NDC 51655-300 Acyclovir

NDC Product Code 51655-300

NDC CODE: 51655-300

Proprietary Name: Acyclovir What is the Proprietary Name?
The proprietary name also known as the trade name is the name of the product chosen by the medication labeler for marketing purposes.

Drug Use Information

Drug Use Information
The drug use information is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of a health care professional. Always ask a health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

  • Acyclovir is used to treat infections caused by certain types of viruses. It treats cold sores around the mouth (caused by herpes simplex), shingles (caused by herpes zoster), and chickenpox. This medication is also used to treat outbreaks of genital herpes. In people with frequent outbreaks, acyclovir is used to help reduce the number of future episodes. Acyclovir is an antiviral drug. However, it is not a cure for these infections. The viruses that cause these infections continue to live in the body even between outbreaks. Acyclovir decreases the severity and length of these outbreaks. It helps the sores heal faster, keeps new sores from forming, and decreases pain/itching. This medication may also help reduce how long pain remains after the sores heal. In addition, in people with a weakened immune system, acyclovir can decrease the risk of the virus spreading to other parts of the body and causing serious infections.

NDC Code Structure

NDC 51655-300-23

Package Description: 25 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE, DISPENSING

NDC 51655-300-25

Package Description: 25 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE, DISPENSING

NDC 51655-300-52

Package Description: 30 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE, DISPENSING

This product is EXCLUDED from the official NDC directory because the listing data was inactivated by the FDA.

NDC Product Information

Information for Patients

Acyclovir

Acyclovir is pronounced as (ay sye' kloe veer)

Why is acyclovir medication prescribed?
Acyclovir is used to decrease pain and speed the healing of sores or blisters in people who have varicella (chickenpox)), herpes zoster (shingles; a rash that can occur i...
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Acyclovir Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

Description

Acyclovir is a synthetic nucleoside analogue active against herpesviruses. Acyclovir tablets, USP is a formulation for oral administration.Each Acyclovir Tablet contains 400 mg or 800 mg of acyclovir. In addition, each tablet contains the inactive ingredients colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone and sodium starch glycolate. The 400 mg and 800 mg tablet also contains ferric oxide and FD&C blue lake # 2 Indigo carmine AL, respectively.Acyclovir USP is a white to off white crystalline powder, slightly hygroscopic with the molecular formula C8H11N5O3 and a molecular weight of 225.20. The maximum solubility in water at 37°C is 2.5 mg/mL. The pka's of acyclovir are 2.27 and 9.25.The chemical name of acyclovir is 6H-Purin-6-one, 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-.

Virology

Mechanism of Antiviral Action: Acyclovir is a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1), 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV).The inhibitory activity of acyclovir is highly selective due to its affinity for the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK) encoded by HSV and VZV. This viral enzyme converts acyclovir into acyclovir monophosphate, a nucleotide analogue. The monophosphate is further converted into diphosphate by cellular guanylate kinase and into triphosphate by a number of cellular enzymes. In vitro, acyclovir triphosphate stops replication of herpes viral DNA. This is accomplished in 3 ways: 1) competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerase, 2) incorporation into and termination of the growing viral DNA chain, and 3) inactivation of the viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared with VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the viral TK.Antiviral Activities: The quantitative relationship between the in vitro susceptibility of herpes viruses to antivirals and the clinical response to therapy has not been established in humans, and virus sensitivity testing has not been standardized. Sensitivity testing results, expressed as the concentration of drug required to inhibit by 50% the growth of virus in cell culture (IC50), vary greatly depending upon a number of factors. Using plaque-reduction assays, the IC50 against herpes simplex virus isolates ranges from 0.02 to 13.5 mcg/mL for HSV-1 and from 0.01 to 9.9 mcg/mL for HSV-2. The IC50 for acyclovir against most laboratory strains and clinical isolates of VZV ranges from 0.12 to 10.8 mcg/mL. Acyclovir also demonstrates activity against the Oka vaccine strain of VZV with a mean IC50 of 1.35 mcg/mL.Drug Resistance: Resistance of HSV and VZV to acyclovir can result from qualitative and quantitative changes in the viral TK and/or DNA polymerase. Clinical isolates of HSV and VZV with reduced susceptibility to acyclovir have been recovered from immunocompromised patients, especially with advanced HIV infection. While most of the acyclovir-resistant mutants isolated thus far from immunocompromised patients have been found to be TK-deficient mutants, other mutants involving the viral TK gene (TK partial and TK altered) and DNA polymerase have been isolated. TK-negative mutants may cause severe disease in infants and immunocompromised adults. The possibility of viral resistance to acyclovir should be considered in patients who show poor clinical response during therapy.

