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Warning: Toxic Deaths, Hepatotoxicity, Neutropenia, Hypersensitivity Reactions, And Fluid Retention
The incidence of treatment-related mortality associated with TAXOTERE therapy is increased in patients with abnormal liver function, in patients receiving higher doses, and in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma and a history of prior treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy who receive TAXOTERE as a single agent at a dose of 100 mg/m2[see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].TAXOTERE should not be given to patients with bilirubin > upper limit of normal (ULN), or to patients with AST and/or ALT >1.5 × ULN concomitant with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 × ULN. Patients with elevations of bilirubin or abnormalities of transaminase concurrent with alkaline phosphatase are at increased risk for the development of grade 4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, infections, severe thrombocytopenia, severe stomatitis, severe skin toxicity, and toxic death. Patients with isolated elevations of transaminase >1.5 × ULN also had a higher rate of febrile neutropenia grade 4 but did not have an increased incidence of toxic death. Bilirubin, AST or ALT, and alkaline phosphatase values should be obtained prior to each cycle of TAXOTERE therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].TAXOTERE therapy should not be given to patients with neutrophil counts of <1500 cells/mm3. In order to monitor the occurrence of neutropenia, which may be severe and result in infection, frequent blood cell counts should be performed on all patients receiving TAXOTERE [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Severe hypersensitivity reactions characterized by generalized rash/erythema, hypotension and/or bronchospasm, or very rarely fatal anaphylaxis, have been reported in patients who received a 3-day dexamethasone premedication. Hypersensitivity reactions require immediate discontinuation of the TAXOTERE infusion and administration of appropriate therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. TAXOTERE must not be given to patients who have a history of severe hypersensitivity reactions to TAXOTERE or to other drugs formulated with polysorbate 80 [see Contraindications (4)].Severe fluid retention occurred in 6.5% (6/92) of patients despite use of a 3-day dexamethasone premedication regimen. It was characterized by one or more of the following events: poorly tolerated peripheral edema, generalized edema, pleural effusion requiring urgent drainage, dyspnea at rest, cardiac tamponade, or pronounced abdominal distention (due to ascites) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
1.1 Breast Cancer
TAXOTERE is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior chemotherapy.TAXOTERE in combination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of patients with operable node-positive breast cancer.
1.2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
TAXOTERE as a single agent is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after failure of prior platinum-based chemotherapy.TAXOTERE in combination with cisplatin is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who have not previously received chemotherapy for this condition.
1.3 Prostate Cancer
TAXOTERE in combination with prednisone is indicated for the treatment of patients with androgen independent (hormone refractory) metastatic prostate cancer.
1.4 Gastric Adenocarcinoma
TAXOTERE in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma, including adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, who have not received prior chemotherapy for advanced disease.
1.5 Head And Neck Cancer
TAXOTERE in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil is indicated for the induction treatment of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
2. Dosage And Administration
For all indications, toxicities may warrant dosage adjustments [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)]. Administer in a facility equipped to manage possible complications (e.g. anaphylaxis).
2.1 Breast Cancer
- For locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior chemotherapy, the recommended dose of TAXOTERE is 60 mg/m2 to 100 mg/m2 administered intravenously over 1 hour every 3 weeks. For the adjuvant treatment of operable node-positive breast cancer, the recommended TAXOTERE dose is 75 mg/m2 administered 1 hour after doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for 6 courses. Prophylactic G-CSF may be used to mitigate the risk of hematological toxicities [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].
2.2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
- For treatment after failure of prior platinum-based chemotherapy, TAXOTERE was evaluated as monotherapy, and the recommended dose is 75 mg/m2 administered intravenously over 1 hour every 3 weeks. A dose of 100 mg/m2 in patients previously treated with chemotherapy was associated with increased hematologic toxicity, infection, and treatment-related mortality in randomized, controlled trials [see Boxed Warning, Dosage and Administration (2.7), Warnings and Precautions (5), Clinical Studies (14)]. For chemotherapy-naïve patients, TAXOTERE was evaluated in combination with cisplatin. The recommended dose of TAXOTERE is 75 mg/m2 administered intravenously over 1 hour immediately followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 over 30–60 minutes every 3 weeks [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].
2.3 Prostate Cancer
- For hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer, the recommended dose of TAXOTERE is 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks as a 1 hour intravenous infusion. Prednisone 5 mg orally twice daily is administered continuously [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].
2.4 Gastric Adenocarcinoma
- For gastric adenocarcinoma, the recommended dose of TAXOTERE is 75 mg/m2 as a 1 hour intravenous infusion, followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2, as a 1 to 3 hour intravenous infusion (both on day 1 only), followed by fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 per day given as a 24-hour continuous intravenous infusion for 5 days, starting at the end of the cisplatin infusion. Treatment is repeated every three weeks. Patients must receive premedication with antiemetics and appropriate hydration for cisplatin administration [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].
