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Controlled Study in Postherpetic Neuralgia
Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation
In a clinical trial in patients with postherpetic neuralgia, 8.9% of patients treated with LYRICA CR discontinued prematurely during the single-blind phase due to adverse reactions. The most common reasons for discontinuation due to adverse reactions were dizziness (2.1%), somnolence (0.87%), and peripheral edema (0.50%).
Most Common Adverse Reactions
Table 4 lists all adverse reactions, regardless of causality, occurring in greater than or equal to 1% of patients with postherpetic neuralgia who received LYRICA CR, regardless of the phase of the study.
Table 4. Incidence of Adverse Reactions Reported in Greater Than or Equal to 1% of Subjects in Any Phase of the LYRICA CR Study in Patients With Postherpetic Neuralgia
Table is limited to adverse reactions that occurred with higher incidence in LYRICA CR-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients for the DB Phase of the study.
|System Organ Class|
|Single-Blind Phase||Double-Blind Phase|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders|
| Vertigo||31 (3.9)||2 (1.0)||1 (0.5)|
| Vision blurred||30 (3.7)||1 (0.5)||0|
| Diplopia||8 (1.0)||1 (0.5)||0|
| Dry mouth||30 (3.7)||1 (0.5)||0|
| Nausea||24 (3.0)||7 (3.4)||0|
| Constipation||22 (2.7)||0||0|
| Diarrhea||11 (1.4)||2 (1.0)||1 (0.5)|
| Vomiting||9 (1.1)||3 (1.4)||1 (0.5)|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
| Edema peripheral||39 (4.9)||8 (3.8)||1 (0.5)|
| Fatigue||31 (3.9)||3 (1.4)||2 (1.0)|
| Edema||3 (0.4)||3 (1.4)||0|
|Infections and infestations|
| Nasopharyngitis||12 (1.5)||3 (1.4)||0|
| Urinary tract infection||11 (1.4)||3 (1.4)||1 (0.5)|
| Bronchitis||4 (0.5)||3 (1.4)||2 (1.0)|
| Respiratory tract infection viral||3 (0.4)||3 (1.4)||1 (0.5)|
| Sinusitis||3 (0.4)||2 (1.0)||0|
| Gastroenteritis viral||2 (0.2)||2 (1.0)||0|
| Weight increased||20 (2.5)||8 (3.8)||2 (1.0)|
| Alanine aminotransferase increased||2 (0.2)||3 (1.4)||0|
| Aspartate aminotransferase increased||2 (0.2)||2 (1.0)||0|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
| Arthralgia||6 (0.7)||2 (1.0)||1 (0.5)|
| Joint swelling||0||4 (1.9)||0|
|Nervous system disorders|
| Dizziness||137 (17.1)||7 (3.4)||1 (0.5)|
| Somnolence||91 (11.4)||1 (0.5)||0|
| Headache||31 (3.9)||4 (1.9)||1 (0.5)|
| Balance disorder||21 (2.6)||1 (0.5)||0|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders|
| Erectile dysfunction ||2 (0.6)||1 (1.4)||0|
|Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders|
| Cough||2 (0.2)||2 (1.0)||1 (0.5)|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
| Dermatitis contact||0||2 (1.0)||0|
Other Adverse Reactions Observed During Clinical Studies with LYRICA and LYRICA CR
In addition to the adverse reactions reported during the controlled studies with LYRICA CR in postherpetic neuralgia, the following adverse reactions have been reported in patients treated with LYRICA and LYRICA CR during all clinical studies. This listing does not include those adverse reactions already listed above. The adverse reactions are categorized by system organ class and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those occurring on 1 or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients. Adverse reactions of major clinical importance are described in the Warnings and Precautions section (5).
