The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.
Warning: Drug Dependence
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be given cautiously to patients with a history of drug dependence or alcoholism. Chronic abusive use can lead to marked tolerance and psychological dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behavior. Frank psychotic episodes can occur, especially with parenteral abuse. Careful supervision is required during withdrawal from abusive use since severe depression may occur. Withdrawal following chronic therapeutic use may unmask symptoms of the underlying disorder that may require follow-up.
1 Indications And Usage
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children 6 years of age and older, adolescents, and adults up to the age of 65 [see Clinical Studies (14)].A diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; DSM-IV) implies the presence of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and were present before age 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e.g., in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and be present in two or more settings, e.g., school (or work) and at home. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; “on the go;” excessive talking; blurting answers; can’t wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive criteria to be met.
1.1 Special Diagnostic Considerations
Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use of medical and special psychological, educational, and social resources. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the patient and not solely on the presence of the required number of DSM-IV characteristics.
1.2 Need For Comprehensive Treatment Program
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social). Drug treatment may not be indicated for all patients with ADHD. Stimulants are not intended for use in patients who exhibit symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the patient’s symptoms.
2.1 General Dosing Information
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be administered orally once daily in the morning with or without food.Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets must be swallowed whole with the aid of liquids, and must not be chewed, divided, or crushed [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
2.2 Patients New To Methylphenidate
The recommended starting dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets for patients who are not currently taking methylphenidate or stimulants other than methylphenidate is 18 mg once daily for children and adolescents and 18 or 36 mg once daily for adults (see Table 1).
2.3 Patients Currently Using Methylphenidate
The recommended dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets for patients who are currently taking methylphenidate twice daily or three times daily at doses of 10 to 60 mg/day is provided in Table 2. Dosing recommendations are based on current dose regimen and clinical judgment. Conversion dosage should not exceed 72 mg daily.Other methylphenidate regimens: Clinical judgment should be used when selecting the starting dose.
2.4 Dose Titration
Doses may be increased in 18 mg increments at weekly intervals for patients who have not achieved an optimal response at a lower dose. Daily dosages above 54 mg in children and 72 mg in adolescents have not been studied and are not recommended. Daily dosages above 72 mg in adults are not recommended.A 27 mg dosage strength is available for physicians who wish to prescribe between the 18 mg and 36 mg dosages.
2.5 Maintenance/Extended Treatment
There is no body of evidence available from controlled trials to indicate how long the patient with ADHD should be treated with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. It is generally agreed, however, that pharmacological treatment of ADHD may be needed for extended periods.The effectiveness of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets for long-term use, i.e., for more than 7 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. The physician who elects to use methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets for extended periods in patients with ADHD should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient with trials off medication to assess the patient’s functioning without pharmacotherapy. Improvement may be sustained when the drug is either temporarily or permanently discontinued.
2.6 Dose Reduction And Discontinuation
If paradoxical aggravation of symptoms or other adverse events occur, the dosage should be reduced, or, if necessary, the drug should be discontinued.If improvement is not observed after appropriate dosage adjustment over a one-month period, the drug should be discontinued.
3 Dosage Forms And Strengths
- Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets, USP are available in 18 mg, 27 mg, 36 mg and 54 mg of methylphenidate hydrochloride, USP.The 18 mg tablets are light yellow to yellow film coated round cylindrical biconvex tablets printed with 212 in black ink.The 27 mg tablets are light pink to pink film coated round cylindrical biconvex tablets printed with 213 in black ink.The 36 mg tablets are White to off white film coated round cylindrical biconvex tablets printed with 214 in black ink.The 54 mg tablets are light to dark brown film coated round cylindrical biconvex tablets printed with 215 in black ink.
4.1 Hypersensitivity To Methylphenidate
Hypersensitivity reactions, such as angioedema and anaphylactic reactions, have been observed in patients treated with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Therefore, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to methylphenidate or other components of the product [see Adverse Reactions (6.6)].
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with marked anxiety, tension, and agitation, since the drug may aggravate these symptoms.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with glaucoma.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with motor tics or with a family history or diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome [see Adverse Reactions (6.4)].
