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1 Indications And Usage
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.Doxycycline is a tetracycline-class antibacterial indicated in the following conditions or diseases:
1.1 Rickettsial Infections
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.
1.2 Sexually Transmitted Infections
Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.Granuloma inguinale caused by Klebsiella granulomatis.Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.
1.3 Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydophila psittaci.Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following micro- organisms, when bacteriological testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae.Respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
1.4 Specific Bacterial Infections
Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis.Plague due to Yersinia pestis.Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis.Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae.Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus.Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis.Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram- negative microorganisms, when bacteriological testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:Escherichia coliEnterobacter aerogenesShigella speciesAcinetobacter speciesUrinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.
1.5 Ophthalmic Infections
Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence.Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
1.6 Anthrax Including Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)
Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.
1.7 Alternative Treatment For Selected Infections When Penicillin Is Contraindicated
When penicillin is contraindicated, doxycycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum.Yaws caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue.Vincent's infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme.Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii.Infections caused by Clostridium species.
1.8 Adjunctive Therapy For Acute Intestinal Amebiasis And Severe Acne
In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.In severe acne, doxycycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.
1.9 Prophylaxis Of Malaria
Doxycycline is indicated for the prophylaxis of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum in short-term travelers (< 4 months) to areas with chloroquine and/or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistant strains [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
2.1 Usual Dosage And Administration
The usual dosage and frequency of administration of doxycycline differs from that of the other tetracyclines. Exceeding the recommended dosage may result in an increased incidence of side effects.
Adults: The usual dose of oral doxycycline is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (administered 100 mg every 12 hours), followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg daily. The maintenance dose may be administered as a single dose or as 50 mg every 12 hours. In the management of more severe infections (particularly chronic infections of the urinary tract), 100 mg every 12 hours is recommended.
For pediatric patients above eight years of age: The recommended dosage schedule for children weighing 45 kg or less is 4.4 mg/kg of body weight divided into two doses on the first day of treatment, followed by 2.2 mg/kg of body weight given as a single daily dose or divided into two doses on subsequent days. For more severe infections up to 4.4 mg/kg of body weight may be used. For children over 45 kg, the usual adult dose should be used.
Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline-class is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].If gastric irritation occurs, doxycycline may be given with food or milk [see Clinical Pharmacology (12)].When used in streptococcal infections, therapy should be continued for 10 days.Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: 100 mg by mouth twice a day for 7 days. As an alternate dosing regimen for uncomplicated urethral or endocervical infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, administer 200 mg by mouth once-a-day for 7 days.Uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults (except anorectal infections in men): 100 mg, by mouth, twice-a-day for 7 days. As an alternate single visit dose, administer 300 mg stat followed in one hour by a second 300 mg dose.Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) caused by U. urealyticum: 100 mg by mouth twice-a- day for 7 days.Syphilis – early: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg by mouth twice-a-day for 2 weeks.Syphilis of more than one year's duration: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg by mouth twice-a-day for 4 weeks.Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by C. trachomatis: 100 mg, by mouth, twice-a-day for at least 10 days.
Mechanism of ActionDoxycycline inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Doxycycline has bacteriostatic activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria. Cross-resistance between tetracyclines is common.Doxycycline has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section of the package insert for doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets [see Indications and Usage (1)].
Gram-Negative Bacteria Acinetobacter speciesBartonella bacilliformis Brucella speciesCampylobacter fetus Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Francisella tularensis Haemophilus ducreyi Haemophilus influenzae Klebsiella speciesKlebsiella granulomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae Shigella speciesVibrio choleraeYersinia pestis
Gram-Positive BacteriaBacillus anthracis Streptococcus pneumoniae
Anerobic BacteriaClostridium speciesFusobacterium fusiforme Propionibacterium acnes
Other BacteriaBorrelia recurrentisChlamydophila psittaci Chlamydia trachomatis Mycoplasma pneumoniae RickettsiaeNorcardiae and other aerobic Actinomyces speciesTreponema pallidum Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenueUreaplasma urealyticum
Parasites Balantidium coli Entamoeba speciesPlasmodium falciparumDoxycycline has been found to be active against the asexual erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum but not against the gametocytes of P. falciparum. The precise mechanism of action of the drug is not known.
Susceptibility Test MethodsWhen available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drugs used in resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting the most effective antimicrobial.
Dilution TechniquesQuantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized test method (broth and/or agar)5,6,8. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the criteria provided in Table 2.
Diffusion TechniquesQuantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters can also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. Zone size provides an estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size should be determined using a standard test method5,7,8. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30 mcg doxycycline to test the susceptibility of bacteria to doxycycline. The disk diffusion interpretive criteria are provided in Table 2.