Cardiac Disorders – Infrequent: Palpitations, Deep thrombophlebitis, Heart failure, Hypotension, Postural hypotension, Retinal vascular disorder, Syncope; Rare: Cardiac failure, Tachycardia
Eye Disorders – Infrequent: Periorbital edema
Gastrointestinal Disorders – Frequent: Increased appetite; Infrequent: Abdominal distension, Abdominal pain, Dysphagia, Pancreatitis, Tongue edema
General Disorders – Frequent: Fever; Infrequent: Chest pain, Face edema; Rare: Facial pain, Mucosal dryness
Hemic and Lymphatic System Disorders – Frequent: Ecchymosis; Infrequent: Anemia, Eosinophilia, Hypochromic anemia, Leukocytosis, Leukopenia, Lymphadenopathy, Thrombocytopenia; Rare: Myelofibrosis, Polycythemia, Prothrombin decreased, Purpura, Thrombocythemia
Infections and Infestations – Infrequent: Otitis media, Pneumonia
Investigations – Rare: Glucose urine present, Lipase increased, Neutrophil count increased, Proteinuria
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders – Rare: Glucose Tolerance Decreased, Urate Crystalluria
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders – Frequent: Leg cramps, Myalgia, Myasthenia; Infrequent: Joint stiffness; Rare: Coccydynia, Myokymia
Nervous System Disorders – Frequent: Anxiety, Depersonalization, Hypertonia, Hypoesthesia, Libido decreased, Nystagmus, Paresthesia, Sedation, Stupor, Twitching; Infrequent: Coordination abnormal, Abnormal dreams, Agitation, Amnesia, Apathy, Aphasia, Circumoral paresthesia, Cognitive disorder, Dysarthria, Dysgeusia, Hallucinations, Hostility, Hyperalgesia, Hyperesthesia, Hyperkinesia, Hypokinesia, Hypotonia, Libido increased, Myoclonus, Neuralgia, Sciatica, Sleep phase rhythm disturbance; Rare: Addiction, Altered state of consciousness, Bradykinesia, Cerebellar syndrome, Cogwheel rigidity, Coma, Delirium, Delusions, Depressed level of consciousness, Dysautonomia, Dyskinesia, Dystonia, Encephalopathy, Extrapyramidal syndrome, Psychomotor hyperactivity, Psychomotor skills impaired
Psychiatric Disorders – Infrequent: Irritability
Respiratory System Disorders – Rare: Lung edema
Skin Disorders – Frequent: Pruritus; Rare: Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Special Senses – Frequent: Conjunctivitis, Tinnitus
Urogenital System Disorders – Frequent: Anorgasmia, Impotence, Urinary frequency, Urinary incontinence; Infrequent: Abnormal ejaculation, Albuminuria, Dysuria, Hematuria, Kidney calculus, Leukorrhea, Nephritis, Oliguria, Urinary retention
Although no pharmacokinetic interactions were seen, with LYRICA and ethanol, lorazepam, or oxycodone, additive effects on cognitive and gross motor functioning were seen when LYRICA was co-administered with these drugs. No clinically important effects on respiration were seen in studies of LYRICA.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to pregabalin during pregnancy. To provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to LYRICA CR, physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking LYRICA CR enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with LYRICA CR in pregnant women.
However, in animal reproduction studies, increased incidences of fetal structural abnormalities and other manifestations of developmental toxicity, including skeletal malformations, retarded ossification, and decreased fetal body weight were observed in the offspring of rats and rabbits given pregabalin orally during organogenesis, at doses that produced plasma pregabalin exposures (AUC) greater than or equal to 18 times human exposure at the maximum recommended dose (MRD) of 660 mg/day [see Data]. In an animal development study, lethality, growth retardation, and nervous and reproductive system functional impairment were observed in the offspring of rats given pregabalin during gestation and lactation. The no-effect dose for developmental toxicity was approximately twice the human exposure at MRD. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. However, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2–4% and of miscarriage is 15–20% of clinically recognized pregnancies. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
When pregnant rats were given pregabalin (500, 1250, or 2500 mg/kg) orally throughout the period of organogenesis, incidences of specific skull alterations attributed to abnormally advanced ossification (premature fusion of the jugal and nasal sutures) were increased at greater than or equal to 1250 mg/kg, and incidences of skeletal variations and retarded ossification were increased at all doses. Fetal body weights were decreased at the highest dose. The low dose in this study was associated with a plasma exposure (AUC) approximately 18 times human exposure at the MRD of 660 mg/day. A no-effect dose for rat embryo-fetal developmental toxicity was not established.