2.5 Head And Neck Cancer
- Patients must receive premedication with antiemetics, and appropriate hydration (prior to and after cisplatin administration). Prophylaxis for neutropenic infections should be administered. All patients treated on the TAXOTERE containing arms of the TAX323 and TAX324 studies received prophylactic antibiotics.Induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (TAX323)For the induction treatment of locally advanced inoperable SCCHN, the recommended dose of TAXOTERE is 75 mg/m2 as a 1 hour intravenous infusion followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously over 1 hour, on day one, followed by fluorouracil as a continuous intravenous infusion at 750 mg/m2 per day for five days. This regimen is administered every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. Following chemotherapy, patients should receive radiotherapy. [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].Induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy (TAX324)For the induction treatment of patients with locally advanced (unresectable, low surgical cure, or organ preservation) SCCHN, the recommended dose of TAXOTERE is 75 mg/m2 as a 1 hour intravenous infusion on day 1, followed by cisplatin 100 mg/m2 administered as a 30-minute to 3 hour infusion, followed by fluorouracil 1000 mg/m2/day as a continuous infusion from day 1 to day 4. This regimen is administered every 3 weeks for 3 cycles. Following chemotherapy, patients should receive chemoradiotherapy [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].
2.6 Premedication Regimen
All patients should be premedicated with oral corticosteroids (see below for prostate cancer) such as dexamethasone 16 mg per day (e.g., 8 mg twice daily) for 3 days starting 1 day prior to TAXOTERE administration in order to reduce the incidence and severity of fluid retention as well as the severity of hypersensitivity reactions [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].For hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer, given the concurrent use of prednisone, the recommended premedication regimen is oral dexamethasone 8 mg, at 12 hours, 3 hours and 1 hour before the TAXOTERE infusion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
2.8 Administration Precautions
TAXOTERE is a cytotoxic anticancer drug and, as with other potentially toxic compounds, caution should be exercised when handling and preparing TAXOTERE solutions. The use of gloves is recommended. Please refer to [see How Supplied/ Storage and Handling (16.3)].If TAXOTERE Injection Concentrate, initial diluted solution, or final dilution for infusion should come into contact with the skin, immediately and thoroughly wash with soap and water. If TAXOTERE Injection Concentrate, initial diluted solution, or final dilution for infusion should come into contact with mucosa, immediately and thoroughly wash with water.Contact of the TAXOTERE concentrate with plasticized PVC equipment or devices used to prepare solutions for infusion is not recommended. In order to minimize patient exposure to the plasticizer DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), which may be leached from PVC infusion bags or sets, the final TAXOTERE dilution for infusion should be stored in bottles (glass, polypropylene) or plastic bags (polypropylene, polyolefin) and administered through polyethylene-lined administration sets.
One-vial TAXOTERE (Injection Concentrate) TAXOTERE Injection Concentrate requires NO prior dilution with a diluent and is ready to add to the infusion solution.Please follow the preparation instructions provided below.
One-vial TAXOTERE (Injection Concentrate)TAXOTERE (docetaxel) Injection Concentrate is a sterile, non-pyrogenic, pale yellow to brownish-yellow solution at 20 mg/mL concentration. Each mL contains 20 mg docetaxel (anhydrous) in 0.54 grams polysorbate 80 and 0.395 grams dehydrated alcohol solution. TAXOTERE is available in single use vials containing 20 mg (1 mL) or 80 mg (4 mL) docetaxel (anhydrous).TAXOTERE Injection Concentrate requires NO prior dilution with a diluent and is ready to add to the infusion solution.
Absorption: The pharmacokinetics of docetaxel have been evaluated in cancer patients after administration of 20 mg/m2 to 115 mg/m2 in phase 1 studies. The area under the curve (AUC) was dose proportional following doses of 70 mg/m2 to 115 mg/m2 with infusion times of 1 to 2 hours. Docetaxel's pharmacokinetic profile is consistent with a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model, with half-lives for the α, β, and γ phases of 4 min, 36 min, and 11.1 hr, respectively. Mean total body clearance was 21 L/h/m2.
Distribution: The initial rapid decline represents distribution to the peripheral compartments and the late (terminal) phase is due, in part, to a relatively slow efflux of docetaxel from the peripheral compartment. Mean steady state volume of distribution was 113 L. In vitro studies showed that docetaxel is about 94% protein bound, mainly to α1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and lipoproteins. In three cancer patients, the in vitro binding to plasma proteins was found to be approximately 97%. Dexamethasone does not affect the protein binding of docetaxel.
