NDC 43602-266 Hydromorphone Hydrochloride

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride

NDC Product Code 43602-266

NDC CODE: 43602-266

Proprietary Name: Hydromorphone Hydrochloride What is the Proprietary Name?
The proprietary name also known as the trade name is the name of the product chosen by the medication labeler for marketing purposes.

Non-Proprietary Name: Hydromorphone Hydrochloride What is the Non-Proprietary Name?
The non-proprietary name is sometimes called the generic name. The generic name usually includes the active ingredient(s) of the product.

Product Characteristics

Color(s):
PINK (C48328 - LIGHT PINK TO PINK)
Shape: ROUND (C48348)
Size(s):
7 MM
Imprint(s):
266
Score: 1

NDC Code Structure

NDC 43602-266-05

Package Description: 500 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE in 1 BOTTLE

NDC 43602-266-30

Package Description: 30 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE in 1 BOTTLE

NDC Product Information

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride with NDC 43602-266 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Ascent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. The generic name of Hydromorphone Hydrochloride is hydromorphone hydrochloride. The product's dosage form is tablet, extended release and is administered via oral form.

Labeler Name: Ascent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Dosage Form: Tablet, Extended Release - A solid dosage form containing a drug which allows at least a reduction in dosing frequency as compared to that drug presented in conventional dosage form.

Product Type: Human Prescription Drug What kind of product is this?
Indicates the type of product, such as Human Prescription Drug or Human Over the Counter Drug. This data element matches the “Document Type” field of the Structured Product Listing.

DEA Schedule: Schedule II (CII) Substances What is the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) CII Schedule?
The controlled substances in the CII schedule have a high abuse potential with severe psychological or physical dependence liability, but have accepted medical use in the United States. Schedule CII controlled substances include certain narcotic, stimulant, and depressant drugs.

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Active Ingredient(s)

What is the Active Ingredient(s) List?
This is the active ingredient list. Each ingredient name is the preferred term of the UNII code submitted.

  • HYDROMORPHONE HYDROCHLORIDE 8 mg/1

Inactive Ingredient(s)

About the Inactive Ingredient(s)
The inactive ingredients are all the component of a medicinal product OTHER than the active ingredient(s). The acronym "UNII" stands for “Unique Ingredient Identifier” and is used to identify each inactive ingredient present in a product.

  • POLYETHYLENE OXIDE 200000 (UNII: 11628IH70O)
  • POVIDONE (UNII: FZ989GH94E)
  • BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENE (UNII: 1P9D0Z171K)
  • ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL (UNII: ND2M416302)
  • MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)
  • SODIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 451W47IQ8X)
  • HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED (UNII: 3NXW29V3WO)
  • FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW (UNII: EX438O2MRT)
  • ACETONE (UNII: 1364PS73AF)
  • CELLULOSE ACETATE (UNII: 3J2P07GVB6)
  • POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, UNSPECIFIED (UNII: 3WJQ0SDW1A)
  • TITANIUM DIOXIDE (UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)
  • POLYSORBATE 80 (UNII: 6OZP39ZG8H)

Administration Route(s)

What are the Administration Route(s)?
The translation of the route code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration.

  • Oral - Administration to or by way of the mouth.

Pharmacological Class(es)

What is a Pharmacological Class?
These are the reported pharmacological class categories corresponding to the SubstanceNames listed above.

  • Full Opioid Agonists - [MoA] (Mechanism of Action)
  • Opioid Agonist - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)

Product Labeler Information

What is the Labeler Name?
Name of Company corresponding to the labeler code segment of the Product NDC.

Labeler Name: Ascent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Labeler Code: 43602
FDA Application Number: ANDA212133 What is the FDA Application Number?
This corresponds to the NDA, ANDA, or BLA number reported by the labeler for products which have the corresponding Marketing Category designated. If the designated Marketing Category is OTC Monograph Final or OTC Monograph Not Final, then the Application number will be the CFR citation corresponding to the appropriate Monograph (e.g. “part 341”). For unapproved drugs, this field will be null.

Marketing Category: ANDA - A product marketed under an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application. What is the Marketing Category?
Product types are broken down into several potential Marketing Categories, such as NDA/ANDA/BLA, OTC Monograph, or Unapproved Drug. One and only one Marketing Category may be chosen for a product, not all marketing categories are available to all product types. Currently, only final marketed product categories are included. The complete list of codes and translations can be found at www.fda.gov/edrls under Structured Product Labeling Resources.

Start Marketing Date: 09-24-2020 What is the Start Marketing Date?
This is the date that the labeler indicates was the start of its marketing of the drug product.

Listing Expiration Date: 12-31-2021 What is the Listing Expiration Date?
This is the date when the listing record will expire if not updated or certified by the product labeler.

Exclude Flag: N - NO What is the NDC Exclude Flag?
This field indicates whether the product has been removed/excluded from the NDC Directory for failure to respond to FDA"s requests for correction to deficient or non-compliant submissions ("Y"), or because the listing certification is expired ("E"), or because the listing data was inactivated by FDA ("I"). Values = "Y", "N", "E", or "I".

* Please review the disclaimer below.

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

Warning: Addiction, Abuse, And Misuse; Risk Evaluation And Mitigation Strategy (Rems); Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression; Accidental Ingestion; Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome; And Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other Cns Depressants

  • Addiction, Abuse, and MisuseHydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS):To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged tocomplete a REMS-compliant education program,counsel patients and/or their caregivers, with every prescription, on safe use, serious risks, storage, and disposal of these products,emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide every time it is provided by their pharmacist, andconsider other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety.Life-Threatening Respiratory DepressionSerious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets or following a dose increase. Instruct patients to swallow hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets whole; crushing, chewing, or dissolving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can cause rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of hydromorphone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Accidental IngestionAccidental ingestion of even one dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of hydromorphone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal SyndromeProlonged use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS DepressantsConcomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Drug Interactions (7)].Reserve concomitant prescribing of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

1 Indications And Usage

  • Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are indicated for the management of pain in opioid-tolerant patients severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate.Patients considered opioid tolerant are those who are receiving, for one week or longer, at least 60 mg oral morphine per day, 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl per hour, 30 mg oral oxycodone per day, 8 mg oral hydromorphone per day, 25 mg oral oxymorphone per day, 60 mg oral hydrocodone per day, or an equianalgesic dose of another opioid.Limitations of UseBecause of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses, and because of the greater risks of overdose and death with extended-release opioid formulations, reserve hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options (e.g., non-opioid analgesics or immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or would be otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain.Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is not indicated as an as-needed (prn) analgesic.

