The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.
1.1 Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, risedronate sodium has been shown to reduce the incidence of vertebral fractures and a composite endpoint of nonvertebral osteoporosis-related fractures [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
1.2 Important Limitations Of Use
The optimal duration of use has not been determined. The safety and effectiveness of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets for the treatment of osteoporosis are based on clinical data of one year duration. All patients on bisphosphonate therapy should have the need for continued therapy re-evaluated on a periodic basis. Patients at low-risk for fracture should be considered for drug discontinuation after 3 to 5 years of use. Patients who discontinue therapy should have their risk for fracture re-evaluated periodically.
2.1 Treatment Of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
- The recommended regimen is:one 35 mg delayed-release tablet orally, taken once-a-week
2.2 Important Administration Instructions
- Instruct patients to do the following:Take risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets in the morning immediately following breakfast. Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets should be taken immediately following breakfast and not under fasting conditions because of a higher risk of abdominal pain if taken before breakfast when fasting.Swallow risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets whole while in an upright position and with at least 4 ounces of plain water to facilitate delivery to the stomach. Avoid lying down for 30 minutes after taking the medication [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].Do not chew, cut, or crush risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets.
Calcium And Vitamin D Supplementation
Instruct patients to take supplemental calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] and to take calcium supplements, antacids, magnesium-based supplements or laxatives, and iron preparations at a different time of the day as they interfere with the absorption of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets.
2.4 Administration Instructions For Missed Doses
If the once-weekly dose is missed, instruct patients to take one tablet on the morning after they remember and return to taking one tablet once-a-week, as originally scheduled on their chosen day. Patients should not take two tablets on the same day.
3 Dosage Forms And Strengths
Delayed-release tablets: 35 mg, light orange oval film coated tablets, debossed with “AG” on one side and blank on the other side.
- Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with the following conditions:Abnormalities of the esophagus which delay esophageal emptying such as stricture or achalasia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]Inability to stand or sit upright for at least 30 minutes [see Dosage and Administration
- (2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]Hypocalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]Known hypersensitivity to any component of this product. Angioedema, generalized rash, bullous skin reactions, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]
5.1 Drug Products With The Same Active Ingredient
Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets contain the same active ingredient found in Actonel®. A patient being treated with Actonel should not receive risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets.
5.2 Upper Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets, like other bisphosphonates administered orally, may cause local irritation of the upper gastrointestinal mucosa. Because of these possible irritant effects and a potential for worsening of the underlying disease, caution should be used when risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets are given to patients with active upper gastrointestinal problems (such as known Barrett’s esophagus, dysphagia, other esophageal diseases, gastritis, duodenitis or ulcers) [see Contraindications (4), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Information for Patients (17)].Esophageal adverse experiences, such as esophagitis, esophageal ulcers and esophageal erosions, occasionally with bleeding and rarely followed by esophageal stricture or perforation, have been reported in patients receiving treatment with oral bisphosphonates. In some cases, these have been severe and required hospitalization. Physicians should therefore be alert to any signs or symptoms signaling a possible esophageal reaction and patients should be instructed to discontinue risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets and seek medical attention if they develop dysphagia, odynophagia, retrosternal pain or new or worsening heartburn.The risk of severe esophageal adverse experiences appears to be greater in patients who lie down after taking oral bisphosphonates and/or who fail to swallow it with the recommended 4 ounces of water, and/or who continue to take oral bisphosphonates after developing symptoms suggestive of esophageal irritation. Therefore, it is very important that the full dosing instructions are provided to, and understood by, the patient [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. In patients who cannot comply with dosing instructions due to mental disability, therapy with risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets should be used under appropriate supervision.There have been post-marketing reports of gastric and duodenal ulcers with oral bisphosphonate use, some severe and with complications, although no increased risk was observed in controlled clinical trials.
5.3 Mineral Metabolism
Hypocalcemia has been reported in patients taking risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets. Treat hypocalcemia and other disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism should be effectively treated before starting risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets therapy. Instruct patients to take supplemental calcium and vitamin D if their dietary intake is inadequate. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is important in all patients [see Contraindications (4), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Information for Patients (17)].