4.5 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated during treatment with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, and also within a minimum of 14 days following discontinuation of a MAO inhibitor (hypertensive crises may result) [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
5.1 Serious Cardiovascular Events
Sudden Death and Preexisting Structural Cardiac Abnormalities or Other Serious Heart ProblemsChildren and AdolescentsSudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug.AdultsSudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs.Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular ConditionsStimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2 to 4 mm Hg) and average heart rate (about 3 to 6 bpm) [see Adverse Reactions (6.5)], and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with preexisting hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia.Assessing Cardiovascular Status in Patients Being Treated with Stimulant MedicationsChildren, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g., electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.
5.2 Psychiatric Adverse Events
Preexisting PsychosisAdministration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a preexisting psychotic disorder.Bipolar IllnessParticular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of a mixed/manic episode in such patients. Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.Emergence of New Psychotic or Manic SymptomsTreatment-emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in patients without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses. If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be appropriate. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3,482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.AggressionAggressive behavior or hostility is often observed in patients with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD. Although there is no systematic evidence that stimulants cause aggressive behavior or hostility, patients beginning treatment for ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of or worsening of aggressive behavior or hostility.
There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizures, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in absence of seizures, and, very rarely, in patients without a history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures. In the presence of seizures, the drug should be discontinued.
Prolonged and painful erections, sometimes requiring surgical intervention, have been reported with methylphenidate products, including Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, in both pediatric and adult patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.6)]. Priapism was not reported with drug initiation but developed after some time on the drug, often subsequent to an increase in dose. Priapism has also appeared during a period of drug withdrawal (drug holidays or during discontinuation). Patients who develop abnormally sustained or frequent and painful erections should seek immediate medical attention.
5.5 Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud’S Phenomenon
Stimulants, including Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, used to treat ADHD are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown. Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, were observed in post-marketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. Careful observation for digital changes is necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.
5.6 Long-Term Suppression Of Growth
Careful follow-up of weight and height in children ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or nonmedication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and nonmedication-treated children over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development. Published data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of amphetamines may cause similar suppression of growth; however, it is anticipated that they likely have this effect as well. Therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, and patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.
5.7 Visual Disturbance
Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been reported with stimulant treatment.
5.8 Potential For Gastrointestinal Obstruction
Because the methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablet is nondeformable and does not appreciably change in shape in the GI tract, Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not ordinarily be administered to patients with preexisting severe gastrointestinal narrowing (pathologic or iatrogenic, for example: esophageal motility disorders, small bowel inflammatory disease, “short gut” syndrome due to adhesions or decreased transit time, past history of peritonitis, cystic fibrosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, or Meckel’s diverticulum). There have been rare reports of obstructive symptoms in patients with known strictures in association with the ingestion of drugs in nondeformable controlled-release formulations. Due to the controlled-release design of the tablet, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used only in patients who are able to swallow the tablet whole [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
5.9 Hematologic Monitoring
Periodic CBC, differential, and platelet counts are advised during prolonged therapy.
6 Adverse Reactions
- The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:Drug Dependence [see Box Warning]Hypersensitivity to Methylphenidate [see Contraindications (4.1)]Agitation [see Contraindications (4.2)]Glaucoma [see Contraindications (4.3)]Tics [see Contraindications (4.4)]Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors [see Contraindications (4.5) and Drug Interactions (7.1)]Serious Cardiovascular Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]Psychiatric Adverse Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]Priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]Long-Term Suppression of Growth [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]Visual Disturbance [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]Potential for Gastrointestinal Obstruction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]Hematologic Monitoring [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]The most common adverse reaction in double-blind clinical trials (>5%) in pediatric patients (children and adolescents) was abdominal pain upper. The most common adverse reactions in double-blind clinical trials (>5%) in adult patients were decreased appetite, headache, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, anxiety, dizziness, weight decreased, irritability, and hyperhidrosis [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].The most common adverse reactions associated with discontinuation (≥1%) from either pediatric or adult clinical trials were anxiety, irritability, insomnia, and blood pressure increased [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)].The development program for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets included exposures in a total of 3,906 participants in clinical trials. Children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD were evaluated in 6 controlled clinical studies and 11 open-label clinical studies (see Table 3). Safety was assessed by collecting adverse events, vital signs, weights, and ECGs, and by performing physical examinations and laboratory analyses.Adverse events during exposure were obtained primarily by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using their own terminology. Consequently, to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events, events were grouped in standardized categories using MedDRA terminology.The stated frequencies of adverse events represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type listed. An event was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation.Throughout this section, adverse reactions are reported. Adverse reactions are adverse events that were considered to be reasonably associated with the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets based on the comprehensive assessment of the available adverse event information. A causal association for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets often cannot be reliably established in individual cases. Further, because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.The majority of adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity.