Anaerobic TechniquesFor anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to doxycycline can be determined by a standardized test method9. The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to the criteria provided in Table 2.Table 2: Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Doxycycline and TetracyclineBacteriaOrganisms susceptible to tetracycline are also considered susceptible to doxycycline. However, some organisms that are intermediate or resistant to tetracycline may be susceptible to doxycycline.Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (mcg/mL)Zone Diameter (mm)Agar Dilution (mcg/mL)SIRSIRSIRAcinetobacter spp. Doxycycline Tetracycline≤4≤488≥16≥16≥13≥1510-1212-14≤9≤11------Anaerobes Tetracycline------≤48≥16Bacillus anthracisThe current absence of resistance isolates precludes defining any results other than "Susceptible". If isolates yielding MIC results other than susceptible, they should be submitted to a reference laboratory for further testing. Doxycycline Tetracycline≤1≤1----------------Brucella species Doxycycline Tetracycline≤1≤1----------------Enterobacteriaceae Doxycycline Tetracycline≤4≤488≥16≥16≥14≥1511-1312-14≤10≤11------Francisella tularensis Doxycycline Tetracycline≤4≤4----------------Haemophilus influenzae Tetracycline≤24≥8≥2926-28≤25---Mycoplasma pneumoniae Tetracycline------≤2--Nocardiae and other aerobic Actinomyces species Doxycycline≤12-4≥8---Neisseria gonorrhoeaeGonococci with 30 mcg tetracycline disk zone diameters of less than 19 mm usually indicate a plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate. Resistance in these strains should be confirmed by a dilution test (MIC greater than or equal to 16 mcg/mL). Tetracycline---≥3831-37≤30≤0.250.5-1≥2Streptococcus pneumoniae Doxycycline Tetracycline≤0.25≤10.52≥1≥4≥28≥2825-2725-27≤24≤24------Vibrio cholerae Doxycycline Tetracycline≤4≤488≥16≥16------------Yersinia pestis Doxycycline Tetracycline≤4≤488≥16≥16------------Ureaplasma urealyticum Tetracycline------≤1≥2A report of Susceptible (S) indicates that the antimicrobial drug is likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial drug reaches the concentrations usually achievable at the site of infection. A report of Intermediate (I) indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the bacteria is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone that prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of Resistant (R) indicates that the antimicrobial is not likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial drug reaches the concentrations usually achievable at the infection site; other therapy should be selected.
Quality ControlStandardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of the supplies and reagents used in the assay, and the techniques of the individuals performing the test5,6,7,8,9,10,11. Standard doxycycline and tetracycline powders should provide the following range of MIC values noted in Table 3. For the diffusion technique using the 30 mcg doxycycline disk the criteria noted in Table 3 should be achieved.Table 3: Acceptable Quality Control Ranges for Susceptiblity Testing for Doxycycline and TetracyclineQC StrainMinimal Inhibitory Concentration (mcg/mL)Zone Diameter (mm)Agar Dilution (mcg/mL)Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 Doxycycline Tetracycline2 - 88 - 32----Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 Doxycycline Tetracycline0.5 - 20.5 - 218 - 2418 - 25--Eubacteria lentum ATCC 43055 Doxycycline2-16Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 Tetracycline4 - 3214 - 22-Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 Tetracycline-30 - 420.25 - 1Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 Doxycycline Tetracycline--23 - 2924 - 30--Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 Doxycycline0.12 - 0.5- Tetracycline0.12 - 1-Staphylococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 Doxycycline Tetracycline0.015 - 0.120.06 - 0.525 - 3427 - 31--Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285 Tetracycline--0.125 - 0.5Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29741 Doxycycline Tetracycline2-8---8 - 32Mycoplasma pneumoniae ATCC 29342 Tetracycline0.06 - 0.5-0.06 - 0.5Ureaplasma urealyticum ATCC 33175 Tetracycline--≥8
2.2 For Prophylaxis Of Malaria
For adults, the recommended dose is 100 mg daily. For children over 8 years of age, the recommended dose is 2 mg/kg given once daily up to the adult dose. Prophylaxis should begin 1 or 2 days before travel to the malarious area. Prophylaxis should be continued daily during travel in the malarious area and for 4 weeks after the traveler leaves the malarious area.
2.3 Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)
Adults: 100 mg, of doxycycline, by mouth, twice-a-day for 60 days.Children: weighing less than 45 kg, 2.2 mg/kg of body weight, by mouth, twice-a-day for 60 days. Children weighing 45 kg or more should receive the adult dose.