When pregnant rabbits were given pregabalin (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg) orally throughout the period of organogenesis, decreased fetal body weight and increased incidences of skeletal malformations, visceral variations, and retarded ossification were observed at the highest dose. The no-effect dose for developmental toxicity in rabbits (500 mg/kg) was associated with a plasma exposure approximately 17 times human exposure at the MRD.
In a study in which female rats were dosed with pregabalin (50, 100, 250, 1250, or 2500 mg/kg) throughout gestation and lactation, offspring growth was reduced at greater than or equal to 100 mg/kg and offspring survival was decreased at greater than or equal to 250 mg/kg. The effect on offspring survival was pronounced at doses greater than or equal to 1250 mg/kg, with 100% mortality in high-dose litters. When offspring were tested as adults, neurobehavioral abnormalities (decreased auditory startle responding) were observed at greater than or equal to 250 mg/kg and reproductive impairment (decreased fertility and litter size) was seen at 1250 mg/kg. The no-effect dose for pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity in rats (50 mg/kg) produced a plasma exposure approximately 2 times human exposure at the MRD.
In the prenatal-postnatal study in rats, pregabalin prolonged gestation and induced dystocia at exposures greater than or equal to 50 times the mean human exposure (AUC (0–24) of 123 µg∙hr/mL) at the MRD.
Small amounts of pregabalin have been detected in the milk of lactating women. A pharmacokinetic study in lactating women detected pregabalin in breast milk at average steady state concentrations approximately 76% of those in maternal plasma. The estimated average daily infant dose of pregabalin from breast milk (assuming mean milk consumption of 150 mL/kg/day) was 0.31 mg/kg/day, which on a mg/kg basis would be approximately 7% of the maternal dose [see Data]. The study did not evaluate the effects of pregabalin on milk production or the effects of pregabalin on the breastfed infant.
Based on animal studies, there is a potential risk of tumorigenicity with pregabalin exposure via breast milk to the breastfed infant [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. Available clinical study data in patients greater than 12 years of age do not provide a clear conclusion about the potential risk of tumorigenicity with pregabalin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. Because of the potential risk of tumorigenicity, breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with LYRICA CR.
A pharmacokinetic study in ten lactating women, who were at least 12 weeks postpartum, evaluated the concentrations of pregabalin in plasma and breast milk. LYRICA 150 mg oral capsule was given every 12 hours (300 mg daily dose) for a total of 4 doses. Pregabalin was detected in breast milk at average steady-state concentrations approximately 76% of those in maternal plasma. The estimated average daily infant dose of pregabalin from breast milk (assuming mean milk consumption of 150 mL/kg/day) was 0.31 mg/kg/day, which on a mg/kg basis would be approximately 7% of the maternal dose. The study did not evaluate the effects of pregabalin on milk production. Infants did not receive breast milk obtained during the dosing period, therefore, the effects of pregabalin on the breastfed infant were not evaluated.