2.1 Important Dosage And Administration Information

  • To avoid medication errors, prescribers and pharmacists must be aware that hydromorphone is available as both immediate-release 8 mg tablets and extended-release 8 mg tablets.Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be prescribed only by healthcare professionals who are knowledgeable in the use of potent opioids for the management of chronic pain.Due to the risk of respiratory depression, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is only indicated for use in patients who are already opioid-tolerant. Discontinue or taper all other extended-release opioids when beginning hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets therapy. As hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is only for use in opioid-tolerant patients, do not begin any patient on hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets as the first opioid.Patients who are opioid-tolerant are those receiving, for one week or longer, at least 60 mg of oral morphine per day, at least 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl per hour, at least 30 mg of oral oxycodone per day, at least 8 mg of oral hydromorphone per day, at least 25 mg oral oxymorphone per day, at least 60 mg oral hydrocodone per day, or an equianalgesic dose of another opioid.Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's prior analgesic treatment experience and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and adjust the dosage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Instruct patients to swallow hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets whole [see Patient Counseling Information (17)]. Crushing, chewing, or dissolving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets will result in uncontrolled delivery of hydromorphone and can lead to overdose or death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

2.2 Initial Dosing

  • Conversion from Other Oral Hydromorphone Formulations to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release TabletsPatients receiving oral immediate-release hydromorphone may be converted to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets by administering a starting dose equivalent to the patient’s total daily oral hydromorphone dose, taken once daily.Conversion from Other Oral Opioids to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release TabletsDiscontinue all other around-the-clock opioid drugs when hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets therapy is initiated.There is substantial inter-patient variability in the relative potency of different opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dosage of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour oral hydromorphone dosage and provide rescue medication (e.g., immediate-release opioid) than to overestimate the 24-hour oral hydromorphone dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to overdose.In an hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets clinical trial with an open-label titration period, patients were converted from their prior opioid to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets using the Table 1 as a guide for the initial hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose. The recommended starting dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is 50% of the calculated estimate of daily hydromorphone requirement. Calculate the estimated daily hydromorphone requirement using Table 1.Consider the following when using the information in Table 1:This is nota table of equianalgesic doses.The conversion factors in this table are only for the conversion fromone of the listed oral opioid analgesics tohydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets.The table cannotbe used to convert fromhydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to another opioid. Doing so will result in an overestimation of the dose of the new opioid and may result in fatal overdose.Table 1.Conversion Factors to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release TabletsPrior Oral Opioid    Approximate Oral    Conversion FactorHydromorphone    1Codeine    0.06Hydrocodone    0.4Methadone    0.6Morphine    0.2Oxycodone    0.4Oxymorphone    0.6To calculate the estimated hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose using Table 1:For patients on a single opioid, sum the current total daily dose of the opioid and then multiply the total daily dose by the conversion factor to calculate the approximate oral hydromorphone daily dose.For patients on a regimen of more than one opioid, calculate the approximate oral hydromorphone dose for each opioid and sum the totals to obtain the approximate total hydromorphone daily dose.For patients on a regimen of fixed-ratio opioid/non-opioid analgesic products, use only the opioid component of these products in the conversion.Always round the dose down, if necessary, to the appropriate hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets strength(s) available.Example conversion from a single opioid to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets:Step 1: Sum the total daily dose of the opioid   30 mg of oxycodone 2 times daily = 60 mg total daily dose of oxycodoneStep 2: Calculate the approximate equivalent dose of oral hydromorphone based on the total daily dose of the current opioid using Table 1    60 mg total daily dose of oxycodone x Conversion Factor of 0.4 = 24 mg of oral hydromorphone dailyStep 3: Calculate the approximate starting dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to be given every 24 hours, which is 50% of the calculated oral hydromorphone dose. Round down, if necessary, to the appropriate hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet strengths available.    50% of 24 mg results in an initial dose of 12 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily    Adjust individually for each patientClose observation and frequent titration are warranted until pain management is stable on the new opioid. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal or for signs of over-sedation/toxicity after converting patients to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets.Conversion from Transdermal Fentanyl to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tabletsEighteen hours following the removal of the transdermal fentanyl patch, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets treatment can be initiated. To calculate the 24-hour hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose, use a conversion factor of 25 mcg/hr fentanyl transdermal patch to 12 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Then reduce the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose by 50%.For example:Step 1: Identify the dose of transdermal fentanyl.75 mg of transdermal fentanylStep 2: Use the conversion factor of 25 mcg/hr fentanyl transdermal patch to 12 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets.75 mg of transdermal fentanyl: 36 mg total daily dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tabletsStep 3: Calculate the approximate starting dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to be given every 24 hours, which is 50% of the converted dose. Round down, if necessary, to the appropriate hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet strengths available.50% of 36 mg results in an initial dose of 18 mg, which would be rounded down to 16 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets once dailyAdjust individually for each patientConversion from Methadone to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release TabletsClose monitoring is of particular importance when converting from methadone to other opioid agonists. The ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists may vary widely as a function of previous dose exposure. Methadone has a long half-life and can accumulate in the plasma.

2.3 Titration And Maintenance Of Therapy

Individually titrate hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse. Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration. During chronic therapy, periodically reassess the continued need for opioid analgesics.Plasma levels of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are sustained for 18 to 24 hours. Dosage adjustments of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be made in increments of 4 to 8 mg every 3 to 4 days as needed to achieve adequate analgesia.Patients who experience breakthrough pain may require a dose increase of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, or may need rescue medication with an appropriate dose of an immediate-release analgesic. If the level of pain increases after dose stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose.If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, the subsequent doses may be reduced. Adjust the dose to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions.