6.1 Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions In Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
Adverse reactions in either the pediatric or adult double-blind adverse reactions tables may be relevant for both patient populations.Children and AdolescentsTable 4 lists the adverse reactions reported in 1% or more of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets treated children and adolescent subjects in 4 placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials.The majority of adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity.AdultsTable 5 lists the adverse reactions reported in 1% or more of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets-treated adults in 2 placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials.Table5. Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥1% of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets-Treated Adult Subjects in 2 Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trials** Included doses up to 108 mg.The majority of ADRs were mild to moderate in severity.
6.2 Other Adverse Reactions Observed In Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Clinical Trials
This section includes adverse reactions reported by methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets-treated subjects in double-blind trials that do not meet the criteria specified for Table 4 or Table 5 and all adverse reactions reported by methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets-treated subjects who participated in open-label and postmarketing clinical trials.Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: LeukopeniaEye Disorders: Accommodation disorder, Dry eyeVascular Disorders: Hot flushGastrointestinal Disorders: Abdominal discomfort, Abdominal pain, DiarrheaGeneral Disorders and Administrative Site Conditions: Asthenia, Fatigue, Feeling jittery, ThirstInfections and Infestations: SinusitisInvestigations: Alanine aminotransferase increased, Blood pressure increased, Cardiac murmur, Heart rate increasedMusculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Muscle spasmsNervous System Disorders: Lethargy, Psychomotor hyperactivity, SomnolencePsychiatric Disorders: Anger, Hypervigilance, Mood altered, Mood swings, Panic attack, Sleep disorder, Tearfulness, TicReproductive System and Breast Disorders: Erectile dysfunctionRespiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: DyspneaSkin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Rash, Rash macularVascular Disorders: Hypertension
6.3 Discontinuation Due To Adverse Reactions
Adverse reactions in the 4 placebo-controlled studies of children and adolescents leading to discontinuation occurred in 2 methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets patients (0.6%) including depressed mood (1, 0.3%) and headache and insomnia (1, 0.3%), and 6 placebo patients (1.9%) including headache and insomnia (1, 0.3%), irritability (2, 0.6%), headache (1, 0.3%), psychomotor hyperactivity (1, 0.3%), and tic (1, 0.3%).In the 2 placebo-controlled studies of adults, 25 methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets patients (6.0%) and 6 placebo patients (2.8%) discontinued due to an adverse reaction. Those events with an incidence of >0.5% in the Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets patients included anxiety (1.7%), irritability (1.4%), blood pressure increased (1.0%), and nervousness (0.7%). In placebo patients, blood pressure increased and depressed mood had an incidence of >0.5% (0.9%).In the 11 open-label studies of children, adolescents, and adults, 266 methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets patients (7.0%) discontinued due to an adverse reaction. Those events with an incidence of >0.5% included insomnia (1.2%), irritability (0.8%), anxiety (0.7%), decreased appetite (0.7%), and tic (0.6%).
In a long-term uncontrolled study (n=432 children), the cumulative incidence of new onset of tics was 9% after 27 months of treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.In a second uncontrolled study (n=682 children) the cumulative incidence of new-onset tics was 1% (9/682 children). The treatment period was up to 9 months with mean treatment duration of 7.2 months.
