The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.
1.1 Duodenal Ulcer (Adults)
Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is indicated for short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer in adults. Most patients heal within four weeks. Some patients may require an additional four weeks of therapy. Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin, is indicated for treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or up to 1-year history) to eradicate H. pylori in adults.Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in combination with clarithromycin is indicated for treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease to eradicate H. pylori in adults. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence [See Clinical Studies (14.1) and Dosage and Administration (2)].Among patients who fail therapy, Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules with clarithromycin is more likely to be associated with the development of clarithromycin resistance as compared with triple therapy. In patients who fail therapy, susceptibility testing should be done. If resistance to clarithromycin is demonstrated or susceptibility testing is not possible, alternative antimicrobial therapy should be instituted. [See Microbiology section (12.4 )], and the clarithromycin package insert, Microbiology section.
1.2 Gastric Ulcer (Adults)
Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is indicated for short-term treatment (4-8 weeks) of active benign gastric ulcer in adults [See Clinical Studies (14.2)].
1.3 Treatment Of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (Gerd) (Adults And Pediatric Patients)
Symptomatic GERDOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is indicated for the treatment of heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD in pediatric patients and adults for up to 4 weeks.Erosive EsophagitisOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is indicated for the short-term treatment (4-8 weeks) of erosive esophagitis that has been diagnosed by endoscopy in pediatric patients and adults [See Clinical Studies (14.4)]. The efficacy of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules used for longer than 8 weeks in these patients has not been established. If a patient does not respond to 8 weeks of treatment, an additional 4 weeks of treatment may be given. If there is recurrence of erosive esophagitis or GERD symptoms (e.g., heartburn), additional 4-8 week courses of omeprazole may be considered.
1.4 Maintenance Of Healing Of Erosive Esophagitis (Adults And Pediatric Patients)
Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is indicated to maintain healing of erosive esophagitis in pediatric patients and adults. Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months [See Clinical Studies (14.4)].
1.5 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions (Adults)
Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is indicated for the long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine adenomas and systemic mastocytosis) in adults.
2 Dosage And Administration
Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules should be taken before eating. In the clinical trials, antacids were used concomitantly with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. Patients should be informed that the Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules should be swallowed whole. For patients unable to swallow an intact capsule, alternative administration options are available [See Dosage and Administration (2.8)].
2.1 Short-Term Treatment Of Active Duodenal Ulcer
The recommended adult oral dose of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is 20 mg once daily. Most patients heal within four weeks. Some patients may require an additional four weeks of therapy.
2.2 H. Pylori Eradication For The Reduction Of The Risk Of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence
Triple Therapy (Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules/clarithromycin/amoxicillin) — The recommended adult oral regimen is Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg plus clarithromycin 500 mg plus amoxicillin 1000 mg each given twice daily for 10 days. In patients with an ulcer present at the time of initiation of therapy, an additional 18 days of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily is recommended for ulcer healing and symptom relief.Dual Therapy (Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules /clarithromycin) — The recommended adult oral regimen is Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg once daily plus clarithromycin 500 mg three times daily for 14 days. In patients with an ulcer present at the time of initiation of therapy, an additional 14 days of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily is recommended for ulcer healing and symptom relief.
2.3 Gastric Ulcer
The recommended adult oral dose is 40 mg once daily for 4-8 weeks.
2.4 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (Gerd)
The recommended adult oral dose for the treatment of patients with symptomatic GERD and no esophageal lesions is 20 mg daily for up to 4 weeks. The recommended adult oral dose for the treatment of patients with erosive esophagitis and accompanying symptoms due to GERD is 20 mg daily for 4 to 8 weeks.
2.5 Maintenance Of Healing Of Erosive Esophagitis
The recommended adult oral dose is 20 mg daily Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months[See Clinical Studies ( 14.4 )].
2.6 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions
The dosage of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in patients with pathological hypersecretory conditions varies with the individual patient. The recommended adult oral starting dose is 60 mg once daily. Doses should be adjusted to individual patient needs and should continue for as long as clinically indicated. Doses up to 120 mg three times daily have been administered. Daily dosages of greater than 80 mg should be administered in divided doses. Some patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome have been treated continuously with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules for more than 5 years.
2.7 Pediatric Patients
For the treatment of GERD and maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis, the recommended daily dose for pediatric patients 2 to 16 years of age is as follows:Patient WeightOmeprazole Daily Dose10 < 20 kg10 mg≥ 20 kg20 mgOn a per kg basis, the doses of omeprazole required to heal erosive esophagitis in pediatric patients are greater than those for adults. Alternative administrative options can be used for pediatric patients unable to swallow an intact capsule [See Dosage and Administration (2.8)].
2.8 Alternative Administration Options
Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsule is available as a delayed-release capsule.For patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules, the contents of an Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsule can be added to applesauce. One tablespoon of applesauce should be added to an empty bowl and the capsule should be opened. All of the microtablets inside the capsule should be carefully emptied on the applesauce. The microtablets should be mixed with the applesauce and then swallowed immediately with a glass of cool water to ensure complete swallowing of the microtablets. The applesauce used should not be hot and should be soft enough to be swallowed without chewing. The microtablets should not be chewed or crushed. The microtablets/applesauce mixture should not be stored for future use.
3 Dosage Forms And Strengths
Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, 10 mg, are opaque white cap and opaque white body capsules imprinted with "KU" and "114" in black ink. Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, 20 mg, are opaque white cap and opaque gold body capsules imprinted with "KU" and "118" in black ink. Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, 40 mg, are opaque gold cap and opaque gold body capsules imprinted with "KU" and "136" in black ink.
Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to substituted benzimidazoles or to any component of the formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, and urticaria [See Adverse Reaction ( 6 )].For information about contraindications of antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated in combination with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, refer to the CONTRAINDICATIONS section of their package inserts.
5.1 Concomitant Gastric Malignancy
Symptomatic response to therapy with omeprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
5.2 Atrophic Gastritis
Atrophic gastritis has been noted occasionally in gastric corpus biopsies from patients treated long-term with omeprazole.
5.3 Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsule if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see Contraindications (4)].
5.4 Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency
Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo-or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acidsuppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed.
5.5 Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea
Published observation studies suggest that PPI therapy like Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, refer to WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections of those package inserts.
5.6 Interaction With Clopidogrel
Avoid concomitant use of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is entirely due to an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by use with concomitant medications, such as omeprazole, that inhibit CYP2C19 activity. Concomitant of clopidogrel with 80 mg omeprazole reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel, even when administered 12 hours apart. When using Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, consider alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Drug Interactions (7.3) and Pharmacokinetics (12.3)].
5.7 Bone Fracture
Several published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Adverse Reactions (6.3)].
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)].
5.9 Concomitant Use Of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules With St. John’S Wort Or Rifampin
Drugs which induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St. John's Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease omeprazole concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7.3)]. Avoid concomitant use of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules with St. John's Wort or rifampin.
5.10 Interactions With Diagnostic Investigations For Neuroendocrine Tumors
Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop omeprazole treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g. for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary.
5.11 Concomitant Use Of Omeprazole With Methotrexate
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.7)].