Clinical Pharmacology

Please see http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0910335b-6796-459f-b97e-d7ef5439a060 for complete information.Special PopulationsAdults With Impaired Renal Function:The half-life and total body clearance of acyclovir are dependent on renal function. A dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with reduced renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).Geriatrics: Acyclovir plasma concentrations are higher in geriatric patients compared with younger adults, in part due to age-related changes in renal function. Dosage reduction may be required in geriatric patients with underlying renal impairment (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use).Pediatrics: In general, the pharmacokinetics of acyclovir in pediatric patients is similar to that of adults. Mean half-life after oral doses of 300 mg/m2 and 600 mg/m2 in pediatric patients aged 7 months to 7 years was 2.6 hours (range 1.59 to 3.74 hours).Drug InteractionsCoadministration of probenecid with intravenous acyclovir has been shown to increase the mean acyclovir half-life and the area under the concentration-time curve. Urinary excretion and renal clearance were correspondingly reduced.Clinical TrialsInitial Genital Herpes: Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that orally administered acyclovir tablets significantly reduced the duration of acute infection and duration of lesion healing. The duration of pain and new lesion formation was decreased in some patient groups.Recurrent Genital Herpes: Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in patients with frequent recurrences (6 or more episodes per year) have shown that orally administered acyclovir tablets given daily for 4 months to 10 years prevented or reduced the frequency and/or severity of recurrences in greater than 95% of patients.In a study of patients who received acyclovir tablets 400 mg twice daily for 3 years, 45%, 52%, and 63% of patients remained free of recurrences in the first, second, and third years, respectively. Serial analyses of the 3-month recurrence rates for the patients showed that 71% to 87% were recurrence free in each quarter.Herpes Zoster Infections: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of immunocompetent patients with localized cutaneous zoster infection, acyclovir tablets (800 mg 5 times daily for 10 days) shortened the times to lesion scabbing, healing, and complete cessation of pain, and reduced the duration of viral shedding and the duration of new lesion formation.In a similar double-blind, placebo-controlled study, acyclovir tablets (800 mg 5 times daily for 7 days) shortened the times to complete lesion scabbing, healing, and cessation of pain; reduced the duration of new lesion formation; and reduced the prevalence of localized zoster-associated neurologic symptoms (paresthesia, dysesthesia, or hyperesthesia).Treatment was begun within 72 hours of rash onset and was most effective if started within the first 48 hours.Adults greater than 50 years of age showed greater benefit.Chickenpox: Three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted in 993 pediatric patients aged 2 to 18 years with chickenpox. All patients were treated within 24 hours after the onset of rash. In 2 trials, acyclovir tablets were administered at 20 mg/kg 4 times daily (up to 3,200 mg per day) for 5 days. In the third trial, doses of 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg were administered 4 times daily for 5 to 7 days. Treatment with acyclovir tablets shortened the time to 50% healing; reduced the maximum number of lesions; reduced the median number of vesicles; decreased the median number of residual lesions on day 28; and decreased the proportion of patients with fever, anorexia, and lethargy by day 2. Treatment with acyclovir tablets did not affect varicella-zoster virus-specific humoral or cellular immune responses at 1 month or 1 year following treatment.

Indications & Usage

Herpes Zoster Infections: Acyclovir tablets, USP are indicated for the acute treatment of herpes zoster (shingles).Genital Herpes: Acyclovir tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of initial episodes and the management of recurrent episodes of genital herpes.Chickenpox: Acyclovir tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of chickenpox (varicella).

Contraindications

Acyclovir tablets are contraindicated for patients who develop hypersensitivity to acyclovir or valacyclovir.

Warnings

Acyclovir tablets are intended for oral ingestion only. Renal failure, in some cases resulting in death, has been observed with acyclovir therapy (see ADVERSE REACTIONS: Observed During Clinical Practice and OVERDOSAGE). Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS), which has resulted in death, has occurred in immunocompromised patients receiving acyclovir therapy.