5.4 Jaw Osteonecrosis
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which can occur spontaneously, is generally associated with tooth extraction and/or local infection with delayed healing, and has been reported in patients taking bisphosphonates, including risedronate. Known risk factors for osteonecrosis of the jaw include invasive dental procedures (for example, tooth extraction, dental implants, boney surgery), diagnosis of cancer, concomitant therapies (for example, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, angiogenesis inhibitors), poor oral hygiene, and co-morbid disorders (for example, periodontal and/or other pre-existing dental disease, anemia, coagulopathy, infection, ill-fitting dentures). The risk of ONJ may increase with duration of exposure to bisphosphonates.For patients requiring invasive dental procedures, discontinuation of bisphosphonate treatment may reduce the risk for ONJ. Clinical judgment of the treating physician and/or oral surgeon should guide the management plan of each patient based on individual benefit/risk assessment.Patients who develop ONJ while on bisphosphonate therapy should receive care by an oral surgeon. In these patients, extensive dental surgery to treat ONJ may exacerbate the condition. Discontinuation of bisphosphonate therapy should be considered based on individual benefit/risk assessment [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
5.5 Musculoskeletal Pain
In postmarketing experience, there have been reports of severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint, and/or muscle pain in patients taking bisphosphonates [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. The time to onset of symptoms varied from one day to several months after starting the drug. Most patients had relief of symptoms after stopping medication. A subset had recurrence of symptoms when rechallenged with the same drug or another bisphosphonate. Consider discontinuing use if severe symptoms develop.
5.6 Atypical Subtrochanteric And Diaphyseal Femoral Fractures
Atypical, low-energy, or low trauma fractures of the femoral shaft have been reported in bisphosphonate-treated patients. These fractures can occur anywhere in the femoral shaft from just below the lesser trochanter to above the supracondylar flare and are traverse or short oblique in orientation without evidence of comminution. Causality has not been established as these fractures also occur in osteoporotic patients who have not been treated with bisphosphonates.Atypical femur fractures most commonly occur with minimal or no trauma to the affected area. They may be bilateral and many patients report prodromal pain in the affected area, usually presenting as dull, aching thigh pain, weeks to months before a complete fracture occurs. A number of reports note that patients were also receiving treatment with glucocorticoids (for example, prednisone) at the time of fracture.Any patient with a history of bisphosphonate exposure who presents with thigh or groin pain should be suspected of having an atypical fracture and should be evaluated to rule out an incomplete femur fracture. Patients presenting with an atypical fracture should also be assessed for symptoms and signs of fracture in the contralateral limb. Interruption of bisphosphonate therapy should be considered, pending a risk/benefit assessment, on an individual basis.
5.7 Renal Impairment
Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets are not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min) because of lack of clinical experience.
5.8 Laboratory Test Interactions
Bisphosphonates are known to interfere with the use of bone-imaging agents. Specific studies with risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets have not been performed.
6.1 Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been reported with the use of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets. Because these adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
7 Drug Interactions
Risedronate is not metabolized and does not induce or inhibit hepatic microsomal drug- metabolizing enzymes (for example, Cytochrome P450).
7.1 Calcium Supplements/Antacids
When risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets were administered following breakfast, the co-administration of a tablet containing 600 mg of elemental calcium and 400 international units vitamin D reduced risedronate bioavailability by approximately 38% [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Calcium supplements, antacids, magnesium-based supplements or laxatives, and iron preparations interfere with the absorption of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets and should not be taken together.
7.2 Histamine 2 (H2) Blockers And Proton Pump Inhibitors (Ppis)
Drugs that raise stomach pH (for example, PPIs or H2 blockers) may cause faster drug release from enteric coated (delayed-release) drug products such as risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets. Co-administration of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets with the PPI, esomeprazole, increased risedronate bioavailability. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration (AUC) were increased by 60 percent and 22 percent, respectively.Concomitant administration of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets and H2 blockers or PPIs is not recommended.
7.3 Hormone Therapy
Concomitant use of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets with estrogens and estrogen agonist/antagonists has not been studied.
7.4 Aspirin/Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
In the Phase 3 study comparing risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets 35 mg once-a-week immediately following breakfast and risedronate sodium 5 mg daily, 18% of NSAID users (any use) in both groups developed upper gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Among non-users, 13% of patients taking risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets 35 mg once- a-week immediately following breakfast developed upper gastrointestinal adverse reactions, compared to 12% taking risedronate sodium 5 mg daily.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Risedronate was detected in feeding pups exposed to lactating rats for a 24-hour period post- dosing, indicating a small degree of lacteal transfer. It is not known whether risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets are excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets are not indicated for use in pediatric patients.The safety and effectiveness of risedronate sodium immediate-release was assessed in a one-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 143 pediatric patients (94 received risedronate) with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The enrolled population was predominantly patients with mild OI (85% Type-I), aged 4 to less than 16 years, 50% male and 82% Caucasian, with a mean lumbar spine BMD Z-score of -2.08 (2.08 standard deviations below the mean for age-matched controls). Patients received either a 2.5 mg (less than or equal to 30 kg body weight) or 5 mg (greater than 30 kg body weight) daily oral dose. After one year, an increase in lumbar spine BMD in the risedronate sodium immediate-release group compared to the placebo group was observed. However, treatment with risedronate sodium immediate-release did not result in a reduction in the risk of fracture in pediatric patients with OI. In risedronate sodium immediate- release treated subjects, no mineralization defects were noted in paired bone biopsy specimens obtained at baseline and month 12.The overall safety profile of risedronate in OI patients treated for up to 12 months was generally similar to that of adults with osteoporosis. However, there was an increased incidence of vomiting compared to placebo. In this study, vomiting was observed in 15% of children treated with risedronate sodium immediate-release and 6% of patients treated with placebo. Other adverse reactions reported in greater than or equal to 10% of patients treated with risedronate sodium immediate-release and with a higher frequency than placebo were: pain in the extremity (21% with risedronate sodium immediate-release versus 16% with placebo), headache (20% versus 8%), back pain (17% versus 10%), pain (15% versus 10%), upper abdominal pain (11% versus 8%), and bone pain (10% versus 4%).