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience With Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules Monotherapy
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The safety data described below reflects exposure to Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in 3096 patients from worldwide clinical trials (465 patients from US studies and 2,631 patients from international studies). Indications clinically studied in US trials included duodenal ulcer, resistant ulcer, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The international clinical trials were double blind and open-label in design. The most common adverse reactions reported (i.e., with an incidence rate ≥ 2%) from Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules-treated patients enrolled in these studies included headache (6.9%), abdominal pain (5.2%), nausea (4.0%), diarrhea (3.7%), vomiting (3.2%), and flatulence (2.7%). Additional adverse reactions that were reported with an incidence ≥1% included acid regurgitation (1.9%), upper respiratory infection (1.9%), constipation (1.5%), dizziness (1.5%), rash (1.5%), asthenia (1.3%), back pain (1.1%), and cough (1.1%). The clinical trial safety profile in patients greater than 65 years of age was similar to that in patients 65 years of age or less. The clinical trial safety profile in pediatric patients who received Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules was similar to that in adult patients. Unique to the pediatric population, however, adverse reactions of the respiratory system were most frequently reported in the 2 to 16 year age group (18.5%). Similarly, accidental injuries were reported frequently in the 2 to 16 year age group (3.8%) [See Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
6.2 Clinical Trials Experience With Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules In Combination Therapy For H. Pylori Eradication
In clinical trials using either dual therapy with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules and clarithromycin, or triple therapy with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, no adverse reactions unique to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions observed were limited to those previously reported with omeprazole, clarithromycin, or amoxicillin alone. Dual Therapy (Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules/clarithromycin) Adverse reactions observed in controlled clinical trials using combination therapy with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules and clarithromycin (n = 346) that differed from those previously described for Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules alone were taste perversion (15%), tongue discoloration (2%), rhinitis (2%), pharyngitis (1%) and flu-syndrome (1%). (For more information on clarithromycin, refer to the clarithromycin prescribing information, Adverse Reactions section). Triple Therapy (Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules/clarithromycin/amoxicillin)The most frequent adverse reactions observed in clinical trials using combination therapy with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (n = 274) were diarrhea (14%), taste perversion (10%), and headache (7%). None of these occurred at a higher frequency than that reported by patients taking antimicrobial agents alone. (For more information on clarithromycin or amoxicillin, refer to the respective prescribing information, Adverse Reactions sections).
6.3 Post-Marketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. Because these reactions are voluntarily. reported from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible t1-o reliably estimate their actual frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Body As a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, urticaria, (see also Skin below); fever; pain; fatigue; malaise; Cardiovascular: Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, elevated blood pressure, peripheral edema Endocrine: Gynecomastia Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, stomatitis, abdominal swelling, dry mouth, microscopic colitis. During treatment with omeprazole, gastric fundic gland polyps have been noted rarely. These polyps are benign and appear to be reversible when treatment is discontinued. Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with ZE syndrome on long-term treatment with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors. Hepatic: Liver disease including hepatic failure (some fatal), liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic encephalopathy hepatocellular disease, cholestatic disease, mixed hepatitis, jaundice, and elevations of liver function tests [ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin] Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile associated diarrheaMetabolic/Nutritional: Hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, weight gain Musculoskeletal: Muscle weakness, myalgia, muscle cramps, joint pain, leg pain, bone fracture Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychiatric and sleep disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, apathy, somnolence, anxiety, and dream abnormalities; tremors, paresthesia; vertigoRespiratory: Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain Skin: Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme; photosensitivity; urticaria; rash; skin inflammation; pruritus; petechiae; purpura; alopecia; dry skin; hyperhidrosis Special Senses: Tinnitus, taste perversion Ocular: Optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, dry eye syndrome, ocular irritation, blurred vision, double vision Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, microscopic pyuria, urinary tract infection, glycosuria, urinary frequency, testicular pain Hematologic: Agranulocytosis (some fatal), hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, leucocytosis
Concomitant use of atazanavir and nelfinavir with proton pump inhibitors is not recommended. Co-administration of atazanavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to substantially decrease atazanavir plasma concentrations and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect and the development of drug resistance. Coadministration of saquinavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to increase saquinavir concentrations, which may increase toxicity and require dose reduction. Omeprazole has been reported to interact with some antiretroviral drugs. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known. Increased gastric pH during omeprazole treatment may change the absorption of the antiretroviral drug. Other possible interaction mechanisms are via CYP 2C19. Reduced concentrations of atazanavir and nelfinavir For some antiretroviral drugs, such as atazanavir and nelfinavir, decreased serum levels have been reported when given together with omeprazole. Following multiple doses of nelfinavir (1250 mg, twice daily) and omeprazole (40 mg daily), AUC was decreased by 36% and 92%, Cmax by 37% and 89% and Cmin by 39% and 75% respectively for nelfinavir and M8. Following multiple doses of atazanavir (400 mg, daily) and omeprazole (40 mg, daily, 2 hr before atazanavir), AUC was decreased by 94%, Cmax by 96%, and Cmin by 95%. Concomitant administration with omeprazole and drugs such as atazanavir and nelfinavir is therefore not recommended.Increased concentrations of saquinavir For other antiretroviral drugs, such as saquinavir, elevated serum levels have been reported, with an increase in AUC by 82%, in Cmax by 75%, and in Cmin by 106%, following multiple dosing of saquinavir/ritonavir (1000/100 mg) twice daily for 15 days with omeprazole 40 mg daily co-administered days 11 to 15. Therefore, clinical and laboratory monitoring for saquinavir toxicity is recommended during concurrent use with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. Dose reduction of saquinavir should be considered from the safety perspective for individual patients. There are also some antiretroviral drugs of which unchanged serum levels have been reported when given with omeprazole.
7.2 Drugs For Which Gastric Ph Can Affect Bioavailablity
Due to its effects on gastric acid secretion, omeprazole can reduce the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability. Like with other drugs that decrease the intragastric acidity, the absorption of drugs such as ketoconazole, atazanavir, iron salts, erlotinib, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can decrease, while the absorption of drugs such as digoxin can increase during treatment with omeprazole.Concomitant treatment with omeprazole (20 mg daily) and digoxin in healthy subjects increased the bioavailability of digoxin by 10% (30% in two subjects). Co-administration of digoxin with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is expected to increase the systemic exposure of digoxin. Therefore, patients may need to be monitored when digoxin is taken concomitantly with P Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules.Co-administration of omeprazole in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules and MMF. Use Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
7.3 Effects On Hepatic Metabolism/Cytochrome P-450 Pathways
Omeprazole can prolong the elimination of diazepam, warfarin and phenytoin, drugs that are metabolized by oxidation in the liver. There have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors, including omeprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time. Although in normal subjects no interaction with theophylline or propranolol was found, there have been clinical reports of interaction with other drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system (e.g., cyclosporine, dandulfiram, benzodiazepines). Patients should be monitored t.o dete.rmine if it is necessary to adjust the dosage of these drugs when taken concomitantly with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. Concomitant .admini.stration of omeprazole and voriconazole (a combined inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4) resulted in more than doublin.g of t.he omeprazole exposure. Dose adjustment of omeprazole is not normally required. However, in patients with Zollinge.r-Ellison syndrome, who may require higher doses up to 240 mg/day, dose adjustment may be considered. When voriconazole (400 mg Q12h x 1 day, then 200 mg x 6 days) was given with omeprazole (40 mg once daily x 7 days) to healthy subjects, it significantly increased the steady-state Cmax and AUC0-24 of omeprazole, an average of 2 times (90% CI: 1.8, 2.6) and 4 times (90% CI: 3.3, 4.4) respectively as compared to when omeprazole was given without voriconazole. Omeprazole acts as an inhibitor of CYP 2C19. Omeprazole, given in doses of 40 mg daily for one week to 20 healthy subjects in crossover study, increased Cmax and AUC of cilostazol by 18% and 26% respectively. Cmax and AUC of one of its active metabolites, 3,4-dihydro-cilostazol, which has 4-7 times the activity of cilostazol, were increased by 29% and 69% respectively. Co-administration of cilostazol with omeprazole is expected to increase concentrations of cilostazol and its above mentioned active metabolite. Therefore a dose reduction of cilostazol from 100 mg twice a day to 50 mg twice a day should be considered. Drugs known to induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as rifampin) may lead to decreased omeprazole serum levels. In a cross-over study in 12 healthy male subjects, St. John's wort (300 mg three times daily for 14 days), an inducer of CYP3A4, decreased the systemic exposure of omeprazole in CYP2C19 poor metabolisers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 37.5% and 37.9%, respectively) and extensive metabolisers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 49.6% and 43.9%, respectively). Avoid concomitant use of St. John's Wort or rifampin with omeprazole.