Metabolism: In vitro drug interaction studies revealed that docetaxel is metabolized by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme, and its metabolism may be modified by the concomitant administration of compounds that induce, inhibit, or are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Elimination: A study of 14C-docetaxel was conducted in three cancer patients. Docetaxel was eliminated in both the urine and feces following oxidative metabolism of the tert-butyl ester group, but fecal excretion was the main elimination route. Within 7 days, urinary and fecal excretion accounted for approximately 6% and 75% of the administered radioactivity, respectively. About 80% of the radioactivity recovered in feces is excreted during the first 48 hours as 1 major and 3 minor metabolites with very small amounts (less than 8%) of unchanged drug.
Effect of Age: A population pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out after TAXOTERE treatment of 535 patients dosed at 100 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated by this analysis were very close to those estimated from phase 1 studies. The pharmacokinetics of docetaxel were not influenced by age.
Effect of Gender: The population pharmacokinetics analysis described above also indicated that gender did not influence the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel.
Hepatic Impairment: The population pharmacokinetic analysis described above indicated that in patients with clinical chemistry data suggestive of mild to moderate liver impairment (AST and/or ALT >1.5 times ULN concomitant with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 times ULN), total body clearance was lowered by an average of 27%, resulting in a 38% increase in systemic exposure (AUC). This average, however, includes a substantial range and there is, at present, no measurement that would allow recommendation for dose adjustment in such patients. Patients with combined abnormalities of transaminase and alkaline phosphatase should not be treated with TAXOTERE. Patients with severe hepatic impairment have not been studied. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]
Effect of Ketoconazole: The effect of ketoconazole (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel was investigated in 7 cancer patients. Patients were randomized to receive either docetaxel (100 mg/m2 intravenous) alone or docetaxel (10 mg/m2 intravenous) in combination with ketoconazole (200 mg orally once daily for 3 days) in a crossover design with a 3-week washout period. The results of this study indicated that the mean dose-normalized AUC of docetaxel was increased 2.2-fold and its clearance was reduced by 49% when docetaxel was co-administration with ketoconazole [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Drug-Drug Interactions (7)].
- Effect of Combination Therapies:Dexamethasone: Docetaxel total body clearance was not modified by pretreatment with dexamethasone.Cisplatin: Clearance of docetaxel in combination therapy with cisplatin was similar to that previously observed following monotherapy with docetaxel. The pharmacokinetic profile of cisplatin in combination therapy with docetaxel was similar to that observed with cisplatin alone.Cisplatin and Fluorouracil: The combined administration of docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil in 12 patients with solid tumors had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of each individual drug.Prednisone: A population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma data from 40 patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer indicated that docetaxel systemic clearance in combination with prednisone is similar to that observed following administration of docetaxel alone.Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubicin: A study was conducted in 30 patients with advanced breast cancer to determine the potential for drug-drug-interactions between docetaxel (75 mg/m2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m2), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2) when administered in combination. The coadministration of docetaxel had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide when the three drugs were given in combination compared to coadministration of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide only. In addition, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide had no effect on docetaxel plasma clearance when the three drugs were given in combination compared to historical data for docetaxel monotherapy.
A multicenter, open-label, randomized trial (TAX316) evaluated the efficacy and safety of TAXOTERE for the adjuvant treatment of patients with axillary-node-positive breast cancer and no evidence of distant metastatic disease. After stratification according to the number of positive lymph nodes (1–3, 4+), 1491 patients were randomized to receive either TAXOTERE 75 mg/m2 administered 1-hour after doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 (TAC arm), or doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 followed by fluorouracil 500 mg/m2 and cyclosphosphamide 500 mg/m2 (FAC arm). Both regimens were administered every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. TAXOTERE was administered as a 1-hour infusion; all other drugs were given as intravenous bolus on day 1. In both arms, after the last cycle of chemotherapy, patients with positive estrogen and/or progesterone receptors received tamoxifen 20 mg daily for up to 5 years. Adjuvant radiation therapy was prescribed according to guidelines in place at participating institutions and was given to 69% of patients who received TAC and 72% of patients who received FAC.Results from a second interim analysis (median follow-up 55 months) are as follows: In study TAX316, the docetaxel-containing combination regimen TAC showed significantly longer disease-free survival (DFS) than FAC (hazard ratio=0.74; 2-sided 95% CI=0.60, 0.92, stratified log rank p=0.0047). The primary endpoint, disease-free survival, included local and distant recurrences, contralateral breast cancer and deaths from any cause. The overall reduction in risk of relapse was 25.7% for TAC-treated patients. (See Figure 1). At the time of this interim analysis, based on 219 deaths, overall survival was longer for TAC than FAC (hazard ratio=0.69, 2-sided 95% CI=0.53, 0.90). (See Figure 2). There will be further analysis at the time survival data mature.Figure 1 - TAX316 Disease Free Survival K-M curveFigure 2 - TAX316 Overall Survival K-M CurveThe following table describes the results of subgroup analyses for DFS and OS (See Table 14).Table 14 - Subset Analyses-Adjuvant Breast Cancer StudyDisease Free SurvivalOverall SurvivalPatient subsetNumber of patientsHazard ratioa hazard ratio of less than 1 indicates that TAC is associated with a longer disease free survival or overall survival compared to FAC.95% CIHazard ratio95% CINo. of positive nodesOverall7440.74(0.60, 0.92)0.69(0.53, 0.90)1–34670.64(0.47, 0.87)0.45(0.29, 0.70)4+2770.84(0.63, 1.12)0.93(0.66, 1.32)Receptor statusPositive5660.76(0.59, 0.98)0.69(0.48, 0.99)Negative1780.68(0.48, 0.97)0.66(0.44, 0.98)
2.9 Preparation And Administration
DO NOT use the two-vial formulation (Injection Concentrate and diluent) with the one-vial formulation.