6.5 Blood Pressure And Heart Rate Increases
In the laboratory classroom clinical trials in children (Studies 1 and 2), both methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily and methylphenidate three times daily increased resting pulse by an average of 2 to 6 bpm and produced average increases of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of roughly 1 to 4 mm Hg during the day, relative to placebo. In the placebo-controlled adolescent trial (Study 4), mean increases from baseline in resting pulse rate were observed with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo at the end of the double-blind phase (5 and 3 beats/minute, respectively). Mean increases from baseline in blood pressure at the end of the double-blind phase for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo-treated patients were 0.7 and 0.7 mm Hg (systolic) and 2.6 and 1.4 mm Hg (diastolic), respectively. In one placebo-controlled study in adults (Study 6), dose-dependent mean increases of 3.9 to 9.8 bpm from baseline in standing pulse rate were observed with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets at the end of the double-blind treatment vs. an increase of 2.7 beats/minute with placebo. Mean changes from baseline in standing blood pressure at the end of double-blind treatment ranged from 0.1 to 2.2 mm Hg (systolic) and 0.7 to 2.2 mm Hg (diastolic) for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and was 1.1 mm Hg (systolic) and -1.8 mm Hg (diastolic) for placebo. In a second placebo-controlled study in adults (Study 5), mean changes from baseline in resting pulse rate were observed for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo at the end of the double-blind treatment (3.6 and -1.6 beats/minute, respectively). Mean changes from baseline in blood pressure at the end of the double–blind treatment for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo-treated patients were -1.2 and -0.5 mm Hg (systolic) and 1.1 and 0.4 mm Hg (diastolic), respectively [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
6.6 Postmarketing Experience
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency:Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Pancytopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombocytopenic purpuraCardiac Disorders: Angina pectoris, Bradycardia, Extrasystoles, Supraventricular tachycardia, Ventricular extrasystolesEye Disorders: Diplopia, Mydriasis, Visual impairmentGeneral Disorders: Chest pain, Chest discomfort, Drug effect decreased, Hyperpyrexia, Therapeutic response decreasedHepatobiliary disorders: Hepatocellular injury, Acute hepatic failureImmune System Disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions such as Angioedema, Anaphylactic reactions, Auricular swelling, Bullous conditions, Exfoliative conditions, Urticarias, Pruritus NEC, Rashes, Eruptions, and Exanthemas NECInvestigations: Blood alkaline phosphatase increased, Blood bilirubin increased, Hepatic enzyme increased, Platelet count decreased, White blood cell count abnormalMusculoskeletal, Connective Tissue and Bone Disorders: Arthralgia, Myalgia, Muscle twitching, RhabdomyolysisNervous System Disorders: Convulsion, Grand mal convulsion, Dyskinesia, Serotonin syndrome in combination with serotonergic drugsPsychiatric Disorders: Disorientation, Hallucination, Hallucination auditory, Hallucination visual, Mania, Logorrhea, Libido changesReproductive System and Breast Disorders: PriapismSkin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Alopecia, ErythemaVascular Disorders: Raynaud’s phenomenon
7.1 Mao Inhibitors
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be used in patients being treated (currently or within the preceding 2 weeks) with MAO inhibitors [see Contraindications (4.5)].
7.2 Vasopressor Agents
Because of possible increases in blood pressure, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used cautiously with vasopressor agents [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
7.3 Coumarin Anticoagulants, Antidepressants, And Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Human pharmacologic studies have shown that methylphenidate may inhibit the metabolism of coumarin anticoagulants, anticonvulsants (eg, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone), and some antidepressants (tricyclics and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Downward dose adjustment of these drugs may be required when given concomitantly with methylphenidate. It may be necessary to adjust the dosage and monitor plasma drug concentrations (or, in the case of coumarin, coagulation times), when initiating or discontinuing concomitant methylphenidate.
Pregnancy Category CMethylphenidate has been shown to have teratogenic effects in rabbits when given in doses of 200 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 100 times and 40 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/kg and mg/m2 basis, respectively.A reproduction study in rats revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus at oral doses up to 30 mg/kg/day, approximately 15-fold and 3-fold the maximum recommended human dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on a mg/kg and mg/m2 basis, respectively. The approximate plasma exposure to methylphenidate plus its main metabolite PPAA in pregnant rats was 1-2 times that seen in trials in volunteers and patients with the maximum recommended dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets based on the AUC.The safety of methylphenidate for use during human pregnancy has not been established. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
8.2 Labor And Delivery
The effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether methylphenidate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised if methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is administered to a nursing woman.In lactating female rats treated with a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg radiolabeled methylphenidate, radioactivity (representing methylphenidate and/or its metabolites) was observed in milk and levels were generally similar to those in plasma.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be used in children under six years, since safety and efficacy in this age group have not been established. Long-term effects of methylphenidate in children have not been well established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets has not been studied in patients greater than 65 years of age.
9.1 Controlled Substance
Methylphenidate is a Schedule II controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.