ClopidogrelOmeprazole is an inhibitor of CYP2C19 enzyme. Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19.Concomitant use of omeprazole 80 mg results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition. Avoid concomitant administration of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules with clopidogrel. When using Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, consider use of alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3 )].There are no adequate combination studies of a lower dose of omeprazole or a higher dose of clopidogrel in comparison with the approved dose of clopidogrel.
Concomitant administration of omeprazole and tacrolimus may increase the serum levels of tacrolimus.
7.5 Interactions With Investigations Of Neurodocrine Tumors
Drug-induced decrease in gastric acidity results in enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased Chromogranin A levels which may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and Clinical Pharmacology (12)].
7.6 Combination Therapy With Clarithromycin
Concomitant administration of clarithromycin with other drugs can lead to serious adverse reactions due to drug interactions [see Warnings and Precautions in prescribing information for clarithromycin]. Because of these drug interactions, clarithromycin is contraindicated for co-administration with certain drugs [see Contraindications in prescribing information for clarithromycin].
Case reports, published population pharmacokinetic studies, and retrospective analyses suggest that concomitant administration of PPIs and methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate. However, no formal drug interaction studies of methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].
Pregnancy Category CRisk SummaryThere are no adequate and well-controlled studies with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in pregnant women. Available epidemiologic data fail to demonstrate an increased risk of major congenital malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with first trimester omeprazole use.Animal reproduction studies with omeprazole in rats and rabbits resulted in dose-dependent embryo-lethality at doses that were approximately 2.8 to 28 times the daily human dose of 40 mg.Teratogenicity was not observed in animal reproduction studies with administration of oral esomeprazole magnesium in rats and rabbits with doses about 57 times and 35 times, respectively, an oral human dose of 40 mg. However, changes in bone morphology were observed in offspring of rats dosed through most of pregnancy and lactation at doses equal to or greater than approximately 33.6 times an oral human dose 40 mg (see Animal Data). Because of the observed effect at high doses of esomeprazole magnesium on developing bone in rat studies, Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.Human DataFour published epidemiological studies compared the frequency of congenital abnormalities among infants born to women who used omeprazole during pregnancy with the frequency of abnormalities among infants of women exposed to H2-receptor antagonists or other controls.A population-based retrospective cohort epidemiological study from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, covering approximately 99% of pregnancies, from 1995-99, reported on 955 infants (824 exposed during the first trimester with 39 of these exposed beyond first trimester, and 131 exposed after the first trimester) whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy. The number of infants exposed in utero to omeprazole that had any malformation, low birth weight, low Apgar score, or hospitalization was similar to the number observed in this population. The number of infants born with ventricular septal defects and the number of stillborn infants was slightly higher in the omeprazole-exposed infants than the expected number in this population.A population-based retrospective cohort study covering all live births in Denmark from 1996-2009, reported on 1,800 live births whose mothers used omeprazole during the first trimester of pregnancy and 837, 317 live births whose mothers did not use any proton pump inhibitor. The overall rate of birth defects in infants born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole was 2.9% and 2.6% in infants born to mothers not exposed to any proton pump inhibitor during the first trimester.A retrospective cohort study reported on 689 pregnant women exposed to either H2-blockers or omeprazole in the first trimester (134 exposed to omeprazole) and 1,572 pregnant women unexposed to either during the first trimester. The overall malformation rate in offspring born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole, an H2-blocker, or were unexposed was 3.6%, 5.5%, and 4.1% respectively.A small prospective observational cohort study followed 113 women exposed to omeprazole during pregnancy (89% first trimester exposures). The reported rate of major congenital malformations was 4% in the omeprazole group, 2% in controls exposed to nonteratogens, and 2.8% in disease-paired controls. Rates of spontaneous and elective abortions, preterm deliveries, gestational age at delivery, and mean birth weight were similar among the groups.Several studies have reported no apparent adverse short-term effects on the infant when single dose oral or intravenous omeprazole was administered to over 200 pregnant women as premedication for cesarean section under general anesthesia.Animal DataReproductive studies conducted with omeprazole in rats at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at doses up to 69 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) did not disclose any evidence for a teratogenic potential of omeprazole. In rabbits, omeprazole in a dose range of 6.9 to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy disruptions. In rats, dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity were observed in offspring resulting from parents treated with omeprazole at 13.8 to 138.0 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human doses of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Reproduction studies have been performed with esomeprazole magnesium in rats at oral doses up to 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at oral doses up to 86 mg/kg/day (about 42 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to esomeprazole magnesium.A pre-and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Neonatal/early postnatal (birth to weaning) survival was decreased at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 33 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Body weight and body weight gain were reduced and neurobehavioral or general developmental delays in the immediate post-weaning timeframe were evident at doses equal to or greater than 69 mg/kg/day (about 16.8 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). In addition, decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses equal to or greater than 14 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis).Physeal dysplasia in the femur was observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of esomeprazole magnesium at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in the pre- and postnatal toxicity study when esomeprazole magnesium was administered at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). When rats were dosed from gestational day 7 through weaning on postnatal day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 33.6 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis).A pre- and postnatal development study in rats with esomeprazole strontium (using equimolar doses compared to esomeprazaole magnesium study) produced similar results in dams and pups as described above.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Omeprazole is present in human milk concentrations have been measured in breast milk of a woman following oral administration of 20 mg. The peak concentration of omeprazole in breast milk was less than 7% of the peak serum concentration. This concentration would correspond to 0.004 mg of omeprazole in 200 mL of milk. Caution should be exercised when Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is administered to a nursing woman.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Use of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in pediatric and adolescent patients 2 to 16 years of age for the treatment of GERD and maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis is supported by a) extrapolation of results, from adequate and well-controlled studies that supported the approval of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules for adults, and b) safety and pharmacokinetic studies performed in pediatric and adolescent patients. [See Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Pediatric for pharmacokinetic information (12.3)and Dosage and Administration ( 2 ), Adverse Reactions ( 6.1 ) and Clinicial Studies ( 14.6 )]. The safety and effectiveness of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules for the treatment of GERD in patients < 1 year of age have not been established. The safety and effectiveness of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules for other pediatric uses have not been established.Juvenile Animal DataIn a juvenile rat toxicity study, esomeprazole was administered with both magnesium and strontium salts at oral doses about 34 to 68 times a daily human dose of 40 mg based on body surface area. Increases in death were seen at the high dose, and at all doses of esomeprazole, there were decreases in body weight, body weight gain, femur weight and femur length, and decreases in overall growth [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Omeprazole was administered to over 2000 elderly individuals (≥ 65 years of age) in clinical trials in the U.S. and Europe. There were no differences in safety and effectiveness between the elderly and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.Pharmacokinetic studies have shown the elimination rate was somewhat decreased in the elderly and bioavailability was increased. The plasma clearance of omeprazole was 250 mL/min (about half that of young volunteers) and its plasma half-life averaged one hour, about twice that of young healthy volunteers. However, no dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
Consider dose reduction, particularly for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.7 Renal Impairment
No dosage reduction is necessary [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.8 Asian Population
Consider dose reduction, particularly for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Reports have been received of overdosage with omeprazole in humans. Doses ranged up to 2400 mg (120 times the usual recommended clinical dose). Manifestations were variable, but included confusion, drowsiness, blurred vision, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, flushing, headache, dry mouth, and other adverse reactions similar to those seen in normal clinical experience [See Adverse Reactions ( 6 )]. Symptoms were transient, and no serious clinical outcome has been reported when Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules was taken alone. No specific antidote for omeprazole overdosage is known. Omeprazole is extensively protein bound and is, therefore, not readily dialyzable. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. As with the management of any overdose, the possibility of multiple drug ingestion should be considered. For current information on treatment of any drug overdose, contact a Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.Single oral doses of omeprazole at 1350, 1339, and 1200 mg/kg were lethal to mice, rats, and dogs, respectively. Animals given these doses showed sedation, ptosis, tremors, convulsions, and decreased activity, body temperature, and respiratory rate and increased depth of respiration.