2.4 Safe Reduction Or Discontinuation Of Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets

Do not abruptly discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients who may be physically dependent on opioids. Rapid discontinuation of opioid analgesics in patients who are physically dependent on opioids has resulted in serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse. Patients may also attempt to treat their pain or withdrawal symptoms with illicit opioids, such as heroin, and other substances.When a decision has been made to decrease the dose or discontinue therapy in an opioid-dependent patient taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, there are a variety of factors that should be considered, including the dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, the type of pain being treated, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. It is important to ensure ongoing care of the patient and to agree on an appropriate tapering schedule and follow-up plan so that patient and provider goals and expectations are clear and realistic. When opioid analgesics are being discontinued due to a suspected substance use disorder, evaluate and treat the patient, or refer for evaluation and treatment of the substance use disorder. Treatment should include evidence-based approaches, such as medication assisted treatment of opioid use disorder. Complex patients with comorbid pain and substance use disorders may benefit from referral to a specialist.There are no standard opioid tapering schedules that are suitable for all patients. Good clinical practice dictates a patient-specific plan to taper the dose of the opioid gradually. For patients on hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets who are physically opioid-dependent, initiate the taper by a small enough increment (e.g., no greater than 10% to 25% of the total daily dose) to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and proceed with dose-lowering at an interval of every 2 to 4 weeks. Patients who have been taking opioids for briefer periods of time may tolerate a more rapid taper.It may be necessary to provide the patient with lower dosage strengths to accomplish a successful taper. Reassess the patient frequently to manage pain and withdrawal symptoms, should they emerge. Common withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate. If withdrawal symptoms arise, it may be necessary to pause the taper for a period of time or raise the dose of the opioid analgesic to the previous dose, and then proceed with a slower taper. In addition, monitor patients for any changes in mood, emergence of suicidal thoughts, or use of other substances.When managing patients taking opioid analgesics, particularly those who have been treated for a long duration and/or with high doses for chronic pain, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper. A multimodal approach to pain management may optimize the treatment of chronic pain, as well as assist with the successful tapering of the opioid analgesic [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].

2.5 Dosage Modifications In Patients With Moderate Hepatic Impairment

Start patients with moderate hepatic impairment on 25% of the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose that would be prescribed for patients with normal hepatic function. Closely monitor patients with moderate hepatic impairment for respiratory and central nervous system depression during initiation of therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and during dose titration. Use of alternate analgesics is recommended for patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

2.6 Dosage Modifications In Patients With Renal Impairment

Start patients with moderate renal impairment on 50% of the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose that would be prescribed for patients with normal renal function. Closely monitor patients with renal impairment for respiratory and central nervous system depression during initiation of therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and during dose titration. As hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is only intended for once daily administration, consider use of an alternate analgesic that may permit more flexibility with the dosing interval in patients with severe renal impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].

3 Dosage Forms And Strengths

Extended-release tablets: available in 8 mg, 12 mg, 16 mg or 32 mg dosage strengths.8 mg tablets: Light pink to pink film coated round, biconvex tablets printed with "266" in black ink on one side of the tablet12 mg tablets: Light yellow to yellow film coated, round, biconvex tablets printed with "267" in black ink on one side of the tablet16 mg tablets: Light beige to beige film coated, round, biconvex tablets printed with "268" in black ink on one side of the tablet32 mg tablets: White to off white film coated, round, biconvex tablets printed with "269" with black ink on one side of the tablet

4 Contraindications

  • Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated in:Opioid non-tolerant patients. Fatal respiratory depression could occur in patients who are not opioid tolerant.Patients with significant respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].Known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].Patients who have had surgical procedures and/or underlying disease resulting in narrowing of the gastrointestinal tract, or have “blind loops” of the gastrointestinal tract or gastrointestinal obstruction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].Patients with hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to hydromorphone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)].

5.1 Addiction, Abuse, And Misuse

Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets contains hydromorphone, a Schedule II controlled substance. As an opioid, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)]. As modified-release products such as hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets deliver the opioid over an extended period of time, there is a greater risk for overdose and death due to the larger amount of hydromorphone present.Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and in those who obtain the drug illicitly. Addiction can occur at recommended doses and if the drug is misused or abused.Assess each patient’s risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse prior to prescribing hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, and monitor all patients receiving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for the development of these behaviors and conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol addiction or abuse) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not, however, prevent the prescribing of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed modified-release opioid formulations such as hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets along with intensive monitoring for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse.Abuse or misuse of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets by crushing, chewing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product will result in the uncontrolled delivery of hydromorphone and can result in overdose and death [see Overdosage (10)].Opioids are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity and advising the patient on the proper disposal of unused drug [see Patient Counseling Information (17)]. Contact local state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.

5.2 Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation And Mitigation Strategy (Rems)

  • To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for these products. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to do all of the following:Complete a REMS-compliant education program offered by an accredited provider of continuing education (CE) or another education program that includes all the elements of the FDA Education Blueprint for Health Care Providers Involved in the Management or Support of Patients with Pain.Discuss the safe use, serious risks, and proper storage and disposal of opioid analgesics with patients and/or their caregivers every time these medicines are prescribed. The Patient Counseling Guide (PCG) can be obtained at this link: www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSPCG.Emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide that they will receive from their pharmacist every time an opioid analgesic is dispensed to them.Consider using other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety, such as patient-prescriber agreements that reinforce patient-prescriber responsibilities.To obtain further information on the opioid analgesic REMS and for a list of accredited REMS CME/CE, call 1-800-503-0784, or log on to www.opioidanalgesicrems.com. The FDA Blueprint can be found at www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSBlueprint.

5.3 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression

Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of modified-release opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression from opioid use, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient’s clinical status [see Overdosage (10)]. Carbon dioxide (CO2) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dosage increase. Closely monitor patients for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and following dosage increases.To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are essential [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. Overestimating the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose when converting patients from another opioid product can result in fatal overdose with the first dose.Accidental ingestion of even one dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, especially by children, can result in respiratory depression and death due to an overdose of hydromorphone.Opioids can cause sleep-related breathing disorders including central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia. Opioid use increases the risk of CSA in a dose-dependent fashion. In patients who present with CSA, consider decreasing the opioid dosage using best practices for opioid taper [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

5.4 Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome

Prolonged use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets during pregnancy can result in withdrawal in the neonate. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. Observe newborns for signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly. Advise pregnant women using opioids for a prolonged period of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1), Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.5 Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other Cns Depressants

Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result from the concomitant use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (e.g., non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol). Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioid analgesics alone. Because of similar pharmacological properties, it is reasonable to expect similar risk with the concomitant use of other CNS depressant drugs with opioid analgesics [see Drug Interactions (7)].If the decision is made to prescribe a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant concomitantly with an opioid analgesic, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant than indicated in the absence of an opioid, and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid analgesic is initiated in a patient already taking a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid analgesic, and titrate based on clinical response. Follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (including alcohol and illicit drugs). Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant have been determined. Screen patients for risk of substance use disorders, including opioid abuse and misuse, and warn them of the risk for overdose and death associated with the use of additional CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs [see Drug Interactions (7), Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.6 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression In Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease Or In Elderly, Cachectic, Or Debilitated Patients

The use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease: Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor  pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients: Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and when hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), (5.5)]. Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.