TAXOTERE final dilution for infusion, if stored between 2°C and 25°C (36°F and 77°F) is stable for 6 hours. TAXOTERE final dilution for infusion (in either 0.9% Sodium Chloride solution or 5% Dextrose solution) should be used within 6 hours (including the 1 hour intravenous administration).In addition, physical and chemical in-use stability of the infusion solution prepared as recommended has been demonstrated in non-PVC bags up to 48 hours when stored between 2°C and 8°C (36 and 46°F).
- TAXOTERE is contraindicated in patients who have a history of severe hypersensitivity reactions to docetaxel or to other drugs formulated with polysorbate 80. Severe reactions, including anaphylaxis, have occurred [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].TAXOTERE should not be used in patients with neutrophil counts of <1500 cells/mm3.
5.2 Hepatic Impairment
Patients with combined abnormalities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase should not be treated with TAXOTERE [see Boxed Warning, Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical studies (14)].
5.3 Hematologic Effects
Perform frequent peripheral blood cell counts on all patients receiving TAXOTERE. Patients should not be retreated with subsequent cycles of TAXOTERE until neutrophils recover to a level >1500 cells/mm3 and platelets recover to a level > 100,000 cells/mm3.A 25% reduction in the dose of TAXOTERE is recommended during subsequent cycles following severe neutropenia (<500 cells/mm3) lasting 7 days or more, febrile neutropenia, or a grade 4 infection in a TAXOTERE cycle [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].Neutropenia (<2000 neutrophils/mm3) occurs in virtually all patients given 60 mg/m2 to 100 mg/m2 of TAXOTERE and grade 4 neutropenia (<500 cells/mm3) occurs in 85% of patients given 100 mg/m2 and 75% of patients given 60 mg/m2. Frequent monitoring of blood counts is, therefore, essential so that dose can be adjusted. TAXOTERE should not be administered to patients with neutrophils <1500 cells/mm3.Febrile neutropenia occurred in about 12% of patients given 100 mg/m2 but was very uncommon in patients given 60 mg/m2. Hematologic responses, febrile reactions and infections, and rates of septic death for different regimens are dose related [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Studies (14)].Three breast cancer patients with severe liver impairment (bilirubin >1.7 times ULN) developed fatal gastrointestinal bleeding associated with severe drug-induced thrombocytopenia. In gastric cancer patients treated with docetaxel in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil (TCF), febrile neutropenia and/or neutropenic infection occurred in 12% of patients receiving G-CSF compared to 28% who did not. Patients receiving TCF should be closely monitored during the first and subsequent cycles for febrile neutropenia and neutropenic infection [see Dosage and Administration (2.7), Adverse Reactions (6)].
5.4 Hypersensitivity Reactions
Patients should be observed closely for hypersensitivity reactions, especially during the first and second infusions. Severe hypersensitivity reactions characterized by generalized rash/erythema, hypotension and/or bronchospasm, or very rarely fatal anaphylaxis, have been reported in patients premedicated with 3 days of corticosteroids. Severe hypersensitivity reactions require immediate discontinuation of the TAXOTERE infusion and aggressive therapy. Patients with a history of severe hypersensitivity reactions should not be rechallenged with TAXOTERE.Hypersensitivity reactions may occur within a few minutes following initiation of a TAXOTERE infusion. If minor reactions such as flushing or localized skin reactions occur, interruption of therapy is not required. All patients should be premedicated with an oral corticosteroid prior to the initiation of the infusion of TAXOTERE [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].