Effects on Spermatogenesis
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled non-inferiority study to assess the effect of pregabalin on sperm characteristics, healthy male subjects received pregabalin at a daily dose up to 600 mg (n=111) or placebo (n=109) for 13 weeks (1 complete sperm cycle) followed by a 13-week washout period (off-drug). A total of 65 subjects in the pregabalin group (59%) and 62 subjects in the placebo group (57%) were included in the per protocol (PP) population. These subjects took study drug for at least 8 weeks, had appropriate timing of semen collections and did not have any significant protocol violations. Among these subjects, approximately 9% of the pregabalin group (6/65) vs. 3% in the placebo group (2/62) had greater than or equal to 50% reduction in mean sperm concentrations from baseline at Week 26 (the primary endpoint). The difference between pregabalin and placebo was within the pre-specified non-inferiority margin of 20%. There were no adverse effects of pregabalin on sperm morphology, sperm motility, serum FSH or serum testosterone levels as compared to placebo. In subjects in the PP population with greater than or equal to 50% reduction in sperm concentration from baseline, sperm concentrations were no longer reduced by greater than or equal to 50% in any affected subject after an additional 3 months off-drug. In 1 subject, however, subsequent semen analyses demonstrated reductions from baseline of greater than or equal to 50% at 9 and 12 months off-drug. The clinical relevance of these data is unknown.
In the animal fertility study with pregabalin in male rats, adverse reproductive and developmental effects were observed [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
In studies in which pregabalin (50 to 500 mg/kg) was orally administered to young rats from early in the postnatal period (Postnatal Day 7) through sexual maturity, neurobehavioral abnormalities (deficits in learning and memory, altered locomotor activity, decreased auditory startle responding and habituation) and reproductive impairment (delayed sexual maturation and decreased fertility in males and females) were observed at doses greater than or equal to 50 mg/kg. The neurobehavioral changes of acoustic startle persisted at greater than or equal to 250 mg/kg and locomotor activity and water maze performance at greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg in animals tested after cessation of dosing and, thus, were considered to represent long-term effects. The low effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity and reproductive impairment in juvenile rats (50 mg/kg) was associated with a plasma pregabalin exposure (AUC) approximately equal to human exposure at the maximum recommended dose of 660 mg/day. A no-effect dose was not established.
Signs, Symptoms and Laboratory Findings of Acute Overdosage in Humans
There is limited experience with overdose of pregabalin. The highest reported accidental overdose of LYRICA during the clinical development program was 8000 mg, and there were no notable clinical consequences.
Treatment or Management of Overdose
There is no specific antidote for overdose with pregabalin. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug may be attempted by emesis or gastric lavage; observe usual precautions to maintain the airway. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. Contact a Certified Poison Control Center for up-to-date information on the management of overdose with pregabalin.
Although hemodialysis has not been performed in the few known cases of overdose, it may be indicated by the patient's clinical state or in patients with significant renal impairment. Standard hemodialysis procedures result in significant clearance of pregabalin (approximately 50% in 4 hours).
Pregabalin is absorbed from the small intestine and proximal colon. LYRICA CR absorption is linear and dose proportional.
The bioavailability of LYRICA CR is reduced if taken on an empty stomach. The AUC is approximately 30% lower when LYRICA CR is administered fasted relative to following an evening meal.
When LYRICA CR is administered following a 600 to 750 calorie (50% carbohydrates, 20% protein, 30% fat) evening meal, peak plasma concentrations occur within approximately 8 to 10 hours and AUC is approximately 93% to 97% relative to a comparative dose of LYRICA. The rate and extent of LYRICA CR absorption is similar when administered following a 400 to 500 calorie, 30% fat or an 800 to 1000 calorie, 15%, 30%, or 50% fat evening meal.
When LYRICA CR is administered following an 800 to 1000 calorie (50% carbohydrates, 20% protein, 30% fat) morning meal, peak plasma concentrations occur within approximately 12 hours and AUC is 99% relative to a comparative dose of LYRICA. AUC decreases approximately 13% to 25% when LYRICA CR is administered following a 400 to 500 calorie or 600 to 750 calorie (50% carbohydrates, 20% protein, 30% fat) morning meal relative to the 800 to 1000 calorie meal, while Cmax remains the same.
Pregabalin does not bind to plasma proteins. The apparent volume of distribution of pregabalin following oral administration is approximately 0.5 L/kg. Pregabalin is a substrate for system L transporter which is responsible for the transport of large amino acids across the blood brain barrier. Although there are no data in humans, pregabalin has been shown to cross the blood brain barrier in mice, rats, and monkeys. In addition, pregabalin has been shown to cross the placenta in rats and is present in the milk of lactating rats.