5.7 Adrenal Insufficiency

Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.

5.8 Severe Hypotension

Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is an increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume, or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics) [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. In patients with circulatory shock, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients with circulatory shock.

5.9 Risks Of Use In Patients With Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, Or Impaired Consciousness

In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets.Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.

5.10 Risks Of Use In Patients With Gastrointestinal Conditions

Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus. Avoid the use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients with other GI obstruction.Because the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet is nondeformable and does not appreciably change in shape in the GI tract, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is contraindicated in patients with preexisting severe gastrointestinal narrowing (pathologic or iatrogenic, for example: esophageal motility disorders, small bowel inflammatory disease, “short gut” syndrome due to adhesions or decreased transit time, past history of peritonitis, cystic fibrosis, chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction, or Meckel’s diverticulum). There have been reports of obstructive symptoms in patients with known strictures or risk of strictures, such as previous GI surgery, in association with the ingestion of drugs in nondeformable extended-release formulations.It is possible that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be visible on abdominal x-rays under certain circumstances, especially when digital enhancing techniques are utilized.The hydromorphone in hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms.

5.11 Increased Risk Of Seizures In Patients With Seizure Disorders

The hydromorphone in hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may increase the frequency of seizures in patients with seizure disorders, and may increase the risk of seizures occurring in other clinical settings associated with seizures. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets therapy.

5.12 Withdrawal

Do not abruptly discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of hydromorphone in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or may precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.13 Sulfites

Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.14 Risks Of Driving And Operating Machinery

Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may impair the mental and/or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and know how they will react to the medication [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].

6 Adverse Reactions

  • The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]Interactions with Benzodiazepine or Other CNS Depressants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]Adrenal Insufficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]Severe Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]Withdrawal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]

6.1 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets was administered to a total of 2,524 patients in 15 controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies. Of these, 423 patients were exposed to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for greater than 6 months and 141 exposed for greater than one year.The most common adverse reactions leading to study discontinuation were nausea, vomiting, constipation, somnolence, and dizziness. The most common treatment-related serious adverse reactions from controlled and uncontrolled chronic pain studies were drug withdrawal syndrome, overdose, confusional state, and constipation.The overall incidence of adverse reactions in patients greater than 65 years of age was higher, with a greater than 5% difference in rates for constipation and nausea when compared with younger patients. The overall incidence of adverse reactions in female patients was higher, with a greater than 5% difference in rates for nausea, vomiting, constipation and somnolence when compared with male patients.A 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study was conducted in opioid tolerant patients with moderate to severe low back pain [see Clinical Studies (14)]. A total of 447 patients were enrolled into the open-label titration phase with 268 patients randomized into the double-blind treatment phase. The adverse reactions that were reported in at least 2% of the patients are contained in Table 2.Table 2.Number (%) of Patients with Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients with Moderate to Severe Low Back Pain During the Open-Label Titration Phase or Double-Blind Treatment Phase by Preferred TermPreferred TermOpen-Label Titration Phase Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets (N=447)                    Double-Blind Treatment PhaseHydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets (N=134)Placebo (N=134)Constipation69 (15)10 (7)5 (4)Nausea53 (12)12 (9)10 (7)Somnolence39 (9)1 (1)0 (0)Headache35 (8)7 (5)10 (7)Vomiting29 (6)8 (6)6 (4)Pruritus21 (5)1 (1)0 (0)Dizziness17 (4)3 (2)2 (1)Insomnia13 (3)7 (5)5 (4)Dry Mouth13 (3)2 (1)0 (0)Edema Peripheral13 (3)3 (2)1 (1)Hyperhidrosis13 (3)2 (1)2 (1)Anorexia/Decreased Appetite10 (2)2 (1)0 (0)Arthralgia9 (2)8 (6)3 (2)Abdominal Pain9 (2)4 (3)3 (2)Muscle Spasms5 (1)3 (2)1 (1)Weight Decreased3 (1)4 (3)3 (2)The adverse reactions that were reported in at least 2% of the total treated patients (N=2,474) in the 14 chronic clinical trials are contained in Table 3.Table 3.Number (%) of Patients with Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients with Chronic Pain Receiving Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets in 14 Clinical Studies by Preferred TermPreferred TermAll Patients(N=2,474)Constipation765 (31)Nausea684 (28)Vomiting337 (14)Somnolence367 (15)Headache308 (12)Asthenia/Fatigue272 (11)Dizziness262 (11)Diarrhea201 (8)Pruritus193 (8)Insomnia161 (7)Hyperhidrosis143 (6)Edema Peripheral135 (5)Anorexia/Decreased Appetite139 (6)Dry Mouth121 (5)Abdominal Pain115 (5)Anxiety95 (4)Back Pain95 (4)Dyspepsia*88 (4)Depression81 (3)Dyspnea76 (3)Muscle Spasms74 (3)Arthralgia72 (3)Rash64 (3)Pain in Extremity63 (3)Pain58 (2)Drug Withdrawal Syndrome55 (2)Pyrexia52 (2)Fall51 (2)Chest pain51 (2)*Reflux esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus were grouped and reported with dyspepsiaThe following Adverse Reactions occurred in patients with an overall frequency of < 2% and are listed in descending order within each System Organ Class:Cardiac disorders: palpitations, tachycardia, bradycardia, extrasystolesEar and labyrinth disorders: vertigo, tinnitusEndocrine disorders: hypogonadismEye disorders: vision blurred, diplopia, dry eye, miosisGastrointestinal disorders: flatulence, dysphagia, hematochezia, abdominal distension, hemorrhoids, abnormal feces, intestinal obstruction, eructation, diverticulum, gastrointestinal motility disorder, large intestine perforation, anal fissure, bezoar, duodenitis, ileus, impaired gastric emptying, painful defecationGeneral disorders and administration site conditions: chills, malaise, feeling abnormal, feeling of body temperature change, feeling jittery, hangover, gait disturbance, feeling drunk, body temperature decreasedInfections and infestations: gastroenteritis, diverticulitisInjury, poisoning and procedural complications: contusion, overdose Investigations: weight decreased, hepatic enzyme increased, blood potassium decreased, blood amylase increased, blood testosterone decreased Metabolism and nutrition disorders: dehydration, fluid retention, increased appetite, hyperuricemia Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: myalgia Nervous system disorders: tremor, sedation, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, disturbance in attention, memory impairment, dysarthria, syncope, balance disorder, dysgeusia, depressed level of consciousness, coordination abnormal, hyperesthesia, myoclonus, dyskinesia, crying, hyperreflexia, encephalopathy, cognitive disorder, convulsion, psychomotor hyperactivity Psychiatric disorders: confusional state, nervousness, restlessness, abnormal dreams, mood altered, hallucination, panic attack, euphoric mood, paranoia, dysphoria, listless, suicide ideation, libido decreased, aggression Renal and urinary disorders: dysuria, urinary retention, urinary frequency, urinary hesitation, micturition disorder Reproductive system and breast disorders: erectile dysfunction, sexual dysfunction Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: rhinorrhea, respiratory distress, hypoxia, bronchospasm, sneezing, hyperventilation, respiratory depression Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: erythema Vascular disorders: flushing, hypertension, hypotension