Precautions

Dosage adjustment is recommended when administering acyclovir tablets to patients with renal impairment (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Caution should also be exercised when administering acyclovir tablets to patients receiving potentially nephrotoxic agents since this may increase the risk of renal dysfunction and/or the risk of reversible central nervous system symptoms such as those that have been reported in patients treated with intravenous acyclovir. Adequate hydration should be maintained.Information for PatientsPatients are instructed to consult with their physician if they experience severe or troublesome adverse reactions, they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant, they intend to breastfeed while taking orally administered acyclovir tablets or they have any other questions.Patients should be advised to maintain adequate hydration.Herpes Zoster: There are no data on treatment initiated more than 72 hours after onset of the zoster rash. Patients should be advised to initiate treatment as soon as possible after a diagnosis of herpes zoster.Genital Herpes Infections: Patients should be informed that acyclovir tablets is not a cure for genital herpes. There are no data evaluating whether acyclovir tablets will prevent transmission of infection to others. Because genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease, patients should avoid contact with lesions or intercourse when lesions and/or symptoms are present to avoid infecting partners. Genital herpes can also be transmitted in the absence of symptoms through asymptomatic viral shedding. If medical management of a genital herpes recurrence is indicated, patients should be advised to initiate therapy at the first sign or symptom of an episode.Chickenpox: Chickenpox in otherwise healthy children is usually a self-limited disease of mild to moderate severity. Adolescents and adults tend to have more severe disease. Treatment was initiated within 24 hours of the typical chickenpox rash in the controlled studies, and there is no information regarding the effects of treatment begun later in the disease course.Drug InteractionsSee CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics.Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis & Impairment Of FertilityThe data presented below include references to peak steady-state plasma acyclovir concentrations observed in humans treated with 800 mg given orally 5 times a day (dosing appropriate for treatment of herpes zoster) or 200 mg given orally 5 times a day (dosing appropriate for treatment of genital herpes). Plasma drug concentrations in animal studies are expressed as multiples of human exposure to acyclovir at the higher and lower dosing schedules (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics).Acyclovir was tested in lifetime bioassays in rats and mice at single daily doses of up to 450 mg/kg administered by gavage. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of tumors between treated and control animals, nor did acyclovir shorten the latency of tumors. Maximum plasma concentrations were 3 to 6 times human levels in the mouse bioassay and 1 to 2 times human levels in the rat bioassay.Acyclovir was tested in 16 in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity assays. Acyclovir was positive in 5 of the assays.Acyclovir did not impair fertility or reproduction in mice (450 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or in rats (25 mg/kg/day, s.c.). In the mouse study, plasma levels were 9 to 18 times human levels, while in the rat study, they were 8 to 15 times human levels. At higher doses (50 mg/kg/day, s.c.) in rats and rabbits (11 to 22 and 16 to 31 times human levels, respectively) implantation efficacy, but not litter size, was decreased. In a rat peri- and post-natal study at 50 mg/kg/day, s.c., there was a statistically significant decrease in group mean numbers of corpora lutea, total implantation sites, and live fetuses.No testicular abnormalities were seen in dogs given 50 mg/kg/day, IV for 1 month (21 to 41 times human levels) or in dogs given 60 mg/kg/day orally for 1 year (6 to 12 times human levels). Testicular atrophy and aspermatogenesis were observed in rats and dogs at higher dose levels.PregnancyTeratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B. Acyclovir administered during organogenesis was not teratogenic in the mouse (450 mg/kg/day, p.o.), rabbit (50 mg/kg/day, s.c. and IV), or rat (50 mg/kg/day, s.c.). These exposures resulted in plasma levels 9 and 18, 16 and 106, and 11 and 22 times, respectively, human levels.There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. A prospective epidemiologic registry of acyclovir use during pregnancy was established in 1984 and completed in April 1999. There were 749 pregnancies followed in women exposed to systemic acyclovir during the first trimester of pregnancy resulting in 756 outcomes. The occurrence rate of birth defects approximates that found in the general population. However, the small size of the registry is insufficient to evaluate the risk for less common defects or to permit reliable or definitive conclusions regarding the safety of acyclovir in pregnant women and their developing fetuses. Acyclovir should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.Nursing MothersAcyclovir concentrations have been documented in breast milk in 2 women following oral administration of acyclovir tablets and ranged from 0.6 to 4.1 times corresponding plasma levels. These concentrations would potentially expose the nursing infant to a dose of acyclovir up to 0.3 mg/kg/day. Acyclovir tablets should be administered to a nursing mother with caution and only when indicated.Pediatric UseSafety and effectiveness of oral formulations of acyclovir in pediatric patients younger than 2 years of age have not been established.Geriatric UseOf 376 subjects who received acyclovir tablets in a clinical study of herpes zoster treatment in immunocompetent subjects ≥50 years of age, 244 were 65 and over while 111 were 75 and over. No overall differences in effectiveness for time to cessation of new lesion formation or time to healing were reported between geriatric subjects and younger adult subjects. The duration of pain after healing was longer in patients 65 and over. Nausea, vomiting, and dizziness were reported more frequently in elderly subjects. Elderly patients are more likely to have reduced renal function and require dose reduction. Elderly patients are also more likely to have renal or CNS adverse events. With respect to CNS adverse events observed during clinical practice, somnolence, hallucinations, confusion, and coma were reported more frequently in elderly patients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, ADVERSE REACTIONS: Observed During Clinical Practice, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Adverse Reactions