As noted in the Box Warning, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be given cautiously to patients with a history of drug dependence or alcoholism. Chronic abusive use can lead to marked tolerance and psychological dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behavior. Frank psychotic episodes can occur, especially with parenteral abuse.In two placebo-controlled human abuse potential studies, single oral doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets were compared to single oral doses of immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and placebo in subjects with a history of recreational stimulant use to assess relative abuse potential. For the purpose of this assessment, the response for each of the subjective measures was defined as the maximum effect within the first 8 hours after dose administration.In one study (n=40), both methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (108 mg) and 60 mg IR MPH compared to placebo produced statistically significantly greater responses on the five subjective measures suggestive of abuse potential. In comparisons between the two active treatments, however, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (108 mg) produced variable responses on positive subjective measures that were either statistically indistinguishable from (Abuse Potential, Drug Liking, Amphetamine, and Morphine Benzedrine Group [Euphoria]) or statistically less than (Stimulation – Euphoria) responses produced by 60 mg IR MPH.In another study (n=49), both doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (54 mg and 108 mg) and both doses of IR MPH (50 mg and 90 mg) produced statistically significantly greater responses compared to placebo on the two primary scales used in the study (Drug Liking, Euphoria). When doses of Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (54 mg and 108 mg) were compared to IR MPH (50 mg and 90 mg), respectively, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets produced statistically significantly lower subjective responses on these two scales than IR MPH. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (108 mg) produced responses that were statistically indistinguishable from the responses on these two scales produced by IR MPH (50 mg). Differences in subjective responses to the respective doses should be considered in the context that only 22% of the total amount of methylphenidate in methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is available for immediate release from the drug overcoat [see System Components and Performance (11.1)].Although these findings reveal a relatively lower response to methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on subjective measures suggestive of abuse potential compared to IR MPH at roughly equivalent total MPH doses, the relevance of these findings to the abuse potential of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in the community is unknown.
As noted in the Box Warning, careful supervision is required during withdrawal from abusive use since severe depression may occur. Withdrawal following chronic therapeutic use may unmask symptoms of the underlying disorder that may require follow-up.
10.1 Signs And Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets overdosage, resulting principally from overstimulation of the CNS and from excessive sympathomimetic effects, may include the following: vomiting, agitation, muscle twitching, convulsion, grand mal convulsion, confusional state, hallucinations (auditory and/or visual), hyperhidrosis, headache, pyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, heart rate increased, sinus arrhythmia, hypertension, rhabdomyolysis, mydriasis, and dry mouth.
10.2 Recommended Treatment
Treatment consists of appropriate supportive measures. The patient must be protected against self-injury and against external stimuli that would aggravate overstimulation already present. Gastric contents may be evacuated by gastric lavage as indicated. Before performing gastric lavage, control agitation and seizures if present and protect the airway. Other measures to detoxify the gut include administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic. Intensive care must be provided to maintain adequate circulation and respiratory exchange; external cooling procedures may be required for pyrexia.Efficacy of peritoneal dialysis or extracorporeal hemodialysis for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets overdosage has not been established.The prolonged release of methylphenidate from methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be considered when treating patients with overdose.
10.3 Poison Control Center
As with the management of all overdosage, the possibility of multiple-drug ingestion should be considered. The physician may wish to consider contacting a poison control center for up-to-date information on the management of overdosage with methylphenidate.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, USP is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are available in four tablet strengths. Each extended-release tablet for once-a-day oral administration contains 18, 27, 36, or 54 mg of methylphenidate HCl USP and is designed to have a 12-hour duration of effect. Chemically, methylphenidate HCl is d, l (racemic) methyl α-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate hydrochloride. Its empirical formula is C14H19NO2·HCl. Its structural formula is:Methylphenidate HCl USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder. Its solutions are acid to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and in methanol, soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform and in acetone. Its molecular weight is 269.77.Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, USP also contains the following inert ingredients and are common to all strengths: butylated hydroxytoluene, cellulose acetate, hypromellose, phosphoric acid, polyethylene glycol, polyethylene oxides, povidone, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, stearic acid, succinic acid, ferric oxide yellow, FD&C Red No 40 and titanium dioxide. The 18 mg tablet strength also contains iron oxide yellow and Polysorbate 80. The 27 mg tablet strength also contains iron oxide red. The 36 mg tablet strength also contains talc. The 54 mg tablet strength also contains iron oxide yellow, iron oxide red and talc.Each tablet strength also contains black iron oxide, hypromellose and propylene glycol as imprinting ink.USP Dissolution Test Pending.
