained by infusion of 0.2 mU/min/kg human insulin.
HUMALOG U-100 was absorbed at a consistently faster rate than regular human insulin in healthy male volunteers given 0.2 unit/kg at abdominal, deltoid, or femoral subcutaneous sites. After HUMALOG was administered in the abdomen, serum drug levels were higher and the duration of action was slightly shorter than after deltoid or thigh administration. Bioavailability of HUMALOG is similar to that of regular human insulin. The absolute bioavailability after subcutaneous injection ranges from 55% to 77% with doses between 0.1 to 0.2 unit/kg, inclusive.
The results of a study in healthy subjects demonstrated that HUMALOG U-200 is bioequivalent to HUMALOG U-100 following administration of a single 20 unit dose.
The mean observed area under the serum insulin concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity was 2360 pmol hr/L and 2390 pmol hr/L for HUMALOG U-200 and HUMALOG U-100, respectively. The corresponding mean peak serum insulin concentration was 795 pmol/L and 909 pmol/L for HUMALOG U-200 and HUMALOG U-100, respectively. The median time to maximum concentration was 1.0 hour for both formulations.
Distribution — When administered intravenously as bolus injections of 0.1 and 0.2 U/kg dose in two separate groups of healthy subjects, the mean volume of distribution of HUMALOG appeared to decrease with increase in dose (1.55 and 0.72 L/kg, respectively) in contrast to that of regular human insulin for which, the volume of distribution was comparable across the two dose groups (1.37 and 1.12 L/kg for 0.1 and 0.2 U/kg dose, respectively).
Metabolism — Human metabolism studies have not been conducted. However, animal studies indicate that the metabolism of HUMALOG is identical to that of regular human insulin.
Elimination — After subcutaneous administration of HUMALOG, the t1/2 is shorter than that of regular human insulin (1 versus 1.5 hours, respectively). When administered intravenously, HUMALOG and regular human insulin demonstrated similar dose-dependent clearance, with a mean clearance of 21.0 mL/min/kg and 21.4 mL/min/kg, respectively (0.1 unit/kg dose), and 9.6 mL/min/kg and 9.4 mL/min/kg, respectively (0.2 unit/kg dose). Accordingly, HUMALOG demonstrated a mean t1/2 of 0.85 hours (51 minutes) and 0.92 hours (55 minutes), respectively for 0.1 unit/kg and 0.2 unit/kg doses, and regular human insulin mean t1/2 was 0.79 hours (47 minutes) and 1.28 hours (77 minutes), respectively for 0.1 unit/kg and 0.2 unit/kg doses.
The effects of age, gender, race, obesity, pregnancy, or smoking on the pharmacokinetics of HUMALOG have not been studied.
Renal Impairment — Type 2 diabetic patients with varying degree of renal impairment showed no difference in pharmacokinetics of regular insulin and HUMALOG. However, the sensitivity of the patients to insulin did change, with an increased response to insulin as the renal function declined. Some studies with human insulin have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with renal impairment. Careful glucose monitoring and dose adjustments of insulin, including HUMALOG, may be necessary in patients with renal dysfunction.
Hepatic Impairment — Type 2 diabetic patients with impaired hepatic function showed no effect on the pharmacokinetics of HUMALOG as compared to patients with no hepatic dysfunction. However, some studies with human insulin have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with liver failure. Careful glucose monitoring and dose adjustments of insulin, including HUMALOG, may be necessary in patients with hepatic dysfunction.
Use in an External Insulin Pump — Change the HUMALOG U-100 in the reservoir at least every 7 days, change the infusion sets and the infusion set insertion site at least every 3 days or after exposure to temperatures that exceed 98.6°F (37°C). A HUMALOG 3 mL cartridge used in the D-Tron pumps should be discarded after 7 days, even if it still contains HUMALOG. However, as with other external insulin pumps, the infusion set should be replaced and a new infusion set insertion site should be selected at least every 3 days.
Diluted HUMALOG U-100 for Subcutaneous Injection — Diluted HUMALOG may remain in patient use for 28 days when stored at 41°F (5°C) and for 14 days when stored at 86°F (30°C). Do not dilute HUMALOG contained in a cartridge or HUMALOG used in an external insulin pump.