Herpes SimplexShort-Term Administration: The most frequent adverse events reported during clinical trials of treatment of genital herpes with acyclovir tablets 200 mg administered orally 5 times daily every 4 hours for 10 days were nausea and/or vomiting in 8 of 298 patient treatments (2.7%). Nausea and/or vomiting occurred in 2 of 287 (0.7%) patients who received placebo.Long-Term Administration: The most frequent adverse events reported in a clinical trial for the prevention of recurrences with continuous administration of 400 mg (two 200-mg capsules) 2 times daily for 1 year in 586 patients treated with acyclovir tablets were nausea (4.8%) and diarrhea (2.4%). The 589 control patients receiving intermittent treatment of recurrences with acyclovir tablets for 1 year reported diarrhea (2.7%), nausea (2.4%), and headache (2.2%).Herpes ZosterThe most frequent adverse event reported during 3 clinical trials of treatment of herpes zoster (shingles) with 800 mg of oral acyclovir tablets 5 times daily for 7 to 10 days in 323 patients was malaise (11.5%). The 323 placebo recipients reported malaise (11.1%).ChickenpoxThe most frequent adverse event reported during 3 clinical trials of treatment of chickenpox with oral acyclovir tablets at doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg 4 times daily for 5 to 7 days or 800 mg 4 times daily for 5 days in 495 patients was diarrhea (3.2%). The 498 patients receiving placebo reported diarrhea (2.2%).Observed During Clinical PracticeIn addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, the following events have been identified during post-approval use of acyclovir tablets. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, potential causal connection to acyclovir tablets or a combination of these factors.General: Anaphylaxis, angioedema, fever, headache, pain, peripheral edema.Nervous: Aggressive behavior, agitation, ataxia, coma, confusion, decreased consciousness, delirium, dizziness, dysarthria, encephalopathy, hallucinations, paresthesia, psychosis, seizure, somnolence, tremors. These symptoms may be marked, particularly in older adults or in patients with renal impairment (see PRECAUTIONS).Digestive: Diarrhea, gastrointestinal distress, nausea.Hematologic and Lymphatic: Anemia, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia.Hepatobiliary Tract and Pancreas: Elevated liver function tests, hepatitis, hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice.Musculoskeletal: Myalgia.Skin: Alopecia, erythema multiforme, photosensitive rash, pruritus, rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, urticaria.Special Senses: Visual abnormalities.Urogenital: Renal failure, renal pain (may be associated with renal failure), elevated blood urea nitrogen, elevated creatinine, hematuria (see WARNINGS).

Overdosage

Overdoses involving ingestion of up to 100 capsules (20 g) have been reported. Adverse events that have been reported in association with overdosage include agitation, coma, seizures, and lethargy. Precipitation of acyclovir in renal tubules may occur when the solubility (2.5 mg/mL) is exceeded in the intratubular fluid. Overdosage has been reported following bolus injections or inappropriately high doses and in patients whose fluid and electrolyte balance were not properly monitored. This has resulted in elevated BUN and serum creatinine and subsequent renal failure. In the event of acute renal failure and anuria, the patient may benefit from hemodialysis until renal function is restored (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Package Label

NDC: 51655-300-25Mfg: 31722-777-05Acyclovir 400 MG25 TabletsRx OnlyLot#:Exp. Date:Medication guide is found at www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/ucm085729Dosage: See prescriber's instructions.Each tablet contains: acyclovir 400 MG, USPStore at 68 to 77 degrees F.Protect from light & moisture. Keep out of the reach of children.Mfg. by Hetero Labs, Mahaboob Nagar 509301, IndiaMfg. for: Camber Pharmaceuticals, Piscataway, NJ 08854 Lot#Repackaged by Northwind Pharmacaeuticals, Indianapolis, IN 46256NDC: 51655-300-52Mfg: 31722-777-05Acyclovir 400 MG30 TabletsRx OnlyLot#:Exp. Date:Medication guide is found at www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/ucm085729Dosage: See prescriber's instructions.Each tablet contains: acyclovir 400 MG, USPStore at 68 to 77 degrees F.Protect from light & moisture. Keep out of the reach of children.Mfg. by Hetero Labs, Mahaboob Nagar 509301, IndiaMfg. for: Camber Pharmaceuticals, Piscataway, NJ 08854 Lot#Repackaged by Northwind Pharmacaeuticals, Indianapolis, IN 46256NDC: 51655-300-23Mfg: 31722-777-05Acyclovir 400 MG25 TabletsRx OnlyLot#:Exp. Date:Medication guide is found at www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/ucm085729Dosage: See prescriber's instructions.Each tablet contains: acyclovir 400 MG, USPStore at 68 to 77 degrees F.Protect from light & moisture. Keep out of the reach of children.Mfg. by Hetero Labs, Mahaboob Nagar 509301, IndiaMfg. for: Camber Pharmaceuticals, Piscataway, NJ 08854 Lot#Repackaged by Northwind Pharmacaeuticals, Indianapolis, IN 46256

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