11.1 System Components And Performance
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets uses osmotic pressure to deliver methylphenidate HCl at a controlled rate. The system, which resembles a conventional tablet in appearance, comprises an osmotically active trilayer core surrounded by a semipermeable membrane with an immediate-release drug overcoat. The trilayer core is composed of two drug layers containing the drug and excipients, and a push layer containing osmotically active components. There is a precision-laser drilled orifice on the drug-layer end of the tablet. In an aqueous environment, such as the gastrointestinal tract, the drug overcoat dissolves within one hour, providing an initial dose of methylphenidate. Water permeates through the membrane into the tablet core. As the osmotically active polymer excipients expand, methylphenidate is released through the orifice. The membrane controls the rate at which water enters the tablet core, which in turn controls drug delivery. Furthermore, the drug release rate from the system increases with time over a period of 6 to 7 hours due to the drug-concentration gradient incorporated into the two drug layers of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. The biologically inert components of the tablet remain intact during gastrointestinal transit and are eliminated in the stool as a tablet shell along with insoluble core components. It is possible that methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be visible on abdominal x-rays under certain circumstances, especially when digital enhancing techniques are utilized.
12.1 Mechanism Of Action
Methylphenidate HCl is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. The mode of therapeutic action in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is not known. Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.
Methylphenidate is a racemic mixture comprised of the d- and l-isomers. The d-isomer is more pharmacologically active than the l-isomer.
AbsorptionMethylphenidate is readily absorbed. Following oral administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, plasma methylphenidate concentrations increase rapidly, reaching an initial maximum at about 1 hour, followed by gradual ascending concentrations over the next 5 to 9 hours, after which a gradual decrease begins. Mean times to reach peak plasma concentrations across all doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets occurred between 6 and 10 hours.Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily minimizes the fluctuations between peak and trough concentrations associated with immediate-release methylphenidate three times daily (see Figure 1). The relative bioavailability of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily and methylphenidate three times daily in adults is comparable.Figure 1. Mean methylphenidate plasma concentrations in 36 adults, following a single dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets 18 mg once daily and immediate-release methylphenidate 5 mg three times daily administered every 4 hours.The mean single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters in 36 healthy adults following the administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets 18 mg once daily and methylphenidate 5 mg three times daily are summarized in Table 6.The pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets were evaluated in healthy adults following single- and multiple-dose administration (steady state) of doses up to 144 mg/day. The mean half-life was about 3.6 hours. No differences in the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets were noted following single and repeated once-daily dosing, indicating no significant drug accumulation. The AUC and t1/2 following repeated once-daily dosing are similar to those following the first dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a dose range of 18 to 144 mg.Dose ProportionalityFollowing administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in single doses of 18, 36, and 54 mg/day to healthy adults, Cmax and AUC (0-inf) of d-methylphenidate were proportional to dose, whereas l-methylphenidate Cmax and AUC (0-inf) increased disproportionately with respect to dose. Following administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, plasma concentrations of the l-isomer were approximately 1/40 the plasma concentrations of the d-isomer.In healthy adults, single and multiple dosing of once-daily methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets doses from 54 to 144 mg/day resulted in linear and dose-proportional increases in Cmax and AUCinf for total methylphenidate (MPH) and its major metabolite, α-phenyl-piperidine acetic acid (PPAA). There was no time dependency in the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate. The ratio of metabolite (PPAA) to parent drug (MPH) was constant across doses from 54 to 144 mg/day, both after single dose and upon multiple dosing.In a multiple-dose study in adolescent ADHD patients aged 13 to 16 administered their prescribed dose (18 to 72 mg/day) of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, mean Cmax and AUCTAU of d- and total methylphenidate increased proportionally with respect to dose.DistributionPlasma methylphenidate concentrations in adults and adolescents decline biexponentially following oral administration. The half-life of methylphenidate in adults and adolescents following oral administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets was approximately 3.5 hours.Metabolism and ExcretionIn humans, methylphenidate is metabolized primarily by de-esterification to PPAA, which has little or no pharmacologic activity. In adults the metabolism of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily as evaluated by metabolism to PPAA is similar to that of methylphenidate three times daily. The metabolism of single and repeated once-daily doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is similar.After oral dosing of radiolabeled methylphenidate in humans, about 90% of the radioactivity was recovered in urine. The main urinary metabolite was PPAA, accounting for approximately 80% of the dose.Food EffectsIn patients, there were no differences in either the pharmacokinetics or the pharmacodynamic performance of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets when administered after a high-fat breakfast. There is no evidence of dose dumping in the presence or absence of food.Alcohol EffectAn in vitro study was conducted to explore the effect of alcohol on the release characteristics of methylphenidate from the methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets 18 mg tablet dosage form. At an alcohol concentration up to 40% there was no increased release of methylphenidate in the first hour. The results with the 18 mg tablet strength are considered representative of the other available tablet strengths.Special PopulationsGenderIn healthy adults, the mean dose-adjusted AUC (0-inf) values for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets were 36.7 ng·h/mL in men and 37.1 ng·h/mL in women, with no differences noted between the two groups.RaceIn adults receiving methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, dose-adjusted AUC (0-inf) was consistent across ethnic groups; however, the sample size may have been insufficient to detect ethnic variations in pharmacokinetics.AgeIncrease in age resulted in increased apparent oral clearance (CL/F) (58% increase in adolescents compared to children). Some of these differences could be explained by body weight differences among these populations. This suggests that subjects with higher body weight may have lower exposures of total methylphenidate at similar doses.The pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets have not been studied in children less than 6 years of age.Renal InsufficiencyThere is no experience with the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients with renal insufficiency. After oral administration of radiolabeled methylphenidate in humans, methylphenidate was extensively metabolized and approximately 80% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine in the form of PPAA. Since renal clearance is not an important route of methylphenidate clearance, renal insufficiency is expected to have little effect on the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.Hepatic InsufficiencyThere is no experience with the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients with hepatic insufficiency.