Pregabalin undergoes negligible metabolism in humans. Following a dose of radiolabeled pregabalin, approximately 90% of the administered dose was recovered in the urine as unchanged pregabalin. The N-methylated derivative of pregabalin, the major metabolite of pregabalin found in urine, accounted for 0.9% of the dose. In preclinical studies, pregabalin (S-enantiomer) did not undergo racemization to the R-enantiomer in mice, rats, rabbits, or monkeys.
Pregabalin is eliminated from the systemic circulation primarily by renal excretion as unchanged drug with a mean elimination half-life of 6.3 hours in subjects with normal renal function. Mean renal clearance was estimated to be 67.0 to 80.9 mL/min in young healthy subjects. Because pregabalin is not bound to plasma proteins this clearance rate indicates that renal tubular reabsorption is involved. Pregabalin elimination is nearly proportional to CLcr [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
Age: Geriatric Patients
Pregabalin oral clearance tended to decrease with increasing age. This decrease in pregabalin oral clearance is consistent with age-related decreases in CLcr. Reduction of pregabalin dose may be required in patients who have age-related compromised renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
Population pharmacokinetic analyses of the clinical studies showed that the relationship between daily dose and LYRICA CR drug exposure is similar between genders.
In population pharmacokinetic analyses of the clinical studies of LYRICA and LYRICA CR, the pharmacokinetics of pregabalin were not significantly affected by race (Caucasians, Blacks, and Hispanics).
Pregabalin clearance is nearly proportional to CLcr. Dosage reduction in patients with reduced renal function is necessary. Pregabalin is effectively removed from plasma by hemodialysis. Following a 4-hour hemodialysis treatment, plasma pregabalin concentrations are reduced by approximately 50%. For patients on hemodialysis, treatment with LYRICA CR is not recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
Drug Interaction Studies
In Vitro Studies
In vitro studies showed that pregabalin is unlikely to be involved in significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Pregabalin, at concentrations that were, in general, 10-times those attained in clinical trials, does not inhibit human CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 enzyme systems. In vitro drug interaction studies demonstrate that pregabalin does not induce CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 activity. Therefore, an increase in the metabolism of co-administered CYP1A2 substrates (e.g., theophylline, caffeine) or CYP3A4 substrates (e.g., midazolam, testosterone) is not anticipated.
In Vivo Studies
With the exception of erythromycin, the interactions of LYRICA CR with co-administration of other drugs have not been systematically evaluated.
Additional studies have been performed with LYRICA [see Drug Interactions (7)]. No pharmacokinetic interactions were observed between LYRICA and carbamazepine, ethanol, gabapentin, lamotrigine, lorazepam, oral contraceptive, oxycodone, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, and valproic acid. A similar lack of pharmacokinetic interactions would be expected to occur with LYRICA CR.
The drug interaction studies described in this section were conducted in healthy adults, and across various patient populations.
Multiple-dose administration of erythromycin (500 mg every 6 hours for 18 hours) in healthy subjects resulted in a 17% decrease in AUC of LYRICA CR (330 mg single dose).
Multiple-dose administration of pregabalin (300 mg twice a day) in healthy subjects had no effect on the rate and extent of ethanol single-dose pharmacokinetics and single-dose administration of ethanol (0.7 g/kg) had no effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of pregabalin. Additive effects on cognitive and gross motor functioning were seen when LYRICA was co-administered with ethanol. No clinically important effects on respiration were seen [see Drug Interactions (7)].
The pharmacokinetic interactions of pregabalin and gabapentin were investigated in 12 healthy subjects following concomitant single-dose administration of 100-mg pregabalin and 300-mg gabapentin and in 18 healthy subjects following concomitant multiple-dose administration of 200-mg pregabalin every 8 hours and 400-mg gabapentin every 8 hours. Gabapentin pharmacokinetics following single- and multiple-dose administration were unaltered by pregabalin co-administration. The extent of pregabalin absorption was unaffected by gabapentin co-administration, although there was a small reduction in rate of absorption.