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of hydromorphone. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs [see Drug Interactions (7)].Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].Anaphylaxis: Anaphylactic reaction has been reported with ingredients contained in hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.13)].Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

7 Drug Interactions

Table 4 includes clinically significant drug interactions with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets.Table 4: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release TabletsBenzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) DepressantsClinical Impact:Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.Intervention:Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].Examples:Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol.Serotonergic DrugsClinical Impact:The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.Intervention:If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets if serotonin syndrome is suspected.Examples:Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)Clinical Impact:MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].Intervention:The use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.Examples:phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolidMixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid AnalgesicsClinical Impact:May reduce the analgesic effect of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].Intervention:Avoid concomitant use.Examples:butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphineMuscle RelaxantsClinical Impact:Hydromorphone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].Intervention:Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.DiureticsClinical Impact:Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.Intervention:Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.Anticholinergic DrugsClinical Impact:The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.Intervention:Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk SummaryProlonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.In animal reproduction studies, reduced postnatal survival of pups, developmental delays, and altered behavioral responses were noted following oral treatment of pregnant rats with hydromorphone during gestation and through lactation at doses 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day (HDD), respectively. In published studies, neural tube defects were noted following subcutaneous injection of hydromorphone to pregnant hamsters at doses 4.8 times the HDD and soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities were noted following subcutaneous continuous infusion of 2.3 times the HDD to pregnant mice. No malformations were noted at 2.1 or 17 times the HDD in pregnant rats or rabbits, respectively [see Data]. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.Clinical ConsiderationsFetal/Neonatal Adverse ReactionsProlonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, and manage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].Labor or DeliveryOpioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when use of shorter-acting analgesics or other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression.DataAnimal DataPregnant rats were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to 17 via oral gavage doses of 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day (0.5, 1.1, or 2.1 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area, respectively). Maternal toxicity was noted in all treatment groups (reduced food consumption and body weights in the two highest dose groups). There was no evidence of malformations or embryotoxicity reported.Pregnant rabbits were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to 20 via oral gavage doses of 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day (4.3, 8.5, or 17 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area, respectively). Maternal toxicity was noted in the highest dose group (reduced food consumption and body weights). There was no evidence of malformations or embryotoxicity reported.In a published study, neural tube defects (exencephaly and cranioschisis) were noted following subcutaneous administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride (19 to 258 mg/kg) on Gestation Day 8 to pregnant hamsters (4.8 to 65.4 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area). The findings cannot be clearly attributed to maternal toxicity. No neural tube defects were noted at 14 mg/kg (3.5 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day). In a published study, CF-1 mice were treated subcutaneously with continuous infusion of 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day hydromorphone hydrochloride (1.1, 2.3, or 4.6 times the human daily dose of 32 mg based on body surface area) via implanted osmotic pumps during organogenesis (Gestation Days 7 to 10). Soft tissue malformations (cryptorchidism, cleft palate, malformed ventricles and retina), and skeletal variations (split supraoccipital, checkerboard and split sternebrae, delayed ossification of the paws and ectopic ossification sites) were observed at doses 2.3 times the human dose of 32 mg/day based on body surface area. The findings cannot be clearly attributed to maternal toxicity.Pregnant rats were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to Lactation Day 21 via oral gavage doses of 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day (0.5, 1.1, or 2.1 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area, respectively). Reduced pup weights were noted at 1.1 and 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day and increased pup deaths, delayed ear opening, reduced auditory startle reflex, and reduced open-field activity were also noted at 2.1 times the HDD. Maternal toxicity was noted in all treatment groups (reduced food consumption and body weights in all groups) and decreased maternal care in the high dose group.

8.2 Lactation

Risk SummaryBecause of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation and respiratory depression in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Low concentrations of hydromorphone have been detected in human milk in clinical trials. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfeeding infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped. Nursing should not be undertaken while a patient is receiving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets since hydromorphone is excreted in the milk.Clinical ConsiderationsMonitor infants exposed to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped.

8.3 Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential

InfertilityChronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Adverse Reactions (6.2), Nonclinical Toxicology(13.1)].

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients 17 years of age and younger have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to hydromorphone. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Hydromorphone is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

In a study that used a single 4 mg oral dose of immediate-release hydromorphone tablets, four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (Cmax and AUC0-∞) were observed in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Group B). Start patients with moderate hepatic impairment on 25% of the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose that would be used in patients with normal hepatic function. Closely monitor patients with moderate hepatic impairment for respiratory and central nervous system depression during initiation of therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and during dose titration. The pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone in severe hepatic impairment patients have not been studied. As further increases in Cmax and AUC0-∞ of hydromorphone in this group are expected, use of alternate analgesics is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

8.7 Renal Impairment

Administration of a single 4 mg dose of immediate-release hydromorphone tablets resulted in two-fold and four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (Cmax and AUC0-48h) in moderate (CLcr = 40 to 60 mL/min) and severe (CLcr < 30 mL/min) impairment, respectively. In addition, in patients with severe renal impairment hydromorphone appeared to be more slowly eliminated with longer terminal elimination half-life. Start patients with moderate renal impairment on 50% and patients with severe renal impairment on 25% of the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose that would be prescribed for patients with normal renal function. Closely monitor patients with renal impairment for respiratory and central nervous system depression during initiation of therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and during dose titration. As hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is only intended for once daily administration, consider use of an alternate analgesic that may permit more flexibility with the dosing interval in patients with severe renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].

9.1 Controlled Substance

Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets contains hydromorphone, a Schedule II controlled substance.