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
CarcinogenesisIn a lifetime carcinogenicity study carried out in B6C3F1 mice, methylphenidate caused an increase in hepatocellular adenomas and, in males only, an increase in hepatoblastomas at a daily dose of approximately 60 mg/kg/day. This dose is approximately 30 times and 4 times the maximum recommended human dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on a mg/kg and mg/m2 basis, respectively. Hepatoblastoma is a relatively rare rodent malignant tumor type. There was no increase in total malignant hepatic tumors. The mouse strain used is sensitive to the development of hepatic tumors, and the significance of these results to humans is unknown.Methylphenidate did not cause any increases in tumors in a lifetime carcinogenicity study carried out in F344 rats; the highest dose used was approximately 45 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 22 times and 5 times the maximum recommended human dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on a mg/kg and mg/m2 basis, respectively.In a 24-week carcinogenicity study in the transgenic mouse strain p53+/-, which is sensitive to genotoxic carcinogens, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity. Male and female mice were fed diets containing the same concentration of methylphenidate as in the lifetime carcinogenicity study; the high-dose groups were exposed to 60 to 74 mg/kg/day of methylphenidate.MutagenesisMethylphenidate was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay or the in vitro mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations were increased, indicative of a weak clastogenic response, in an in vitro assay in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Methylphenidate was negative in vivo in males and females in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.Impairment of FertilityMethylphenidate did not impair fertility in male or female mice that were fed diets containing the drug in an 18-week Continuous Breeding study. The study was conducted at doses up to 160 mg/kg/day, approximately 80-fold and 8-fold the highest recommended human dose of Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on a mg/kg and mg/m2 basis, respectively.
14 Clinical Studies
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in children and adolescents and 2 double-blind placebo-controlled studies in adults who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD.
Three double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled studies were conducted in 416 children aged 6 to 12 years. The controlled studies compared Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets given once daily (18, 36, or 54 mg), methylphenidate given three times daily over 12 hours (15, 30, or 45 mg total daily dose), and placebo in two single-center, 3-week crossover studies (Studies 1 and 2) and in a multicenter, 4-week, parallel-group comparison (Study 3). The primary comparison of interest in all three trials was methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets versus placebo.Symptoms of ADHD were evaluated by community schoolteachers using the Inattention/Overactivity with Aggression (IOWA) Conners scale. Statistically significant reduction in the Inattention/Overactivity subscale versus placebo was shown consistently across all three controlled studies for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. The scores for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo for the three studies are presented in Figure 2.Figure2. Mean Community School Teacher IOWA Conners Inattention/Overactivity Scores with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily (18, 36, or 54 mg) and placebo. Studies 1 and 2 involved a 3-way crossover of 1 week per treatment arm. Study 3 involved 4 weeks of parallel-group treatments with a Last Observation Carried Forward analysis at week 4. Error bars represent the mean plus standard error of the mean.In Studies 1 and 2, symptoms of ADHD were evaluated by laboratory schoolteachers using the SKAMP* laboratory school rating scale. The combined results from these two studies demonstrated statistically significant improvements in attention and behavior in patients treated with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets versus placebo that were maintained through 12 hours after dosing. Figure 3 presents the laboratory schoolteacher SKAMP ratings for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo.*Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Fynn, and PelhamFigure 3. Laboratory School Teacher SKAMP Ratings: Mean (SEM) of Combined Attention (Studies 1 and 2)
In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial (Study 4) involving 177 patients, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of ADHD in adolescents aged 13 to 18 years at doses up to 72 mg/day (1.4 mg/kg/day). Of 220 patients who entered an open 4-week titration phase, 177 were titrated to an individualized dose (maximum of 72 mg/day) based on meeting specific improvement criteria on the ADHD Rating Scale and the Global Assessment of Effectiveness with acceptable tolerability. Patients who met these criteria were then randomized to receive either their individualized dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (18 – 72 mg/day, n=87) or placebo (n=90) during a two-week double-blind phase. At the end of this phase, mean scores for the investigator rating on the ADHD Rating Scale demonstrated that methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets was statistically significantly superior to placebo.
Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were conducted in 627 adults aged 18 to 65 years. The controlled studies compared methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets administered once daily and placebo in a multicenter, parallel-group, 7-week dose-titration study (Study 5) (36 to 108 mg/day) and in a multicenter, parallel-group, 5-week, fixed-dose study (Study 6) (18, 36, and 72 mg/day).Study 5 demonstrated the effectiveness of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in the treatment of ADHD in adults aged 18 to 65 years at doses from 36 mg/day to 108 mg/day based on the change from baseline to final study visit on the Adult ADHD Investigator Rating Scale (AISRS). Of 226 patients who entered the 7-week trial, 110 were randomized to methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and 116 were randomized to placebo. Treatment was initiated at 36 mg/day and patients continued with incremental increases of 18 mg/day (36 to 108 mg/day) based on meeting specific improvement criteria with acceptable tolerability. At the final study visit, mean change scores (LS Mean, SEM) for the investigator rating on the AISRS demonstrated that methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets was statistically significantly superior to placebo.Study 6 was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response study (5-week duration) with 3 fixed-dose groups (18, 36, and 72 mg). Patients were randomized to receive methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets administered at doses of 18 mg (n=101), 36 mg (n=102), 72 mg/day (n=102), or placebo (n=96). All three doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets were statistically significantly more effective than placebo in improving CAARS (Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale) total scores at double-blind end point in adult subjects with ADHD.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
16 How Supplied/Storage And Handling
Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets, USP are available in 18 mg, 27 mg, 36 mg, and 54 mg dosage strengths.The 18 mg tablets are light yellow to yellow film coated round cylindrical biconvex tablets printed with 212 in black ink.NDC 31722-952-01 bottles of 100 tabletsThe 27 mg tablets are light pink to pink film coated round cylindrical biconvex tablets printed with 213 in black ink.NDC 31722-953-01 bottles of 100 tabletsThe 36 mg tablets are White to off white film coated round cylindrical biconvex tablets printed with 214 in black ink.NDC 31722-954-01 bottles of 100 tabletsThe 54 mg tablets are light to dark brown film coated round cylindrical biconvex tablets printed with 215 in black ink.NDC 31722-955-01 bottles of 100 tabletsStorage and HandlingStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from humidity.
17 Patient Counseling Information
See Medication GuidePriapismAdvise patients, caregivers, and family members of the possibility of painful or prolonged penile erections (priapism). Instruct the patient to seek immediate medical attention in the event of priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].Circulation Problems in Fingers and Toes [Peripheral Vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s Phenomenon]Instruct patients beginning treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets about the risk of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, and associated signs and symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red.Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes.Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.General ConsiderationsPrescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with methylphenidate and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide is available for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.Administration InstructionsPatients should be informed that methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole with the aid of liquids. Tablets should not be chewed, divided, or crushed. The medication is contained within a nonabsorbable shell designed to release the drug at a controlled rate. The tablet shell, along with insoluble core components, is eliminated from the body; patients should not be concerned if they occasionally notice in their stool something that looks like a tablet.Driving or Operating Heavy MachineryStimulants may impair the ability of the patient to operate potentially hazardous machinery or vehicles. Patients should be cautioned accordingly until they are reasonably certain that methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets does not adversely affect their ability to engage in such activities.For more information call 1-866-495-8330.Manufactured by:Ascent Pharmaceuticals Inc.Central Islip, NY 11722Manufactured for:Camber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Piscataway, NJ 08854Rev: 02/2019
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