Multiple-dose administration of pregabalin (300 mg twice a day) in healthy subjects had no effect on the rate and extent of lorazepam single-dose pharmacokinetics and single-dose administration of lorazepam (1 mg) had no effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of pregabalin. Additive effects on cognitive and gross motor functioning were seen when LYRICA was co-administered with lorazepam. No clinically important effects on respiration were seen [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Pregabalin co-administration (200 mg 3 times a day) had no effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol (1 mg/35 µg, respectively) in healthy subjects.
Multiple-dose administration of pregabalin (300 mg twice a day) in healthy subjects had no effect on the rate and extent of oxycodone single-dose pharmacokinetics. Single-dose administration of oxycodone (10 mg) had no effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of pregabalin. Additive effects on cognitive and gross motor functioning were seen when LYRICA was co-administered with oxycodone. No clinically important effects on respiration were seen [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Topiramate and Valproic Acid
Steady-state trough plasma concentrations of phenytoin, carbamazepine, and carbamazepine 10,11 epoxide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine were not affected by concomitant pregabalin (200 mg 3 times a day) administration.
Population pharmacokinetic analyses in patients treated with pregabalin and various concomitant medications suggest the following:
|Therapeutic class||Specific concomitant drug studied|
|Concomitant drug has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of pregabalin|
|Hypoglycemics||Glyburide, insulin, metformin|
|Concomitant drug has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of pregabalin and pregabalin has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of concomitant drug|
|Antiepileptic Drugs||Carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, valproic acid|
A dose-dependent increase in the incidence of malignant vascular tumors (hemangiosarcomas) was observed in 2 strains of mice (B6C3F1 and CD-1) given pregabalin (200, 1000, or 5000 mg/kg) in the diet for 2 years. Plasma pregabalin exposure (AUC) in mice receiving the lowest dose that increased hemangiosarcomas was approximately equal to the human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRD) of 660 mg/day. A no-effect dose for induction of hemangiosarcomas in mice was not established. No evidence of carcinogenicity was seen in 2 studies in Wistar rats following dietary administration of pregabalin for 2 years at doses (50, 150, or 450 mg/kg in males and 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg in females) that were associated with plasma exposures in males and females up to approximately 15 and 26 times, respectively, human exposure at the MRD.
Pregabalin was not mutagenic in bacteria or in mammalian cells in vitro, was not clastogenic in mammalian systems in vitro and in vivo, and did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in mouse or rat hepatocytes.
Impairment of Fertility
In fertility studies in which male rats were orally administered pregabalin (50 to 2500 mg/kg) prior to and during mating with untreated females, a number of adverse reproductive and developmental effects were observed. These included decreased sperm counts and sperm motility, increased sperm abnormalities, reduced fertility, increased preimplantation embryo loss, decreased litter size, decreased fetal body weights, and an increased incidence of fetal abnormalities. Effects on sperm and fertility parameters were reversible in studies of this duration (3–4 months). The no-effect dose for male reproductive toxicity in these studies (100 mg/kg) was associated with a plasma pregabalin exposure (AUC) approximately 4 times human exposure at the MRD of 660 mg/day.
In addition, adverse reactions on reproductive organ (testes, epididymides) histopathology were observed in male rats exposed to pregabalin (500 to 1250 mg/kg) in general toxicology studies of 4 weeks or greater duration. The no-effect dose for male reproductive organ histopathology in rats (250 mg/kg) was associated with a plasma exposure approximately 10 times human exposure at the MRD.
In a fertility study in which female rats were given pregabalin (500, 1250, or 2500 mg/kg) orally prior to and during mating and early gestation, disrupted estrous cyclicity and an increased number of days to mating were seen at all doses, and embryolethality occurred at the highest dose. The low dose in this study produced a plasma exposure approximately 10 times that in humans receiving the MRD. A no-effect dose for female reproductive toxicity in rats was not established.