5.5 Fluid Retention
Severe fluid retention has been reported following TAXOTERE therapy. Patients should be premedicated with oral corticosteroids prior to each TAXOTERE administration to reduce the incidence and severity of fluid retention [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)]. Patients with pre-existing effusions should be closely monitored from the first dose for the possible exacerbation of the effusions.When fluid retention occurs, peripheral edema usually starts in the lower extremities and may become generalized with a median weight gain of 2 kg.Among 92 breast cancer patients premedicated with 3-day corticosteroids, moderate fluid retention occurred in 27.2% and severe fluid retention in 6.5%. The median cumulative dose to onset of moderate or severe fluid retention was 819 mg/m2. Nine of 92 patients (9.8%) of patients discontinued treatment due to fluid retention: 4 patients discontinued with severe fluid retention; the remaining 5 had mild or moderate fluid retention. The median cumulative dose to treatment discontinuation due to fluid retention was 1021 mg/m2. Fluid retention was completely, but sometimes slowly, reversible with a median of 16 weeks from the last infusion of TAXOTERE to resolution (range: 0 to 42+ weeks). Patients developing peripheral edema may be treated with standard measures, e.g., salt restriction, oral diuretic(s).
5.6 Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplasia has occurred in patients given anthracyclines and/or cyclophosphamide, including use in adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. In the adjuvant breast cancer trial (TAX316) AML occurred in 3 of 744 patients who received TAXOTERE, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) and in 1 of 736 patients who received fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. In TAC-treated patients, the risk of delayed myelodysplasia or myeloid leukemia requires hematological follow-up.
5.7 Cutaneous Reactions
Localized erythema of the extremities with edema followed by desquamation has been observed. In case of severe skin toxicity, an adjustment in dosage is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)]. The discontinuation rate due to skin toxicity was 1.6% (15/965) for metastatic breast cancer patients. Among 92 breast cancer patients premedicated with 3-day corticosteroids, there were no cases of severe skin toxicity reported and no patient discontinued TAXOTERE due to skin toxicity.
5.8 Neurologic Reactions
Severe neurosensory symptoms (e.g. paresthesia, dysesthesia, pain) were observed in 5.5% (53/965) of metastatic breast cancer patients, and resulted in treatment discontinuation in 6.1%. When these symptoms occur, dosage must be adjusted. If symptoms persist, treatment should be discontinued [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)]. Patients who experienced neurotoxicity in clinical trials and for whom follow-up information on the complete resolution of the event was available had spontaneous reversal of symptoms with a median of 9 weeks from onset (range: 0 to 106 weeks). Severe peripheral motor neuropathy mainly manifested as distal extremity weakness occurred in 4.4% (42/965).
5.9 Eye Disorders
Cystoid macular edema (CME) has been reported in patients treated with TAXOTERE. Patients with impaired vision should undergo a prompt and comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. If CME is diagnosed, TAXOTERE treatment should be discontinued and appropriate treatment initiated. Alternative non-taxane cancer treatment should be considered.
Severe asthenia has been reported in 14.9% (144/965) of metastatic breast cancer patients but has led to treatment discontinuation in only 1.8%. Symptoms of fatigue and weakness may last a few days up to several weeks and may be associated with deterioration of performance status in patients with progressive disease.
5.11 Alcohol Content
Cases of intoxication have been reported with some formulations of docetaxel due to the alcohol content. The alcohol content in a dose of TAXOTERE Injection may affect the central nervous system and should be taken into account for patients in whom alcohol intake should be avoided or minimized. Consideration should be given to the alcohol content in TAXOTERE Injection on the ability to drive or use machines immediately after the infusion. Each administration of TAXOTERE Injection at 100 mg/m2 delivers 2.0 g/m2 of ethanol. For a patient with a BSA of 2.0 m2, this would deliver 4.0 grams of ethanol [see Description (11)]. Other docetaxel products may have a different amount of alcohol.
5.12 Use In Pregnancy
TAXOTERE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Docetaxel caused embryofetal toxicities including intrauterine mortality when administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis. Embryofetal effects in animals occurred at doses as low as 1/50 and 1/300 the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis.There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women using TAXOTERE. If TAXOTERE is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant during therapy with TAXOTERE [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
6. Adverse Reactions
- The most serious adverse reactions from TAXOTERE are: Toxic Deaths [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Hepatotoxicity [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Neutropenia [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Hypersensitivity [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Fluid Retention [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]Acute Myeloid Leukemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]Cutaneous Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]Neurologic Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]Eye Disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]Asthenia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]Alcohol Intoxication [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]The most common adverse reactions across all TAXOTERE indications are infections, neutropenia, anemia, febrile neutropenia, hypersensitivity, thrombocytopenia, neuropathy, dysgeusia, dyspnea, constipation, anorexia, nail disorders, fluid retention, asthenia, pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, mucositis, alopecia, skin reactions, and myalgia. Incidence varies depending on the indication.Adverse reactions are described according to indication. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.Responding patients may not experience an improvement in performance status on therapy and may experience worsening. The relationship between changes in performance status, response to therapy, and treatment-related side effects has not been established.