9.2 Abuse

Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets contains hydromorphone, a substance with a high potential for abuse similar to other opioids including fentanyl, hydrocodone, oxycodone, methadone, morphine, oxymorphone and tapentadol. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can be abused and is subject to misuse, abuse, addiction, and criminal diversion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].The high drug content in extended-release formulations adds to the risk of adverse outcomes from abuse and misuse.All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use.Prescription drug abuse is the intentional non-therapeutic use of a prescription drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological or physiological effects.Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and includes: a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal."Drug-seeking" behavior is very common in persons with substance use disorders. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing or referral, repeated “loss” of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions, and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating healthcare providers. “Doctor shopping” (visiting multiple prescribers to obtain additional prescriptions) is common among drug abusers and people suffering from untreated addiction. Preoccupation with achieving pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with poor pain control.Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Healthcare providers should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of true addiction.Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, like other opioids, can be diverted for non-medical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised.Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.Risks Specific to Abuse of Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release TabletsHydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are for oral use only. Abuse of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets poses a risk of overdose and death. This risk is increased with concurrent abuse of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. Taking cut, broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets enhances drug release and increases the risk of overdose and death.With intravenous abuse, the inactive ingredients in hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, especially polyethylene oxide, can be expected to result in local tissue necrosis, infection, pulmonary granulomas, embolism and death, and increased risk of endocarditis and valvular heart injury. Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious disease such as hepatitis and HIV.

9.3 Dependence

Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during chronic opioid therapy. Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs, and may develop at different rates for different effects.Physical dependence is a physiological state in which the body adapts to the drug after a period of regular exposure, resulting in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dosage reduction of a drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity, e.g., naloxone, nalmefene, mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (e.g., pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), or partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued opioid usage.Do not abruptly discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids. Rapid tapering of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse.When discontinuing hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, gradually taper the dosage using a patient-specific plan that considers the following: the dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. To improve the likelihood of a successful taper and minimize withdrawal symptoms, it is important that the opioid tapering schedule is agreed upon by the patient. In patients taking opioids for a long duration at high doses, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal signs [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

10 Overdosage

Clinical PresentationAcute overdosage with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and, in some cases pulmonary edema, bradycardia, hypotension, partial or complete airway obstruction, atypical snoring, and death. Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations.Treatment of OverdoseIn case of overdose, priorities are the re-establishment of a patent and protected airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation, if needed. Employ other supportive measures (including oxygen, vasopressors) in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias will require advanced life support techniques.The opioid antagonists, naloxone and nalmefene, are specific antidotes to respiratory depression resulting from opioid overdose. For clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to hydromorphone overdose, administer an opioid antagonist. Opioid antagonists should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to hydromorphone overdose.Because the duration of reversal is expected to be less than the duration of action of hydromorphone in hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, carefully monitor the patient until spontaneous respiration is reliably reestablished. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets will continue to release hydromorphone and add to the hydromorphone load for up to 24 to 48 hours or longer following ingestion, necessitating prolonged monitoring. If the response to opioid antagonist is suboptimal or only brief in nature, administer additional antagonist as directed by the product’s prescribing information.In an individual physically dependent on opioids, administration of the recommended usual dosage of the antagonist will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms experienced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered. If a decision is made to treat serious respiratory depression in the physically dependent patient, administration of the antagonist should be initiated with care and by titration with smaller than usual doses of the antagonist.

11 Description

Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are for oral use and contain hydromorphone hydrochloride, an opioid agonist.Hydromorphone hydrochloride USP is 4,5α-epoxy-3-hydroxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one hydrochloride. Hydromorphone hydrochloride is a white or almost white crystalline powder that is freely soluble in water, very slightly soluble in ethanol (96%), and practically insoluble in methylene chloride. Its empirical formula is C17H19NO3•HCl. The compound has the following structural formula:Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets also contains the following inactive ingredients: Polyethylene Oxide, Povidone, butylated hydroxytoluene, Isopropyl Alcohol, Magnesium Stearate, Sodium Chloride, Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose, Ferric Oxide Yellow, Acetone, Cellulose acetate, Polyethylene glycol, hypromellose and titanium dioxideThe 8 mg, 12 mg and 16 mg also contains iron oxide yellow and polysorbate. The 32 mg also contains talc, black iron oxide and propylene glycol.

12.1 Mechanism Of Action

Hydromorphone, a semi-synthetic morphine derivative, is a hydrogenated ketone of morphine.Hydromorphone is a full opioid agonist and is relatively selective for the mu-opioid receptor, although it can bind to other opioid receptors at higher doses. The principal therapeutic action of hydromorphone is analgesia. Like all full opioid agonists, there is no ceiling effect for analgesia with morphine. Clinically, dosage is titrated to provide adequate analgesia and may be limited by adverse reactions, including respiratory and CNS depression.The precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown. However, specific CNS opioid receptors for endogenous compounds with opioid-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are thought to play a role in the analgesic effects of this drug.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

CNS Depressant/Alcohol InteractionAdditive pharmacodynamic effects may be expected when hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is used in conjunction with alcohol, other opioids, legal or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression.Effects on the Central Nervous SystemHydromorphone produces dose-related respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and to electrical stimulation.Hydromorphone causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origins may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis, rather than miosis, may be seen due to severe hypoxia in overdose situations.Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth MuscleHydromorphone causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone is increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase.Effects on the Cardiovascular SystemHydromorphone produces peripheral vasodilation which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Release of histamine may be induced by hydromorphone and can contribute to opioid-induced hypotension. Manifestations of histamine release or peripheral vasodilation may include pruritus, flushing, red eyes, sweating and/or orthostatic hypotension.Effects on the Endocrine SystemOpioids inhibit the secretion of ACTH, cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans. They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon.Chronic use of opioids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].Effects on the Immune SystemOpioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system in in vitro and animal models. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive.Concentration-Efficacy RelationshipsThe minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with potent agonist opioids. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of hydromorphone for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, the development of a new pain syndrome, and/or the development of analgesic tolerance [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), (2.3)].Concentration-Adverse Reaction RelationshipsThere is a relationship between increasing hydromorphone plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), (2.2), (2.3)].