Skin lesions ranging from erythema to necrosis were seen in repeated-dose toxicology studies in both rats and monkeys. The etiology of these skin lesions is unknown. At the MRD of 660 mg/day, there is a 2-fold safety margin for the dermatological lesions. The more severe dermatopathies involving necrosis were associated with pregabalin exposures (as expressed by plasma AUCs) of approximately 3 to 8 times those achieved in humans given the MRD. No increase in incidence of skin lesions was observed in clinical studies.
Ocular lesions (characterized by retinal atrophy [including loss of photoreceptor cells] and/or corneal inflammation/mineralization) were observed in 2 lifetime carcinogenicity studies in Wistar rats. These findings were observed at plasma pregabalin exposures (AUC) greater than or equal to 2 times those achieved in humans given the maximum recommended dose of 660 mg/day. A no-effect dose for ocular lesions was not established. Similar lesions were not observed in lifetime carcinogenicity studies in 2 strains of mice or in monkeys treated for 1 year.
Advise patients that LYRICA CR may cause angioedema, with swelling of the face, mouth (lip, gum, tongue) and neck (larynx and pharynx) that can lead to life-threatening respiratory compromise. Instruct patients to discontinue LYRICA CR and immediately seek medical care if they experience these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Advise patients that LYRICA CR has been associated with hypersensitivity reactions such as skin redness, blisters, hives, rash, dyspnea, and wheezing. Instruct patients to discontinue LYRICA CR and immediately seek medical care if they experience these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Suicidal Thinking and Behavior
Counsel patients, their caregivers, and families that AEDs, including pregabalin, the active ingredient in LYRICA CR, may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Instruct patients, caregivers, and families to report behaviors of concern immediately to a healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Dizziness and Somnolence
Inform patients that LYRICA CR may cause dizziness, somnolence, blurred vision, and other CNS signs and symptoms. Accordingly, advise patients not to drive, operate complex machinery, or engage in other hazardous activities until they have gained sufficient experience on LYRICA CR to gauge whether or not it affects their mental, visual, and/or motor performance adversely [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Weight Gain and Edema
Inform patients that LYRICA CR may cause edema and weight gain. Advise patients that concomitant treatment with LYRICA CR and a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent may lead to an additive effect on edema and weight gain. Advise patients with preexisting cardiac conditions that this may increase the risk of heart failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4 and 5.6)].
Abrupt or Rapid Discontinuation
Advise patients to take LYRICA CR as prescribed. Abrupt or rapid discontinuation may result in insomnia, nausea, headache, anxiety, or diarrhea. Advise patients with seizure disorders that abrupt or rapid discontinuation may increase seizure frequency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Counsel patients that LYRICA CR may cause visual disturbances. Inform patients that if changes in vision occur, they should notify their physician [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Creatine Kinase Elevations
Instruct patients to promptly report unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
Inform patients who require concomitant treatment with central nervous system depressants such as opiates or benzodiazepines that they may experience additive CNS side effects, such as somnolence and dizziness [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Advise patients to avoid consuming alcohol while taking LYRICA CR, as LYRICA CR may potentiate the impairment of motor skills and sedating effects of alcohol [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Use in Pregnancy
Advise pregnant patients to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Instruct patients that if they miss taking their dose of LYRICA CR after an evening meal, then they should take their usual dose of LYRICA CR prior to bedtime following a snack. If they miss taking the dose of LYRICA CR prior to bedtime, then they should take their usual dose of LYRICA CR following a morning meal. If they miss taking the dose of LYRICA CR following the morning meal, then they should take their usual dose of LYRICA CR at the usual time that evening following an evening meal.
Advise nursing mothers that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with LYRICA CR [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Inform men being treated with LYRICA CR who plan to father a child of the potential risk of male-mediated teratogenicity [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
Instruct diabetic patients to pay particular attention to skin integrity while being treated with LYRICA CR [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
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