The active ingredient in Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is a substituted benzimidazole, 5-methoxy-2-[[(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-2-pyridinyl) methyl] sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole, a compound that inhibits gastric acid secretion. Its empirical formula is C17H19N3O3S, with a molecular weight of 345.42. The structural formula is:Omeprazole is a white to off-white crystalline powder that melts with decomposition at about 155°C. It is a weak base, freely soluble in ethanol and methanol, and slightly soluble in acetone and isopropanol and very slightly soluble in water. The stability of omeprazole is a function of pH; it is rapidly degraded in acid media, but has acceptable stability under alkaline conditions. Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules meet USP Dissolution Test 2.Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is for oral administration. Each delayed-release capsule contains either 10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg of omeprazole in the form of enteric-coated microtablets with the following inactive ingredients: crospovidone, glyceryl behenate, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, methacrylic acid copolymer dispersion, silicon dioxide, talc, titanium dioxide and triethyl citrate. In addition, the capsule shells contain gelatin and may contain sodium lauryl sulfate. In addition, the 20 mg and 40 mg capsule shells also contain yellow iron oxide. The imprinting ink also contains ammonium hydroxide, butyl alcohol, black iron oxide, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and shellac glaze. The ink may also contain dehydrated alcohol.
12.1 Mechanism Of Action
Omeprazole belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds, the substituted benzimidazoles, that suppress gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton) pump within the gastric mucosa, omeprazole has been characterized as a gastric acid-pump inhibitor, in that it blocks the final step of acid production. This effect is dose-related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus. Animal studies indicate that after rapid disappearance from plasma, omeprazole can be found within the gastric mucosa for a day or more.
Antisecretory ActivityAfter oral administration, the onset of the antisecretory effect of omeprazole occurs within one hour, with the maximum effect occurring within two hours. Inhibition of secretion is about 50% of maximum at 24 hours and the duration of inhibition lasts up to 72 hours. The antisecretory effect thus lasts far longer than would be expected from the very short (less than one hour) plasma half-life, apparently due to prolonged binding to the parietal H+/K+ ATPase enzyme. When the drug is discontinued, secretory activity returns gradually, over 3 to 5 days. The inhibitory effect of omeprazole on acid secretion increases with repeated once-daily dosing, reaching a plateau after four days. Results from numerous studies of the antisecretory effect of multiple doses of 20 mg and 40 mg of omeprazole in normal volunteers and patients are shown below. The "max" value represents determinations at a time of maximum effect (2-6 hours after dosing), while "min" values are those 24 hours after the last dose of omeprazole.Table 1 Range of Mean Values from Multiple Studies of the Mean Antisecretory Effects of Omeprazole After Multiple Daily Dosing Omeprazole 20 mgOmeprazole 40 mgParameterMaxMinMaxMin% Decrease in Basal Acid Output78*58–8094*80–93% Decrease in Peak Acid Output79*50–5988*62–68% Decrease in 24–hr Intragastric Acidity80–9792–94* Single StudiesSingle daily oral doses of omeprazole ranging from a dose of 10 mg to 40 mg have produced 100% inhibition of 24-hour intragastric acidity in some patients.Serum Gastric EffectsIn studies involving more than 200 patients, serum gastrin levels increased during the first 1 to 2 weeks of once-daily administration of therapeutic doses of omeprazole in parallel with inhibition of acid secretion. No further increase in serum gastrin occurred with continued treatment. In comparison with histamine H2-receptor antagonists, the median increases produced by 20 mg doses of omeprazole were higher (1.3 to 3.6 fold vs. 1.1 to 1.8 fold increase). Gastrin values returned to pretreatment levels, usually within 1 to 2 weeks after discontinuation of therapy.Increased gastrin causes enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased serum Chromogranin A (CgA) levels. The increased CgA levels may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop omeprazole treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high.Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) Cell EffectsHuman gastric biopsy specimens have been obtained from more than 3000 patients treated with omeprazole in long-term clinical trials. The incidence of ECL cell hyperplasia in these studies increased with time; however, no case of ECL cell carcinoids, dysplasia, or neoplasia has been found in these patients [See Clinical Pharmacology (12)]. However, these studies are of insufficient duration and size to rule out the possible influence of long-term administration of omeprazole on the development of any premalignant or malignant conditions. Other EffectsSystemic effects of omeprazole in the CNS, cardiovascular and respiratory systems have not been found to date. Omeprazole, given in oral doses of 30 or 40 mg for 2 to 4 weeks, had no effect on thyroid function, carbohydrate metabolism, or circulating levels of parathyroid hormone, cortisol, estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, cholecystokinin or secretin. No effect on gastric emptying of the solid and liquid components of a test meal was demonstrated after a single dose of omeprazole 90 mg. In healthy subjects, a single I.V. dose of omeprazole (0.35 mg/kg) had no effect on intrinsic factor secretion. No systematic dose-dependent effect has been observed on basal or stimulated pepsin output in humans. However, when intragastric pH is maintained at 4.0 or above, basal pepsin output is low, and pepsin activity is decreased. As do other agents that elevate intragastric pH, omeprazole administered for 14 days in healthy subjects produced a significant increase in the intragastric concentrations of viable bacteria. The pattern of the bacterial species was unchanged from that commonly found in saliva. All changes resolved within three days of stopping treatment. The course of Barrett's esophagus in 106 patients was evaluated in a U.S. double-blind controlled study of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg twice daily for 12 months followed by 20 mg twice daily for 12 months or ranitidine 300 mg twice daily for 24 months. No clinically significant impact on Barrett's mucosa by antisecretory therapy was observed. Although neosquamous epithelium developed during antisecretory therapy, complete elimination of Barrett's mucosa was not achieved. No significant difference was observed between treatment groups in development of dysplasia in Barrett's mucosa and no patient developed esophageal carcinoma during treatment. No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in development of ECL cell hyperplasia, corpus atrophic gastritis, corpus intestinal metaplasia, or colon polyps exceeding 3 mm in diameter [See Clinical Pharmacology (12)].
AbsorptionOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules contain an enteric-coated microtablet formulation of omeprazole (because omeprazole is acid-labile), so that absorption of omeprazole begins only after the microtablets leave the stomach. Absorption is rapid, with peak plasma levels of omeprazole occurring within 0.5 to 3.5 hours. Peak plasma concentrations of omeprazole and AUC are approximately proportional to doses up to 40 mg, but because of a saturable first-pass effect, a greater than linear response in peak plasma concentration and AUC occurs with doses greater than 40 mg. Absolute bioavailability (compared with intravenous administration) is about 30-40% at doses of 20-40 mg, due in large part to presystemic metabolism. In healthy subjects the plasma half-life is 0.5 to 1 hour, and the total body clearance is 500-600 mL/min.The bioavailability of omeprazole increases slightly upon repeated administration of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg was bioequivalent when administered with and without applesauce. However, Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg was not bioequivalent when administered with and without applesauce. When administered with applesauce, a mean 25% reduction in Cmax was observed without a significant change in AUC for Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg. The clinical relevance of this finding is unknown. DistributionProtein binding is approximately 95%. MetabolismOmeprazole is extensively metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system. ExcretionFollowing single dose oral administration of a buffered solution of omeprazole, little if any unchanged drug was excreted in urine. The majority of the dose (about 77%) was eliminated in urine as at least six metabolites. Two were identified as hydroxyomeprazole and the corresponding carboxylic acid. The remainder of the dose was recoverable in feces. This implies a significant biliary excretion of the metabolites of omeprazole. Three metabolites have been identified in plasma — the sulfide and sulfone derivatives of omeprazole, and hydroxyomeprazole. These metabolites have very little or no antisecretory activity. Combination Therapy with AntimicrobialsOmeprazole 40 mg daily was given in combination with clarithromycin 500 mg every 8 hours to healthy adult male subjects. The steady state plasma concentrations of omeprazole were increased (Cmax, AUC0-24, and T1/2 increases of 30%, 89% and 34% respectively) by the concomitant administration of clarithromycin. The observed increases in omeprazole plasma concentration were associated with the following pharmacological effects. The mean 24-hour gastric pH value was 5.2 when omeprazole was administered alone and 5.7 when co-administered with clarithromycin.The plasma levels of clarithromycin and 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin were increased by the concomitant administration of omeprazole. For clarithromycin, the mean Cmax was 10% greater, the mean Cmin was 27% greater, and the mean AUC0-8 was 15% greater when clarithromycin was administered with omeprazole than when clarithromycin was administered alone. Similar results were seen for 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin, the mean Cmax was 45% greater, the mean Cmin was 57% greater, and the mean AUC0-8 was 45% greater. Clarithromycin concentrations in the gastric tissue and mucus were also increased by concomitant administration of omeprazole.Table 2 Clarithromycin Tissue Concentrations 2 hours after Dose*TissueClarithromycinClarithromycin + OmeprazoleAntrum10.48 ± 2.01 (n = 5)19.96 ± 4.71 (n=5)Fundus20.81 ± 7.64 (n = 5)24.25 ± 6.37 (n= 5)Mucus4.15 ± 7.74 (n = 4)39.29 ± 32.79 (n=4)* Mean ± SD (mcg/g)Concomitant Use with ClopidogrelIn a crossover clinical study, 72 healthy subjects were administered clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg per day) alone and with omeprazole (80 mg at the same time as clopidogrel) for 5 days. The exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel was decreased by 46% (Day 1) and 42% (Day 5) when clopidogrel and omeprazole were administered together.Results from another crossover study in healthy subjects showed a similar pharmacokinetic interaction between clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose/75 mg daily maintenance dose) and omeprazole 80 mg daily when co-administered for 30 days. Exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel was reduced by 41% to 46% over this time period.In another study, 72 healthy subjects were given the same doses of clopidogrel and 80 mg omeprazole but the drugs were administered 12 hours apart; the results were similar, indicating that administering clopidogrel and omeprazole at different times does not prevent their interaction. Concomitant Use with Mycophenolate MofetilAdministration of omeprazole 20 mg twice daily for 4 days and a single 1000 mg dose of MMF approximately one hour after the last dose of omeprazole to 12 healthy subjects in a cross-over study resulted in a 52% reduction in the Cmax and 23% reduction in the AUC of MPA. Special PopulationsGeriatric PopulationThe elimination rate of omeprazole was somewhat decreased in the elderly, and bioavailability was increased. Omeprazole was 76% bioavailable when a single 40 mg oral dose of omeprazole (buffered solution) was administered to healthy elderly volunteers, versus 58% in young volunteers given the same dose. Nearly 70% of the dose was recovered in urine as metabolites of omeprazole and no unchanged drug was detected. The plasma clearance of omeprazole was 250 mL/min (about half that of young volunteers) and its plasma half-life averaged one hour, about twice that of young healthy volunteers.Pediatric UseThe pharmacokinetics of omeprazole have been investigated in pediatric patients 2 to 16 years of ageTable 3 Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Omeprazole Following Single and Repeated Oral Administration in Pediatric Populations Compared with AdultsSingle or Repeated Oral Dosing /ParameterChildren* ≤ 20 kg 2-5 yearsChildren* > 20 kg 6-16 yearsAdults†(mean 76 kg) 23-29 years(n=12)10 mg20 mgSingle DosingCmax ‡(ng/mL)288 (n=10)495 (n=49)668AUC‡(ng h/mL)511 (n=7)1140 (n=32)1220Repeated DosingCmax ‡(ng/mL)539 (n=4)851 (n=32)1458AUC‡(ng h/mL)1179 (n=2)2276 (n=23)3352* Data from single and repeated dose studies† Data from a single and repeated dose study Doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg omeprazole as enteric-coated microtabletsNote: ‡ = plasma concentration adjusted to an oral dose of 1 mg/kg.Following comparable mg/kg doses of omeprazole, younger children (2 to 5 years of age) have lower AUCs than children 6 to16 years of age or adults; AUCs of the latter two groups did not differ [See Dosage and Administration (2)].Hepatic Impairment In patients with chronic hepatic disease, the bioavailability increased to approximately 100% compared with an I.V. dose, reflecting decreased first-pass effect, and the plasma half-life of the drug increased to nearly 3 hours compared with the half-life in normals of 0.5-1 hour. Plasma clearance averaged 70 mL/min, compared with a value of 500-600 mL/min in normal subjects. Dose reduction, particularly where maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis is indicated, for the hepatically impaired should be considered. Renal Impairment In patients with chronic renal impairment, whose creatinine clearance ranged between 10 and 62 mL/min/1.73 m2, the disposition of omeprazole was very similar to that in healthy volunteers, although there was a slight increase in bioavailability. Because urinary excretion is a primary route of excretion of omeprazole metabolites, their elimination slowed in proportion to the decreased creatinine clearance. No dose reduction is necessary in patients with renal impairment. Asian PopulationIn pharmacokinetic studies of single 20 mg omeprazole doses, an increase in AUC of approximately four-fold was noted in Asian subjects compared with Caucasians. Dose reduction, particularly where maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis is indicated, for Asian subjects should be considered.