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

AbsorptionHydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are an extended-release formulation of hydromorphone that produces a gradual increase in hydromorphone concentrations. Following a single-dose administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, plasma concentrations gradually increase over 6 to 8 hours, and thereafter concentrations are sustained for approximately 18 to 24 hours post-dose. The median Tmax values ranged from 12 to 16 hours. The mean half-life was approximately 11 hours, ranging from 8 to 15 hours in most individual subjects. Linear pharmacokinetics has been demonstrated for hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets over the dose range 8 to 64 mg, with a dose-proportional increase in Cmax and overall exposure (AUC0-∞) (see Table 5). Steady-state plasma concentrations are approximately twice those observed following the first dose, and steady state is reached after 3 to 4 days of once-daily dosing of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. At steady state, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets given once daily maintained hydromorphone plasma concentrations within the same concentration range as the immediate-release tablet given 4 times daily at the same total daily dose and diminished the fluctuations between peak and trough concentrations seen with the immediate-release tablet (see Figure 1). The bioavailability of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily and immediate-release hydromorphone four times daily in adults is comparable, as presented in Table 5.Figure 1.Mean Steady-State Plasma Concentration ProfileTable 5.Mean (±SD) Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Pharmacokinetic ParametersFood EffectThe pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not affected by food as indicated by bioequivalence when administered under fed and fasting conditions. Therefore, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be administered without regard to meals. When a 16 mg dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets was administered to healthy volunteers immediately following a high-fat meal, the median time to Cmax (Tmax) was minimally affected by the high-fat meal occurring at 16 hours compared to 18 hours while fasting.DistributionFollowing intravenous administration of hydromorphone to healthy volunteers, the mean volume of distribution was 2.9 (±1.3) L/kg, suggesting extensive tissue distribution. The mean extent of binding of hydromorphone to human plasma proteins was determined to be 27% in an in vitro study.EliminationMetabolismAfter oral administration of an immediate-release formulation, hydromorphone undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and is metabolized primarily in the liver by glucuronidation to hydromorphone-3-glucuronide, which follows a similar time course to hydromorphone in plasma. Exposure to the glucuronide metabolite is 35 to 40 times higher than exposure to the parent drug. In vitro data suggest that hydromorphone in clinically relevant concentrations has minimal potential to inhibit the activity of human hepatic CYP450 enzymes including CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, and 4A11.ExcretionApproximately 75% of the administered dose is excreted in urine. Most of the administered hydromorphone dose is excreted as metabolites. Approximately 7% and 1% of the dose are excreted as unchanged hydromorphone in urine and feces, respectively.Specific PopulationsAge: Geriatric PatientsPopulation PK analysis performed on plasma concentration data from 407 osteoarthritis (OA) patients using hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets showed an average 11% increase in hydromorphone AUC in the elderly group (65 to 75 years of age) when compared to the younger age group (less than or equal to 65 years of age).SexFemales appeared to have approximately 10% higher mean systemic exposure in terms of Cmax and AUC values.Hepatic ImpairmentIn a study that used a single 4 mg oral dose of immediate-release hydromorphone tablets, four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (Cmax and AUC0-∞) were observed in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Group B). Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone in severe hepatic impairment patients has not been studied. Further increase in Cmax and AUC0-∞ of hydromorphone in this group is expected. Start patients with moderate hepatic impairment on 25% of the usual dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and closely monitor for respiratory and central nervous system depression during dose titration. Consider alternate analgesic therapy for patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration(2.5) and Specific Populations (8.6)].Renal ImpairmentRenal impairment affected the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone and its metabolites following administration of a single 4 mg dose of immediate-release tablets. The effects of renal impairment on hydromorphone pharmacokinetics were two-fold and four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (Cmax and AUC0-48h) in moderate (CLcr = 40 to 60 mL/min) and severe (CLcr < 30 mL/min) impairment, respectively. In addition, in patients with severe renal impairment hydromorphone appeared to be more slowly eliminated with longer terminal elimination half-life (40 hr) compared to subjects with normal renal function (15 hr). Start patients with moderate renal impairment on 50% of the usual hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose for patients with normal renal function and closely monitor for respiratory and central nervous system depression during dose titration. As hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is only intended for once-daily administration, consider use of an alternate analgesic that may permit more flexibility with the dosing interval in patients with severe renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].Drug Interaction StudiesAlcohol InteractionAn in vivo study examined the effect of alcohol (40%, 20%, 4% and 0%) on the bioavailability of a single dose of 16 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in healthy, fasted or fed volunteers. The results showed that the hydromorphone mean AUC0-∞ was 5% higher and 4% lower (not statistically significant) in the fasted and fed groups respectively after co-administration of 240 mL of 40% alcohol. The AUC0-∞ was similarly unaffected in subjects following the co-administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and alcohol (240 mL of 20% or 4% alcohol).The change in geometric mean Cmax with concomitant administration of alcohol and hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets ranged from an increase of 10% to 31% across all conditions studied. The change in mean Cmax was greater in the fasted group of subjects. Following concomitant administration of 240 mL of 40% alcohol while fasting, the mean Cmax increased by 37% and up to 151% in an individual subject. Following the concomitant administration of 240 mL of 20% alcohol while fasting, the mean Cmax increased by 35% and up to 139% in an individual subject. Following the concomitant administration of 240 mL of 4% alcohol while fasting, the mean Cmax increased by 19% on average and as much as 73% for an individual subject. The range of median Tmax for the fed and fasted treatments with 4%, 20% and 40% alcohol was 12 to 16 hours compared to 16 hours for the 0% alcohol treatments.

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

CarcinogenesisLong-term studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of hydromorphone hydrochloride were completed in both Han-Wistar rats and Crl:CD1®(ICR) mice. Hydromorphone HCl was administered to Han-Wistar rats (2, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day for males, and 8, 25 and 75 mg/kg/day for females) for 2 years by oral gavage. In female rats, incidences of hibernoma (tumor of brown fat) were increased at 10.5 times the maximum recommended daily exposure based on AUC at the mid dose (2 tumor, 25 mg/kg/day) and 53.7 times the maximum recommended human daily exposure based on AUC at the maximum dose (4 tumors, 75 mg/kg/day). The clinical relevance of this finding to humans has not been established. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats. The systemic drug exposure (AUC, ng•h/mL) at the 15 mg/kg/day in male rats was 7.6 times greater than the human exposure at a single dose of 32 mg/day of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. There was no evidence of carcinogenic potential in Crl:CD1®(ICR) mice administered hydromorphone HCl at doses up to 15 mg/kg/day for 2 years by oral gavage. The systemic drug exposure (AUC, ng•h/mL) at the 15 mg/kg/day in mice was 1.1 (in males) and 1.2 (in females) times greater than the human exposure at a single dose of 32 mg/day of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets.Mutagenesis Hydromorphone was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). Hydromorphone was not clastogenic in either the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay or the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.Impairment of Fertility Reduced implantation sites and viable fetuses were noted at 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day in a study in which female rats were treated orally with 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day hydromorphone hydrochloride (0.7, 1.4, or 2.8 times a human daily dose of 24 mg/day (HDD) based on body surface area) beginning 14 days prior to mating through Gestation Day 7 and male rats were treated with the same hydromorphone hydrochloride doses beginning 28 days prior to and throughout mating.