Never Share a HUMALOG Prefilled Pen, Cartridge, Reusable Pen Compatible with Lilly 3 mL Cartridges, or Syringe Between Patients
Advise patients that they must never share a HUMALOG prefilled pen, cartridge, or reusable pen compatible with Lilly 3 mL cartridges with another person, even if the needle is changed. Advise patients using HUMALOG vials not to share needles or syringes with another person. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Hyperglycemia or Hypoglycemia
Instruct patients on self-management procedures including glucose monitoring, proper injection technique, and management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, especially at initiation of HUMALOG therapy. Instruct patients on handling of special situations such as intercurrent conditions (illness, stress, or emotional disturbances), an inadequate or skipped insulin dose, inadvertent administration of an increased insulin dose, inadequate food intake, and skipped meals. Instruct patients on the management of hypoglycemia.
Inform patients that their ability to concentrate and react may be impaired as a result of hypoglycemia. Advise patients who have frequent hypoglycemia or reduced or absent warning signs of hypoglycemia to use caution when driving or operating machinery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Advise patients that changes in insulin regimen can predispose to hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia and that changes in insulin regimen should be made under close medical supervision [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Advise patients that hypersensitivity reactions have occurred with HUMALOG. Inform patients on the symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Instruct patients to always check the insulin label before each injection to avoid mix-ups between insulin products.
Inform patients that HUMALOG U-200 contains 2 times as much insulin in 1 mL as HUMALOG U-100.
Inform patients that the HUMALOG U-200 KwikPen dose window shows the number of units of HUMALOG U-200 to be injected and that no dose conversion is required.
Instruct patients to NOT transfer HUMALOG U-200 from the HUMALOG KwikPen to a syringe. The markings on the syringe will not measure the dose correctly and this can result in overdosage and severe hypoglycemia.
Administration Instruction for HUMALOG U-200
Instruct patients to NOT mix HUMALOG U-200 with any other insulin.
Instructions For Patients Using Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Pumps
Patients using external pump infusion therapy should be trained appropriately.
The following insulin pumps have been tested in HUMALOG clinical trials conducted by Eli Lilly and Company.
- Disetronic® H-Tron® plus V100, D-Tron® and D-Tronplus® with Disetronic Rapid infusion sets2
- MiniMed® Models 506, 507 and 508 and Polyfin® infusion sets3
HUMALOG is recommended for use in pump systems suitable for insulin infusion such as MiniMed, Disetronic, and other equivalent pumps. Before using HUMALOG in a pump system, read the pump label to make sure the pump is indicated for continuous delivery of fast-acting insulin. HUMALOG is recommended for use in any reservoir and infusion sets that are compatible with insulin and the specific pump. Please see recommended reservoir and infusion sets in the pump manual. Do not use HUMALOG U-200 in an external insulin pump.
To avoid insulin degradation, infusion set occlusion, and loss of the preservative (metacresol), insulin in the reservoir should be replaced at least every 7 days; infusion sets and infusion set insertion sites should be changed at least every 3 days.
Insulin exposed to temperatures higher than 98.6°F (37°C) should be discarded. The temperature of the insulin may exceed ambient temperature when the pump housing, cover, tubing or sport case is exposed to sunlight or radiant heat. Infusion sites that are erythematous, pruritic, or thickened should be reported to the healthcare professional, and a new site selected because continued infusion may increase the skin reaction or alter the absorption of HUMALOG.
Pump or infusion set malfunctions or insulin degradation can lead to rapid hyperglycemia and ketosis. This is especially pertinent for rapid acting insulin analogs that are more rapidly absorbed through skin and have a shorter duration of action. Prompt identification and correction of the cause of hyperglycemia or ketosis is necessary. Problems include pump malfunction, infusion set occlusion, leakage, disconnection or kinking, and degraded insulin. Less commonly, hypoglycemia from pump malfunction may occur. If these problems cannot be promptly corrected, patients should resume therapy with subcutaneous insulin injection and contact their healthcare professionals [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16.2)].
1 3 mL cartridge is for use in Eli Lilly and Company's HumaPen® Luxura® HD insulin delivery device, and Disetronic
D-TRON® and D-TRON® Plus pumps.
Humalog®, Humalog KwikPen®, Humalog Tempo Pen™ ,Humalog® Junior KwikPen®, HumaPen®, HumaPen® Luxura® and HumaPen® Luxura® HD are trademarks of Eli Lilly and Company.
2 Disetronic®, H-Tron®, D-Tron®, and D-Tronplus® are registered trademarks of Roche Diagnostics GmbH.
3 MiniMed® and Polyfin® are registered trademarks of MiniMed, Inc.
Other product and company names may be the trademarks of their respective owners.
Literature revised November 2019
Marketed by: Lilly USA, LLC, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA
Copyright © 1996, 2019, Eli Lilly and Company. All rights reserved.