- Omeprazole and clarithromycin dual therapy and omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin triple therapy have been shown to be active against most strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the Indications and Usage section (1.1) .Helicobacter Helicobacter pylori- Pretreatment Resistance Clarithromycin pretreatment resistance rates were 3.5% (4/113) in the omeprazole/clarithromycin dual therapy studies (4 and 5) and 9.3% (41/439) in omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin triple therapy studies (1, 2, and 3). Amoxicillin pretreatment susceptible isolates (≤ 0.25 mcg/mL) were found in 99.3% (436/439) of the patients in the omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin triple therapy studies (1, 2, and 3). Amoxicillin pretreatment minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) > 0.25 mcg/mL occurred in 0.7% (3/439) of the patients, all of whom were in the clarithromycin and amoxicillin study arm. One patient had an unconfirmed pretreatment amoxicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of > 256 mcg/mL by Etest®. Table 4 Clarithromycin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological OutcomesClarithromycin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes*Clarithromycin Pretreatment ResultsClarithromycin Post-treatment ResultsH. pylori negative – eradicatedH. pylori positive – not eradicatedPost-treatment susceptibility resultsS†I†R†No MICDual Therapy – (omeprazole 40 mg once daily/clarithromycin 500 three times daily for 14 days followed by omeprazole 20 mg once daily for another 14 days) (Studies 4, 5)Susceptible †108721269Intermediate †11Resistant †44Triple Therapy – (omeprazole 20 mg twice daily/clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily/amoxicillin 1 g twice daily for 10 days – Studies 1, 2, 3; followed by omeprazole 20 mg once daily for another 18 days – Studies 1, 2)Susceptible †171153738Intermediate †Resistant †144163* Includes only patients with pretreatment clarithromycin susceptibility test results† Susceptible (S) MIC ≤ 0.25 mcg/mL, Intermediate (I) MIC 0.5 – 1 mcg/mL, Resistant (R) MIC ≥ 2 mcg/mLPatients not eradicated of H. pylori following omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin triple therapy or omeprazole/clarithromycin dual therapy will likely have clarithromycin resistant H. pylori isolates. Therefore, clarithromycin susceptibility testing should be done, if possible. Patients with clarithromycin resistant H. pylori should not be treated with any of the following: omeprazole/clarithromycin dual therapy, omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin triple therapy, or other regimens which include clarithromycin as the sole antimicrobial agent.Amoxicillin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological OutcomesIn the triple therapy clinical trials, 84.9% (157/185) of the patients in the omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin treatment group who had pretreatment amoxicillin susceptible MICs (≤ 0.25 mcg/mL) were eradicated of H. pylori and 15.1% (28/185) failed therapy. Of the 28 patients who failed triple therapy, 11 had no post-treatment susceptibility test results and 17 had post-treatment H. pylori isolates with amoxicillin susceptible MICs. Eleven of the patients who failed triple therapy also had post-treatment H. pylori isolates with clarithromycin resistant MICs.Susceptibility Test for Helicobacter pyloriFor susceptibility testing information about Helicobacter pylori, see Microbiology section in prescribing information for clarithromycin and amoxicillin.Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard clarithromycin and amoxicillin powders should provide the following MIC values:Effects on Gastrointestinal Microbial EcologyDecreased gastric acidity due to any means including proton pump inhibitors, increases gastric counts of bacteria normally present in the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors may lead to slightly increased risk of gastrointestinal infections such as Salmonella and Campylobacter and possibly Clostridium difficile.
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In two 24-month carcinogenicity studies in rats, omeprazole at daily doses of 1.7, 3.4, 13.8, 44.0 and 140.8 mg/kg/day (about 0.4 to 34 times a human dose of 40 mg/day, as expressed on a body surface area basis produced gastric ECL cell carcinoids in a dose-related manner in both male and female rats; the incidence of this effect was markedly higher in female rats, which had higher blood levels of omeprazole. Gastric carcinoids seldom occur in the untreated rat. In addition, ECL cell hyperplasia was present in all treated groups of both sexes. In one of these studies, female rats were treated with 13.8 mg omeprazole/kg/day (about 3.4 times a human dose of 40 mg/day, based on body surgace area) for one year, and then followed for an additional year without the drug. No carcinoids were seen in these rats. An increased incidence of treatment-related ECL cell hyperplasia was observed at the end of one year (94% treated vs 10% controls). By the second year the difference between treated and contol rats was much smaller (46% vs 26%) but still showed more hyperplasia in the treated group. Gastric adenocarcinoma was seen in one rat (2%). No similar tumor was seen in male or female rats treated for two years. For this strain of rat no similar tumor has been noted historically, but a finding involving only one tumor is difficult to interpret. In a 52-week toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats, brain astrocyomas were found in a small number of males that received omeprazole at dose levels of 0.4, 2, and 16 mg/kg/day (about 0.1 to 3.9 times the human dose of 40mg/day, based on a body surface area basis). No astrocytomas were observed in female rats in this study. In a 2-year carcinogicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats, no astrocytomas were found in males or females at the high dose of 140.8 mg/kg/day (about 34 times the human dose of 40mg/day, based on a on a body suface area basis). A 78-week mouse carcinogenicity study of omeprazole did not show increased tumor occurrence, but the study was not conclusive. A 26-week p53 (+/-) transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study was not positive.Omeprazole was positive for clastogenic effects in an in vitro human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay, in one of two in vivo mouse micronucleus tests, and in an in vivo bone marrow cell chromosomal aberration assay. Omeprazole was negative in the in vitro Ames test, an in vitro mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay, and an in vivo rat liver DNA damage assay. Omeprazole at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day in rats (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance.In 24-month carcinogenicity studies in rats, a dose-related significant increase in gastric carcinoid tumors and ECL cell hyperplasia was observed in both male and female animals [See Warnings and Precautions (5)]. Carcinoid tumors have also been observed in rats subjected to fundectomy or long-term treatment with other proton pump inhibitors or high doses of H2-receptor antagonists.
13.2 Animal Toxicology And/Or Pharmacology
Reproduction StudiesReproduction Toxicology StudiesReproductive studies conducted with omeprazole in rats at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times the human dose of 40mg/day on a on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at doses up to 69 mg/kg/day (about 34 times the human dose of 40mg/day on a on a body surface area basis) did not disclose any evidence for a teratogenic potential of omeprazole. In rabbits, omeprazole in a dose range of 6.9 to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times the human dose of 40 mg/day on a on a body surface area basis) produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy disruptions. In rats, dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity were observed in offspring resulting from parents treated with omeprazole at 13.8 to 138.0 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times the human dose of 40 mg/day on a on a body surface area basis).Juvenile Animal StudyA 28-day toxicity study with a 14-day recovery phase was conducted in juvenile rats with esomeprazole magnesium at doses of 70 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 17 to 57 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). An increase in the number of deaths at the high dose of 280 mg/kg/day was observed when juvenile rats were administered esomeprazole magnesium from postnatal day 7 through postnatal day 35. In addition, doses equal to or greater than 140 mg/kg/day (about 34 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis), produced treatment-related decreases in body weight (approximately 14%) and body weight gain, decreases in femur weight and femur length, and affected overall growth. Comparable findings described above have also been observed in this study with another esomeprazole salt, esomeprazole strontium, at equimolar doses of esomeprazole.