14 Clinical Studies

Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets was investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study in opioid tolerant patients with moderate-to-severe low back pain. Patients were considered opioid tolerant if they were currently on opioid therapy that was ≥ 60 mg/day of oral morphine equivalent for at least 2 months prior to screening. Patients entered an open-label conversion and titration phase with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, were converted to a starting dose that was approximately 75% of their total daily morphine equivalent dose, and were dosed once daily until adequate pain control was achieved while exhibiting tolerable side effects. Supplemental immediate-release hydromorphone tablets were allowed throughout the study. Patients who achieved a stable dose entered a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized treatment phase. Mean daily dose at randomization was 37.8 mg/day (range of 12 mg/day to 64 mg/day). Fifty-eight (58) percent of patients were successfully titrated to a stable dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets during the open-label conversion and titration phase.During the double-blind treatment phase, patients randomized to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets continued with the stable dose achieved in the conversion and titration phase of the study. Patients randomized to placebo received, in a blinded manner, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and matching placebo in doses tapering from the stable dose achieved in conversion and titration. During the taper down period, patients were allowed immediate-release hydromorphone tablets as supplemental analgesia to minimize opioid withdrawal symptoms in placebo patients. After the taper period, the number of immediate-release hydromorphone tablets was limited to two tablets per day. Forty-nine (49) percent of patients treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and 33% of patients treated with placebo completed the 12-week treatment period.Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets provided superior analgesia compared to placebo. There was a significant difference between the mean changes from Baseline to Week 12 or Final Visit in average weekly pain intensity Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) scores obtained from patient diaries between the two groups. The proportion of patients with various degrees of improvement from screening to Week 12 or Final Visit is shown in Figure 2. For this analysis, patients who discontinued treatment for any reason prior to Week 12 were assigned a value of zero improvement.Figure 2.Percent Reduction in Average Pain Intensity from Screening to Week 12 or Final Visit

16 How Supplied/Storage And Handling

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablet StrengthsThe 8 mg tablets are Light pink to pink film coated, round, biconvex tablets printed with "266" in black ink on one side of the tabletNDC 43602-266-30 bottles of 30 tabletsNDC 43602-266-05 bottles of 500 tabletsThe 12 mg tablets are Light yellow to yellow film coated, round, biconvex tablets printed with "267" in black ink on one side of the tabletNDC 43602-267-30 bottles of 30 tabletsNDC 43602-267-05 bottles of 500 tabletsThe 16 mg tablets are Light beige to beige film coated, round, biconvex tablets printed with "268" in black ink on one side of the tabletNDC 43602-268-30 bottles of 30 tabletsNDC 43602-268-05 bottles of 500 tabletsThe 32 mg tablets are White to off white film coated, round, biconvex tablets printed with "269" with black ink on one side of the tabletNDC 43602-269-30 bottles of 30 tabletsNDC 43602-269-05 bottles of 500 tabletsStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Store hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets securely and dispose of properly [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].

17 Patient Counseling Information

  • Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).Storage and DisposalBecause of the risks associated with accidental ingestion, misuse, and abuse, advise patients to store hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets securely, out of sight and reach of children, and in a location not accessible by others, including visitors to the home [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2)]. Inform patients that leaving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets unsecured can pose a deadly risk to others in the home.Advise patients and caregivers that when medicines are no longer needed, they should be disposed of promptly. Expired, unwanted, or unused hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be disposed of by flushing the unused medication down the toilet if a drug take-back option is not readily available. Inform patients that they can visit www.fda.gov/drugdisposal for a complete list of medicines recommended for disposal by flushing, as well as additional information on disposal of unused medicines.Addiction, Abuse, and MisuseInform patients that the use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose or death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Instruct patients not to share hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with others and to take steps to protect hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets from theft or misuse.Life-Threatening Respiratory DepressionInform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets or when the dose is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended doses [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Advise patients how to recognize respiratory depression and to seek medical attention if breathing difficulties develop.Accidental IngestionInform patients that accidental ingestion, especially by children, may result in respiratory depression or death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Interactions with Benzodiazepines and Other CNS DepressantsInform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a health care provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Drug Interactions (7)].Serotonin SyndromeInform patients that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition resulting from concomitant administration of serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare providers if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications [see Drug Interactions (7)].MAOI InteractionInform patients to avoid taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets while using any drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Patients should not start MAOIs while taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets [see Drug Interactions (7)].Adrenal InsufficiencyInform patients that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life-threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].Important Administration InstructionsInstruct patients how to properly take hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, including the following:Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are designed to work properly only if swallowed intact. Taking cut, broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can result in a fatal overdose [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].Using hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets exactly as prescribed to reduce the risk of life-threatening adverse reactions (e.g., respiratory depression)Important Discontinuation InstructionsIn order to avoid developing withdrawal symptoms, instruct patients not to discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets without first discussing a tapering plan with the prescriber [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].Gastrointestinal BlockageAdvise patients that people with certain stomach or intestinal problems such as narrowing of the intestines or previous surgery may be at higher risk of developing a blockage. Symptoms include abdominal distension, abdominal pain, severe constipation, or vomiting. Instruct patients to contact their healthcare provider immediately if they develop these symptoms.HypotensionInform patients that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur (e.g., sit or lie down, carefully rise from a sitting or lying position).AnaphylaxisInform patients that anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.13), and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].PregnancyNeonatal Opioid Withdrawal SyndromeInform female patients of reproductive potential that prolonged use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].Embryo-Fetal ToxicityInform female patients of reproductive potential that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can cause fetal harm and to inform their healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].LactationAdvise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].InfertilityInform patients that chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].Driving or Operating Heavy MachineryInform patients that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)].ConstipationAdvise patients of the potential for severe constipation, including management instructions and when to seek medical attention [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].Manufactured by:Ascent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Central Islip, NY 11722Revision: 09/20PHARMACIST: Dispense a separate Medication Guide to each patient.

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