6.2 Post-Marketing Experiences
The following adverse reactions have been identified from clinical trials and/or post-marketing surveillance. Because they are reported from a population of unknown size, precise estimates of frequency cannot be made.Body as a whole: diffuse pain, chest pain, radiation recall phenomenon.Cardiovascular: atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, ECG abnormalities, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism, syncope, tachycardia, myocardial infarction.Cutaneous: very rare cases of cutaneous lupus erythematosus and rare cases of bullous eruptions such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and Scleroderma-like changes usually preceded by peripheral lymphedema. In some cases multiple factors may have contributed to the development of these effects. Severe hand and foot syndrome has been reported. Cases of permanent alopecia have been reported.Gastrointestinal: abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, duodenal ulcer, esophagitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal perforation, ischemic colitis, colitis, intestinal obstruction, ileus, neutropenic enterocolitis and dehydration as a consequence to gastrointestinal events have been reported. Hematologic: bleeding episodes. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), often in association with sepsis or multiorgan failure, has been reported. Cases of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasic syndrome have been reported in association with TAXOTERE when used in combination with other chemotherapy agents and/or radiotherapy.Hypersensitivity: rare cases of anaphylactic shock have been reported. Very rarely these cases resulted in a fatal outcome in patients who received premedication.Hepatic: rare cases of hepatitis, sometimes fatal primarily in patients with pre-existing liver disorders, have been reported.Neurologic: confusion, rare cases of seizures or transient loss of consciousness have been observed, sometimes appearing during the infusion of the drug.Ophthalmologic: conjunctivitis, lacrimation or lacrimation with or without conjunctivitis. Excessive tearing which may be attributable to lacrimal duct obstruction has been reported. Rare cases of transient visual disturbances (flashes, flashing lights, scotomata) typically occurring during drug infusion and in association with hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These were reversible upon discontinuation of the infusion. Cases of cystoid macular edema (CME) have been reported in patients treated with TAXOTERE.Hearing: rare cases of ototoxicity, hearing disorders and/or hearing loss have been reported, including cases associated with other ototoxic drugs.Respiratory: dyspnea, acute pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome/pneumonitis, interstitial lung disease, interstitial pneumonia, respiratory failure, and pulmonary fibrosis have rarely been reported and may be associated with fatal outcome. Rare cases of radiation pneumonitis have been reported in patients receiving concomitant radiotherapy.Renal: renal insufficiency and renal failure have been reported, the majority of these cases were associated with concomitant nephrotoxic drugs.Metabolism and nutrition disorders: cases of hyponatremia have been reported.
7. Drug Interactions
Docetaxel is a CYP3A4 substrate. In vitro studies have shown that the metabolism of docetaxel may be modified by the concomitant administration of compounds that induce, inhibit, or are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4.In vivo studies showed that the exposure of docetaxel increased 2.2-fold when it was coadministered with ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Protease inhibitors, particularly ritonavir, may increase the exposure of docetaxel. Concomitant use of TAXOTERE and drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 may increase exposure to docetaxel and should be avoided. In patients receiving treatment with TAXOTERE, close monitoring for toxicity and a TAXOTERE dose reduction could be considered if systemic administration of a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether docetaxel is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from TAXOTERE, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The alcohol content of TAXOTERE Injection should be taken into account when given to pediatric patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].The efficacy of TAXOTERE in pediatric patients as monotherapy or in combination has not been established. The overall safety profile of TAXOTERE in pediatric patients receiving monotherapy or TCF was consistent with the known safety profile in adults. TAXOTERE has been studied in a total of 289 pediatric patients: 239 in 2 trials with monotherapy and 50 in combination treatment with cisplatin and 5-fluoruracil (TCF).
8.5 Geriatric Use
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy in elderly patients.
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
Patients with bilirubin >ULN should not receive TAXOTERE. Also, patients with AST and/or ALT >1.5 × ULN concomitant with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 × ULN should not receive TAXOTERE [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].The alcohol content of TAXOTERE Injection should be taken into account when given to patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].
There is no known antidote for TAXOTERE overdosage. In case of overdosage, the patient should be kept in a specialized unit where vital functions can be closely monitored. Anticipated complications of overdosage include: bone marrow suppression, peripheral neurotoxicity, and mucositis. Patients should receive therapeutic G-CSF as soon as possible after discovery of overdose. Other appropriate symptomatic measures should be taken, as needed.In two reports of overdose, one patient received 150 mg/m2 and the other received 200 mg/m2 as 1-hour infusions. Both patients experienced severe neutropenia, mild asthenia, cutaneous reactions, and mild paresthesia, and recovered without incident.In mice, lethality was observed following single intravenous doses that were ≥154 mg/kg (about 4.5 times the human dose of 100 mg/m2 on a mg/m2 basis); neurotoxicity associated with paralysis, non-extension of hind limbs, and myelin degeneration was observed in mice at 48 mg/kg (about 1.5 times the human dose of 100 mg/m2 basis). In male and female rats, lethality was observed at a dose of 20 mg/kg (comparable to the human dose of 100 mg/m2 on a mg/m2 basis) and was associated with abnormal mitosis and necrosis of multiple organs.
Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent belonging to the taxoid family. It is prepared by semisynthesis beginning with a precursor extracted from the renewable needle biomass of yew plants. The chemical name for docetaxel is (2R,3S)-N-carboxy-3-phenylisoserine,N-tert-butyl ester, 13-ester with 5β-20-epoxy-1,2α,4,7β,10β,13α-hexahydroxytax-11-en-9-one 4-acetate 2-benzoate, trihydrate. Docetaxel has the following structural formula:Docetaxel is a white to almost-white powder with an empirical formula of C43H53NO14• 3H2O, and a molecular weight of 861.9. It is highly lipophilic and practically insoluble in water.
12.1 Mechanism Of Action
Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent that acts by disrupting the microtubular network in cells that is essential for mitotic and interphase cellular functions. Docetaxel binds to free tubulin and promotes the assembly of tubulin into stable microtubules while simultaneously inhibiting their disassembly. This leads to the production of microtubule bundles without normal function and to the stabilization of microtubules, which results in the inhibition of mitosis in cells. Docetaxel's binding to microtubules does not alter the number of protofilaments in the bound microtubules, a feature which differs from most spindle poisons currently in clinical use.
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies with docetaxel have not been performed.Docetaxel was clastogenic in the in vitro chromosome aberration test in CHO-K1 cells and in the in vivo micronucleus test in mice administered doses of 0.39 to 1.56 mg/kg (about 1/60th to 1/15th the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis). Docetaxel was not mutagenic in the Ames test or the CHO/HGPRT gene mutation assays.Docetaxel did not reduce fertility in rats when administered in multiple intravenous doses of up to 0.3 mg/kg (about 1/50th the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis), but decreased testicular weights were reported. This correlates with findings of a 10-cycle toxicity study (dosing once every 21 days for 6 months) in rats and dogs in which testicular atrophy or degeneration was observed at intravenous doses of 5 mg/kg in rats and 0.375 mg/kg in dogs (about 1/3rd and 1/15th the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively). An increased frequency of dosing in rats produced similar effects at lower dose levels.
14.1 Locally Advanced Or Metastatic Breast Cancer
The efficacy and safety of TAXOTERE have been evaluated in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after failure of previous chemotherapy (alkylating agent-containing regimens or anthracycline-containing regimens).
14.3 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Nsclc)
The efficacy and safety of TAXOTERE has been evaluated in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer whose disease has failed prior platinum-based chemotherapy or in patients who are chemotherapy-naïve.
14.4 Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer
- The safety and efficacy of TAXOTERE in combination with prednisone in patients with androgen independent (hormone refractory) metastatic prostate cancer were evaluated in a randomized multicenter active control trial. A total of 1006 patients with Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥60 were randomized to the following treatment groups:TAXOTERE 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for 10 cycles.TAXOTERE 30 mg/m2 administered weekly for the first 5 weeks in a 6-week cycle for 5 cycles.Mitoxantrone 12 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for 10 cycles.All 3 regimens were administered in combination with prednisone 5 mg twice daily, continuously.In the TAXOTERE every three week arm, a statistically significant overall survival advantage was demonstrated compared to mitoxantrone. In the TAXOTERE weekly arm, no overall survival advantage was demonstrated compared to the mitoxantrone control arm. Efficacy results for the TAXOTERE every 3 week arm versus the control arm are summarized in Table 18 and Figure 5.Table 18 - Efficacy of TAXOTERE in the Treatment of Patients with Androgen Independent (Hormone Refractory) Metastatic Prostate Cancer (Intent-to-Treat Analysis)TAXOTERE+ Prednisone every 3 weeksMitoxantrone+ Prednisone every 3 weeksNumber of patients335337Median survival (months)18.916.595% CI(17.0–21.2)(14.4–18.6)Hazard ratio0.761--95% CI(0.619–0.936)--p-valueStratified log rank test. Threshold for statistical significance = 0.0175 because of 3 arms.0.0094--Figure 5 - TAX327 Survival K-M Curves
14.5 Gastric Adenocarcinoma