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the patients receiving risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets in postmenopausal osteoporosis studies, 59% were 65 and over, while 13% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
8.6 Renal Impairment
Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets are not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min) because of lack of clinical experience. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with a creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 30 mL/min.
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
No studies have been performed to assess risedronate sodium’s safety or efficacy in patients with hepatic impairment. Risedronate is not metabolized in human liver preparations. Dosage adjustment is unlikely to be needed in patients with hepatic impairment
Decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus following substantial overdose may be expected in some patients. Signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia may also occur in some of these patients.While milk or antacids containing calcium may be given to bind risedronate sodium immediate- release and reduce absorption of the drug, the impact of this intervention for risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets has not been evaluated.In cases of substantial overdose, gastric lavage may be considered to remove unabsorbed drug. Standard procedures that are effective for treating hypocalcemia, including the administration of calcium intravenously, would be expected to restore physiologic amounts of ionized calcium and to relieve signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia.Lethality after single oral doses of risedronate was seen in female rats at 903 mg/kg and male rats at 1703 mg/kg. The minimum lethal dose in mice and rabbits was 4000 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. These values represent 320 to 620 times the human Paget’s disease dose of 30 mg/day based on surface area (mg/m2).
Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets contain a pH-sensitive enteric coating and a chelating agent (EDTA).Risedronate is a pyridinyl bisphosphonate that inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and modulates bone metabolism. Each risedronate sodium delayed-release tablet for oral administration contains the equivalent of 35 mg of anhydrous risedronate sodium in the form of the hemi-pentahydrate with small amounts of monohydrate. The empirical formula for risedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate is C7H10NO7P2Na•2.5 H2O. The chemical name of risedronate sodium is [1-hydroxy-2-(3pyridinyl)ethylidene]bis[phosphonic acid] monosodium salt. The chemical structure of risedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate is the following:Molecular Weight:Anyhydrous: 305.10Hemi-pentahydrate: 350.13Risedronate sodium is a fine, white to off-white, odorless, crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and in aqueous solutions, and essentially insoluble in common organic solvents.
12.1 Mechanism Of Action
Risedronate has an affinity for hydroxyapatite crystals in bone and acts as an antiresorptive agent. At the cellular level, risedronate inhibits osteoclasts. The osteoclasts adhere normally to the bone surface, but show evidence of reduced active resorption (for example, lack of ruffled border). Histomorphometry in rats, dogs, and minipigs showed that risedronate treatment reduces bone turnover (activation frequency, that is, the rate at which bone remodeling sites are activated) and bone resorption at remodeling sites.
Risedronate treatment decreases the elevated rate of bone turnover that is typically seen in postmenopausal osteoporosis. In clinical trials, administration of risedronate sodium immediate- release to postmenopausal women resulted in decreases in biochemical markers of bone turnover, including urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine and urinary collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (markers of bone resorption) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a marker of bone formation). At the 5 mg daily dose, decreases in deoxypyridinoline/creatinine were evident within 14 days of treatment. Changes in bone formation markers were observed later than changes in resorption markers, as expected, due to the coupled nature of bone resorption and bone formation; decreases in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase of about 20% were evident within 3 months of treatment. Bone turnover markers reached a nadir of about 40% below baseline values by the sixth month of treatment and remained stable with continued treatment for up to 3 years. Bone turnover is decreased as early as 14 days and maximally within about 6 months of treatment, with achievement of a new steady-state that more nearly approximates the rate of bone turnover seen in premenopausal women. In a 1-year study comparing risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets 35 mg weekly taken immediately after breakfast versus risedronate sodium immediate-release 5 mg daily oral dosing regimens in postmenopausal women, mean decreases from baseline at 1 year in urinary collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide were 47% in the risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets 35 mg once-a-week following breakfast group and 42% in the risedronate sodium immediate-release 5 mg daily group. In addition, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase at 1 year was reduced by 33% in the risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets 35 mg once-a-week following breakfast group and 32% in the risedronate sodium immediate-release 5 mg daily group.