14.1 Duodenal Ulcer Disease
Active Duodenal Ulcer—In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 147 patients with endoscopically documented duodenal ulcer, the percentage of patients healed (per protocol) at 2 and 4 weeks was significantly higher with omeprazole 20 mg once daily than with placebo (p ≤ 0.01).Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer % of Patients HealedOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg a.m.Placebo a.m.(n=99)(n=48)Week 2*4113Week 4*7527*(p ≤ 0.01)Complete daytime and nighttime pain relief occurred significantly faster (p ≤ 0.01) in patients treated with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg than in patients treated with placebo. At the end of the study, significantly more patients who had received Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules had complete relief of daytime pain (p ≤ 0.05) and nighttime pain (p ≤ 0.01). In a multicenter, double-blind study of 293 patients with endoscopically documented duodenal ulcer, the percentage of patients healed (per protocol) at 4 weeks was significantly higher with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily than with ranitidine 150 mg b.i.d. (p < 0.01).In a multicenter, double-blind study of 293 patients with endoxcopically documented duodenal ulcer, the percentage of patients healed (per protocol) at 4 weeks was significantly higher with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20mg once daily than with ranitidine 150mg b.i.d. (p<0.01). Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer % of Patients HealedOmeprazole Delayed-Release CapsulesRanitidine20 mg a.m.150 mg twice daily(n = 145)(n = 148)Week 24234Week 4*8263*(p < 0.01)Healing occurred significantly faster in patients treated with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules than in those treated with ranitidine 150 mg b.i.d. (p < 0.01). In a foreign multinational randomized, double-blind study of 105 patients with endoscopically documented duodenal ulcer, 20 mg and 40 mg of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules were compared with 150 mg b.i.d. of ranitidine at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. At 2 and 4 weeks both doses of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules were statistically superior (per protocol) to ranitidine, but 40 mg was not superior to 20 mg of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, and at 8 weeks there was no significant difference between any of the active drugs. Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer % of Patients HealedOmeprazole Delayed-Release CapsulesRanitidine20 mg (n=34)40 mg (n=36)150 mg twice daily (n=35)Week 2 *83 *8353Week 4 *97*10082Week 810010094*(p ≤ 0.01)H. pylori Eradication in Patients with Duodenal Ulcer DiseaseTriple Therapy (Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules/clarithromycin/amoxicillin)— Three U.S., randomized, double-blind clinical studies in patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (n=558) compared Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules plus clarithromycin plus amoxicillin with clarithromycin plus amoxicillin. Two studies (1 and 2) were conducted in patients with an active duodenal ulcer, and the other study (3) was conducted in patients with a history of a duodenal ulcer in the past 5 years but without an ulcer present at the time of enrollment. The dose regimen in the studies was Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg twice daily plus clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily plus amoxicillin 1 g twice daily for 10 days; or clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily, plus amoxicillin 1 g twice daily for 10 days. In studies 1 and 2, patients who took the omeprazole regimen also received an additional 18 days of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily. Endpoints studied were eradication of H. pylori and duodenal ulcer healing (studies 1 and 2 only). H. pylori status was determined by CLOtest®, histology and culture in all three studies. For a given patient, H. pylori was considered eradicated if at least two of these tests were negative, and none was positive. The combination of omeprazole plus clarithromycin plus amoxicillin was effective in eradicating H. pylori.Table 5Per-Protocol and Intent-to-Treat H. pylori Eradication Rates % of Patients Cured [95% Confidence Interval]Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules +clarithromycin +amoxicillinclarithromycin +amoxicillinPer-Protocol *Intent-to-Treat †Per-Protocol *Intent-to-Treat †Study 1‡77 [64, 86](n = 64)‡69 [57, 79](n = 80)43 [31, 56](n = 67)37 [27, 48] (n = 84)Study 2‡78 [67, 88] (n = 65)‡73 [61, 82] (n = 77)41 [29, 54] (n = 68)36 [26, 47] (n = 83)Study 3‡90 [80, 96] (n = 69)‡83 [74, 91] (n = 84)33 [24, 44] (n = 93)32 [23, 42] (n = 99)* Patients were included in the analysis if they had confirmed duodenal ulcer disease (active ulcer, studies 1 and 2; history of ulcer within 5 years, study 3) and H. Pylori infection at baseline defined as at least two of three positive endoscopic tests from CLOtest®, histology, and/or culture. Patients were included in the analysis if they completed the study. Additionally, if patients dropped out of the study due to an adverse event related to the study drug, they were included in the analysis as failures of therapy. The impact of eradication on ulcer recurrence has not been assessed in patients with a past history of ulcer.† Patients were included in the analysis if they had documented H. Pylori infection at baseline and had confirmed duodenal ulcer disease. All dropouts were included as failures of therapy.‡ (p < 0.05) versus clarithromycin plus amoxicillin.Dual Therapy (Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules/clarithromycin)Four randomized, double-blind, multi-center studies (4, 5, 6, and 7) evaluated Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg once daily plus clarithromycin 500 mg three times daily for 14 days, followed by Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily, (studies 4, 5, and 7) or by Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg once daily (Study 6) for an additional 14 days in patients with active duodenal ulcer associated with H. pylori. Studies 4 and 5 were conducted in the U.S. and Canada and enrolled 242 and 256 patients, respectively. H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer were confirmed in 219 patients in Study 4 and 228 patients in Study 5. These studies compared the combination regimen to Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules and clarithromycin monotherapies. Studies 6 and 7 were conducted in Europe and enrolled 154 and 215 patients, respectively. H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer were confirmed in 148 patients in study 6 and 208 patients in Study 7. These studies compared the combination regimen with omeprazole monotherapy. The results for the efficacy analyses for these studies are described below. H. pylori eradication was defined as no positive test (culture or histology) at 4 weeks following the end of treatment, and two negative tests were required to be considered eradicated of H. pylori. In the per-protocol analysis, the following patients were excluded: dropouts, patients with missing H. pylori tests post-treatment, and patients that were not assessed for H. pylori eradication because they were found to have an ulcer at the end of treatment. The combination of omeprazole and clarithromycin was effective in eradicating H. pylori. Table 6H. pylori Eradication Rates (Per-Protocol Analysis at 4 to 6 Weeks) % of Patients Cured [95% Confidence Interval]Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules +ClarithromycinOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules ClarithromycinU.S. StudiesStudy 474 [60, 85]*†(n=53)0 [0, 7] (n=54)31 [18, 47] (n=42)Study 564 [51, 76] *†(n=61)0 [0, 6] (n=59)39 [24, 55] (n=44)Non U.S. StudiesStudy 6 83 [71, 92] † (n=60)1[0, 7] (n=74)N/AStudy 774 [64, 83] †(n=86)1[0, 6] (n=90)N/A* Statistically significantly higher than omeprazole monotherapy (p < 0.05) † Combined results for Omeprazole Delayed-Relerase Capsules + clarithromycin and Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules treatment arms Ulcer healing was not significantly different when clarithromycin was added to omeprazole therapy compared with omeprazole therapy alone. The combination of omeprazole and clarithromycin was effective in eradicating H. pylori and reduced duodenal ulcer recurrence.Table 7Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence Rates by H. pylori Eradication Status% of Patients with Ulcer RecurrenceH. pylori eradicated *H. pylori not eradicated *U.S. Studies† 6 months post-treatmentStudy 4 35* (n=49)60 (n=88)Study 5 8* (n=53)60 (n=106)Non U.S. Studies§ 6 months post-treatmentStudy 6 5* (n=43)46 (n=78)Study 7 6* (n=53)43 (n=107)12 months post-treatmentStudy 6 5* (n=39)68 (n=71)* (p ≤ 0.01) versus proportion with duodenal ulcer recurrence who were not H. pylori eradicated† Combined results for Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules + clarithromycin, Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, and clarithromycin treatment
14.2 Gastric Ulcer
In a U.S. multicenter, double-blind, study of omeprazole 40 mg once daily, 20 mg once daily, and placebo in 520 patients with endoscopically diagnosed gastric ulcer, the following results were obtained.Treatment of Gastric Ulcer % of Patients Healed (All Patients Treated)Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily(n=202)Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg once daily(n=214)Placebo(n=104)Week 447.5 *55.6 *30.8Week 874.8 *82.7 *†48.1* (p < 0.01) Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg or 20 mg versus placebo † (p < 0.05) Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg versus 20 mgFor the stratified groups of patients with ulcer size less than or equal to 1 cm, no difference in healing rates between 40 mg and 20 mg was detected at either 4 or 8 weeks. For patients with ulcer size greater than 1 cm, 40 mg was significantly more effective than 20 mg at 8 weeks. In a foreign, multinational, double-blind study of 602 patients with endoscopically diagnosed gastric ulcer, omeprazole 40 mg once daily, 20 mg once daily, and ranitidine 150 mg twice a day were evaluated.Treatment of Gastric Ulcer % of Patients Healed (All Patients Treated)Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily(n=200)Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg once daily(n=187)Ranitidine150 mg twice daily.(n=199)Week 463.578.1 *†56.3Week 881.591.4 *†78.4* (p < 0.01) Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg versus ranitidine† (p < 0.01) Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 40 mg versus 20 mg
14.3 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (Gerd)