A multicenter, open-label, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TAXOTERE for the treatment of patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma, including adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, who had not received prior chemotherapy for advanced disease. A total of 445 patients with KPS >70 were treated with either TAXOTERE (T) (75 mg/m2 on day 1) in combination with cisplatin (C) (75 mg/m2 on day 1) and fluorouracil (F) (750 mg/m2 per day for 5 days) or cisplatin (100 mg/m2 on day 1) and fluorouracil (1000 mg/m2 per day for 5 days). The length of a treatment cycle was 3 weeks for the TCF arm and 4 weeks for the CF arm. The demographic characteristics were balanced between the two treatment arms. The median age was 55 years, 71% were male, 71% were Caucasian, 24% were 65 years of age or older, 19% had a prior curative surgery and 12% had palliative surgery. The median number of cycles administered per patient was 6 (with a range of 1–16) for the TCF arm compared to 4 (with a range of 1–12) for the CF arm. Time to progression (TTP) was the primary endpoint and was defined as time from randomization to disease progression or death from any cause within 12 weeks of the last evaluable tumor assessment or within 12 weeks of the first infusion of study drugs for patients with no evaluable tumor assessment after randomization. The hazard ratio (HR) for TTP was 1.47 (CF/TCF, 95% CI: 1.19–1.83) with a significantly longer TTP (p=0.0004) in the TCF arm. Approximately 75% of patients had died at the time of this analysis. Overall survival was significantly longer (p=0.0201) in the TCF arm with a HR of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.61). Efficacy results are summarized in Table 19 and Figures 6 and 7.Table 19 - Efficacy of TAXOTERE in the treatment of patients with gastric adenocarcinomaEndpointTCFn=221CFn=224Median TTP (months)5.63.7(95%CI)(4.86–5.91)(3.45–4.47)Hazard ratioFor the hazard ratio (TCF/CF), values less than 1.00 favor the TAXOTERE arm.0.68(95%CI)(0.55–0.84)Unstratified log-rank testp-value0.0004Median survival (months)9.28.6(95%CI)(8.38–10.58)(7.16–9.46)Hazard ratio0.77(95%CI)(0.62–0.96)p-value0.0201Overall Response Rate (CR+PR) (%)36.725.4p-value0.0106Subgroup analyses were consistent with the overall results across age, gender and race.Figure 6 - Gastric Cancer Study (TAX325) Time to Progression K-M CurveFigure 7 - Gastric Cancer Study (TAX325) Survival K-M Curve
- NIOSH Alert: Preventing occupational exposures to antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings. 2004. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-165.OSHA Technical Manual, TED 1-0.15A, Section VI: Chapter 2. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. OSHA, 1999.American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2006) ASHP Guidelines on Handling Hazardous Drugs. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2006;63:1172–1193Polovich, M., White, J. M., & Kelleher, L.O. (eds.) 2005. Chemotherapy and biotherapy guidelines and recommendations for practice (2nd. ed.) Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society.
16.1 How Supplied
One-vial TAXOTERE (Injection Concentrate)TAXOTERE Injection Concentrate is supplied in a single use vial as a sterile, pyrogen-free, non-aqueous solution. TAXOTERE 20 mg/mL (NDC 0075-8003-01)TAXOTERE (docetaxel) Injection Concentrate 20 mg/1 mL: 20 mg docetaxel in 1 mL in 50/50 (v/v) ratio polysorbate 80/dehydrated alcohol.The vial is in a blister pack in one carton.TAXOTERE 80 mg/4 mL (NDC 0075-8004-04)TAXOTERE (docetaxel) Injection Concentrate 80 mg/4 mL: 80 mg docetaxel in 4 mL 50/50 (v/v) ratio polysorbate 80/dehydrated alcohol.The vial is in a blister pack in one carton.
Store between 2°C and 25°C (36°F and 77°F). Retain in the original package to protect from light. Freezing does not adversely affect the product.
16.3 Handling And Disposal
Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published [see References (15)].
17. Patient Counseling Information
- See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling TAXOTERE may cause fetal harm. Advise patients to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving this drug. Women of childbearing potential should use effective contraceptives if receiving TAXOTERE [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Obtain detailed allergy and concomitant drug information from the patient prior to TAXOTERE administration.Explain the significance of oral corticosteroids such as dexamethasone administration to the patient to help facilitate compliance. Instruct patients to report if they were not compliant with oral corticosteroid regimen. Instruct patients to immediately report signs of a hypersensitivity reaction. Tell patients to watch for signs of fluid retention such as peripheral edema in the lower extremities, weight gain and dyspnea. Explain the significance of routine blood cell counts. Instruct patients to monitor their temperature frequently and immediately report any occurrence of fever. Instruct patients to report myalgia, cutaneous, or neurologic reactions.Explain to patients the possible effects of the alcohol content in TAXOTERE Injection, including possible effects on the central nervous system. Patients in whom alcohol should be avoided or minimized should consider the alcohol content of TAXOTERE Injection. Alcohol could impair their ability to drive or use machines immediately after infusion.Explain to patients that side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, excessive tearing, infusion site reactions, and hair loss (cases of permanent hair loss have been reported) are associated with docetaxel administration.
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