13.2 Animal Toxicology And/Or Pharmacology
Risedronate demonstrated potent anti-osteoclast, antiresorptive activity in ovariectomized rats and minipigs. Bone mass and biomechanical strength were increased dose-dependently at daily oral doses up to 4 and 25 times the recommended human dose of 5 mg/day for rats and minipigs, respectively. Risedronate treatment maintained the positive correlation between BMD and bone strength and did not have a negative effect on bone structure or mineralization. In intact dogs, risedronate induced positive bone balance at the level of the bone remodeling unit at oral doses ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 times the human dose of 5 mg/day.In dogs treated with an oral dose approximately 5 times the human dose of 5 mg/day, risedronate caused a delay in fracture healing of the radius. The observed delay in fracture healing is similar to other bisphosphonates. This effect did not occur at a dose approximately 0.5 times the human daily dose.The Schenk rat assay, based on histologic examination of the epiphyses of growing rats after drug treatment, demonstrated that risedronate did not interfere with bone mineralization even at the highest dose tested, which was approximately 3500 times the lowest antiresorptive dose in this model (1.5 mcg/kg/day) and approximately 800 times the human dose of 5 mg/day. This indicates that risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets administered at the therapeutic dose is unlikely to induce osteomalacia.Dosing multiples provided above are based on the recommended human osteoporosis dose of 5 mg/day and normalized using body surface area (mg/m2).
14.1 Treatment Of Osteoporosis In Postmenopausal Women
The efficacy of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets 35 mg once-a-week in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis was demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, active-control trial of approximately 900 subjects. All patients in this study received supplemental calcium (1000 mg/day) and vitamin D (800 to 1000 international units/day). The primary efficacy endpoint was percent change in lumbar spine bone mineral density at 1 year.Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets 35 mg once-a-week administered after breakfast was shown to be non-inferior to risedronate sodium immediate-release 5 mg daily. Table 2 presents the primary efficacy analysis, percent change in lumbar spine BMD, in the intent-to-treat population with last observation carried forward (LOCF). Table 2 Lumbar Spine BMD - Percent Change from Baseline at Endpointat 1 year LOCF Risedronate sodium immediate-release5 mg Daily Risedronate sodium delayed-release Tablets 35 mgOnce-a-Week Following BreakfastN = 307 N = 307N = number of intent-to-treat patients within specified treatment; n = number of patients with values at the visit.LS = Least Squares Primary Efficacy (LOCF) n 270 261 LS Mean (95 percent CI) 3.1Indicates a statistically significant difference from baseline determined from 95 percent CI unadjusted for multiple comparisons. (2.7, 3.5) 3.3 (2.9, 3.7) LS Mean DifferenceLS Mean Difference is 5 mg daily minus 35 mg weekly treatment. (95 percent CI) -0.2 (-0.8, 0.3)
16 How Supplied/Storage And Handling
Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets are light orange oval film coated tablets, debossed with “AG” on one side and blank on the other side.Dosepak of 4 tabletsNDC 0115-1426-34
17 Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting therapy with risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets and to re-read it each time the prescription is renewed.Instruct patients that risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets and Actonel contain the same active ingredient and if they are taking Actonel, they should not take risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].Instruct patients to pay particular attention to the dosing instructions as clinical benefits may be compromised by failure to take the drug according to instructions.Instruct patients to take risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets in the morning, while in an upright position (sitting or standing) with at least 4 ounces of plain water immediately following breakfast. Risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets should not be taken before breakfast.Instruct patients to swallow risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets whole. Patients should not chew, cut, or crush the tablet because of a potential for oropharyngeal irritation, and because the tablet coating is an important part of the delayed-release formulation. Patients should not lie down for 30 minutes after taking the medication.Instruct patients that if they develop symptoms of esophageal disease (such as difficulty or pain upon swallowing, retrosternal pain or severe persistent or worsening heartburn) they should consult their physician before continuing risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].If a dose of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets 35 mg once-a-week is missed, instruct the patient to take one tablet on the morning after they remember and return to taking one tablet once-a-week, as originally scheduled on their chosen day. Patients should not take 2 tablets on the same day.Instruct patients to take supplemental calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Instruct patients to take calcium supplements, antacids, magnesium-based supplements or laxatives, and iron preparations at a different time of the day because they interfere with the absorption of risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets.Remind patients to give all of their healthcare providers an accurate medication history. Instruct patients to tell all of their healthcare providers that they are taking risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets. Patients should be instructed that any time they have a medical problem they think may be from risedronate sodium delayed-release tablets they should talk to their doctor.All brand names listed are the registered trademarks of their respective owners.
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