Symptomatic GERDA placebo-controlled study was conducted in Scandinavia to compare the efficacy of omeprazole 20 mg or 10 mg once daily for up to 4 weeks in the treatment of heartburn and other symptoms in GERD patients without erosive esophagitis.Results are shown below.% Successful Symptomatic OutcomeOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg a.m.Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 10 mg a.m.Placebo a.m.All patients46 †(n=205)31‡(n=199)13 (n=105)Patients with confirmed GERD56 †(n=115)36 ‡(n=109)14 (n=59)* Defined as complete resolution of heartburn† (p < 0.005) versus 10 mg‡ (p < 0.005) versus placebo
14.4 Erosive Esophagitis
In a U.S. multicenter double-blind placebo controlled study of 20 mg or 40 mg of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in patients with symptoms of GERD and endoscopically diagnosed erosive esophagitis of grade 2 or above, the percentage healing rates (per protocol) were as follows:Treatment of Gastric Ulcer % Successful Symptomatic OutcomeWeek 20 mgOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules (n=83)40 mgOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules (n=87)Placebo(n=43)439 *45 *7874 *75 *14 * (p < 0.01) Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules versus placebo. In this study, the 40 mg dose was not superior to the 20 mg dose of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in the percentage healing rate. Other controlled clinical trials have also shown that Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules are effective in severe GERD. In comparisons with histamine H2-receptor antagonists in patients with erosive esophagitis, grade 2 or above, Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in a dose of 20 mg was significantly more effective than the active controls. Complete daytime and nighttime heartburn relief occurred significantly faster (p < 0.01) in patients treated with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules than in those taking placebo or histamine H2- receptor antagonists. In this and five other controlled GERD studies, significantly more patients taking 20 mg omeprazole (84%) reported complete relief of GERD symptoms than patients receiving placebo (12%).Long Term Maintenance Of Healing of Erosive EsophagitisIn a U.S. double-blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo controlled study, two dose regimens of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules were studied in patients with endoscopically confirmed healed esophagitis. Results to determine maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis are shown below.Life Table Analysis Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily(n=138)Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg 3 days per week(n=137) Placebo (n=131)Percent in endoscopic remission at 6 months*703411* (p < 0.01) Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily versus Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg 3 consecutive days per week or placebo.In an international multicenter double-blind study, Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg daily and 10 mg daily were compared with ranitidine 150 mg twice daily in patients with endoscopically confirmed healed esophagitis. The table below provides the results of this study for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis.Life Table AnalysisOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily(n=131)Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 10 mg once daily(n=133)Ranitidine150 mg twice daily(n=128)Percent in endoscopic remission at 12 months* 77† 5846(p = 0.01) Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 20 mg once daily, versus Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 10 mg- once daily or Ranitidine† (p= 0.03) Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules 10 mg once daily, versus RanitidineIn patients who initially had grades 3 or 4 erosive esophagitis, for maintenance after healing, 20 mg daily of Omeprazole was effective, while 10 mg did not demonstrate effectiveness.
14.5 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions
In open studies of 136 patients with pathological hypersecretory conditions, such as Zollinger-Ellison (ZE) syndrome with or without multiple endocrine adenomas, Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules significantly inhibited gastric acid secretion and controlled associated symptoms of diarrhea, anorexia, and pain. Doses ranging from 20 mg every other day to 360 mg per day maintained basal acid secretion below 10 mEq/hr in patients without prior gastric surgery, and below 5 mEq/hr in patients with prior gastric surgery.Initial doses were titrated to the individual patient need, and adjustments were necessary with time in some patients see Dosage and Administration (2 )]. Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules were well tolerated at these high dose levels for prolonged periods (> 5 years in some patients). In most ZE patients, serum gastrin levels were not modified by Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. However, in some patients serum gastrin increased to levels greater than those present prior to initiation of omeprazole therapy. At least 11 patients with ZE syndrome on long-term treatment with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules developed gastric carcinoids. These findings are believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors, rather than the result of the administration of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules [See Adverse Reactions (6 )].
14.6 Pediatric Gerd
Symptomatic GERDThe effectiveness of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules for the treatment of nonerosive GERD in pediatric patients 1 to 16 years of age is based in part on data obtained from pediatric patients in an uncontrolled Phase III study [See Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].The study enrolled 113 pediatric patients 2 to 16 years of age with a history of symptoms suggestive of nonerosive GERD. Patients were administered a single dose of omeprazole (10 mg or 20 mg, based on body weight) for 4 weeks either as an intact capsule or as an open capsule in applesauce. Successful response was defined as no moderate or severe episodes of either pain-related symptoms or vomiting/regurgitation during the last 4 days of treatment. Results showed success rates of 60% (9/15; 10 mg omeprazole) and 59% (58/98; 20 mg omeprazole), respectively. Healing of Erosive EsophagitisIn an uncontrolled, open-label dose-titration study, healing of erosive esophagitis in pediatric patients 2 to 16 years of age required doses that ranged from 0.7 to 3.5 mg/kg/day (80 mg/day). Doses were initiated at 0.7 mg/kg/day. Doses were increased in increments of 0.7 mg/kg/day (if intraesophageal pH showed a pH of < 4 for less than 6% of a 24-hour study). After titration, patients remained on treatment for 3 months. Forty-four percent of the patients were healed on a dose of 0.7 mg/kg body weight; most of the remaining patients were healed with 1.4 mg/kg after an additional 3 months' treatment. Erosive esophagitis was healed in 51 of 57 (90%) children who completed the first course of treatment in the healing phase of the study. In addition, after 3 months of treatment, 33% of the children had no overall symptoms, 57% had mild reflux symptoms, and 40% had less frequent regurgitation/vomiting. Maintenance of Healing of Erosive EsophagitisIn an uncontrolled, open-label study of maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis in 46 pediatric patients, 54% of patients required half the healing dose. The remaining patients increased the healing dose (0.7 to a maximum of 2.8 mg/kg/day) either for the entire maintenance period, or returned to half the dose before completion. Of the 46 patients who entered the maintenance phase, 19 (41%) had no relapse. In addition, maintenance therapy in erosive esophagitis patients resulted in 63% of patients having no overall symptoms.
1. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically—Fifth Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M7-A5, Vol, 20, No. 2, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January 2000.
16 How Supplied/Storage And Handling
Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, 10 mg, are opaque white cap and opaque white body capsules imprinted with "KU" and "114" in black ink. They are supplied as follows:Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, 20 mg, are opaque white cap and opaque gold body capsules imprinted with "KU" and "118" in black ink. They are supplied as follows: NDC 50268-619-15 10 capsules per card, 5 cards per cartonOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, 40 mg, are opaque gold cap and opaque gold body capsules imprinted with "KU" and "136" in black ink. They are supplied as follows:NDC 50268-620-15 10 capsules per card, 5 cards per carton Dispensed in Blister Punch Material. For Institutional Use Only.StorageDispense in a tight and light-resistant container as described in the USP.Store Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in a tight container protected from light and moisture. Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°) (See USP Controlled Room Temperature).
17 Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Medication GuideOmeprazole Delayed-Release Capsule should be taken before eating. Patients should be informed that the Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsule should be swallowed whole. For patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules, the contents of an Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsule can be added to applesauce. One tablespoon of applesauce should be added to an empty bowl and the capsule should be opened. All of the microtablets inside the capsule should be carefully emptied on the applesauce. The microtablets should be mixed with the applesauce and then swallowed immediately with a glass of cool water to ensure complete swallowing of the microtablets. The applesauce used should not be hot and should be soft enough to be swallowed without chewing. The microtablets should not be chewed or crushed. The microtablets/applesauce mixture should not be stored for future use. Advise patients to immediately report and seek care for diarrhea that does not improve. This may be a sign of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Advise patients to immediately report and seek care for any cardiovascular or neurological symptoms including palpitations, dizziness, seizures, and tetany as these may be signs of hypomagnesemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].Manufactured for: AvKARE, Inc.Pulaski, TN 38478Mfg. Rev. 18E 01/15AV Rev. 08/15 (P)AvPAK
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