2.4 Sprinkling The Tablet Over Applesauce
Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets may also be administered by carefully breaking up the tablet and sprinkling the tablet contents (delayed-release pellets) on a spoonful of applesauce. The delayed-release pellets must not be crushed or damaged when breaking up the tablet. Any loss of pellets in the transfer would prevent using the dose. The applesauce/ doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets mixture should be swallowed immediately without chewing and may be followed by a glass of water if desired. The applesauce should not be hot, and it should be soft enough to be swallowed without chewing. In the event that a prepared dose of applesauce/ doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablet cannot be taken immediately, the mixture should be discarded and not stored for later use.
3 Dosage Forms And Strengths
Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP 50 mg are white, oval tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "DV" on one face and plain on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 50 mg of doxycycline.Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP 75 mg are white, oval scored tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "D|5" on one face and plain on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 75 mg of doxycycline.Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP 100 mg are white, oval scored tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "D|0" on one face and plain on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 100 mg of doxycycline.Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP 150 mg are white, rectangular dual-scored tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "D|I|I" on one face and dual-scored on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 150 mg of doxycycline.Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP 200 mg are white, oval scored tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "D|D" on one face and plain on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 200 mg of doxycycline.
The drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.
5.1 Tooth Development
The use of drugs of the tetracycline-class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Doxycycline should not be used in this age group, except for anthrax, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure), unless other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated.
5.2 Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.
As with other antibacterial preparations, use of doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibacterial should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
5.5 Intracranial Hypertension
Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracycline including Doxycycline. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Avoid concomitant use of isotretinoin and doxycycline because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.Although IH typically resolves after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize.
5.6 Skeletal Development
All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity also has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking these drugs, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
5.7 Antianabolic Action
The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function.
Doxycycline offers substantial but not complete suppression of the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium strains.Doxycycline does not suppress P. falciparum's sexual blood stage gametocytes. Subjects completing this prophylactic regimen may still transmit the infection to mosquitoes outside endemic areas.
5.9 Development Of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Prescribing doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
5.10 Laboratory Monitoring For Long-Term Therapy
In long-term therapy, periodic laboratory evaluation of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic studies should be performed.
6.1 Clinical Trial Experience
The safety and efficacy of doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 200 mg as a single daily dose was evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study. Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 200 mg was given orally once-a-day for 7 days and compared to doxycycline hyclate capsules 100 mg given orally twice daily for 7 days for the treatment of men and women with uncomplicated urogenital C. trachomatis infection.Adverse events in the Safety Population were reported by 99 (40.2%) subjects in the doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 200 mg treatment group and 132 (53.2%) subjects in the doxycycline hyclate capsules reference treatment group. Most AEs were mild in intensity. The most commonly reported adverse events in both treatment groups were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bacterial vaginitis, Table 1.Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in Greater than or Equal to 2% of SubjectsDoxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 200 mgN = 246Preferred Termn (%)Subjects with any AE99 (40.2) Nausea33 (13.4) Vomiting20 (8.1) Headache5 (2.0) Diarrhea8 (3.3) Abdominal Pain Upper5 (2.0) Vaginitis Bacterial8 (3.3) Vulvovaginal Mycotic Infection5 (2.0)Because clinical trials are conducted under prescribed conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trial may not always reflect the rates observed in practice.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of doxycycline. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate a causal relationship to drug exposure.Due to oral doxycycline's virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines:Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region. Hepatotoxicity has been reported. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline- class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].Skin: Maculopapular and erythematous rashes, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, and erythema multiforme have been reported. Photosensitivity is discussed above [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].Renal: Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose-related [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].Hypersensitivity reactions: Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, serum sickness, pericarditis, and exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus.Blood: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.Intracranial Hypertension: Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracycline [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]Thyroid Gland Changes: When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of thyroid glands. No abnormalities of thyroid function are known to occur.
7.1 Anticoagulant Drugs
Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.
Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracyclines in conjunction with penicillin.
7.3 Antacids And Iron Preparations
Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, bismuth subsalicylate, and iron-containing preparations.
7.4 Oral Contraceptives
Concurrent use of tetracycline may render oral contraceptives less effective.
7.5 Barbiturates And Anti-Epileptics
Barbiturates, carbamazepine, and phenytoin decrease the half-life of doxycycline.
The concurrent use of tetracycline and Penthrane® (methoxyflurane) has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.
7.7 Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
False elevations of urinary catecholamines may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.
Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category D:There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of doxycycline in pregnant women. The vast majority of reported experience with doxycycline during human pregnancy is short-term, first trimester exposure. There are no human data available to assess the effects of long-term therapy of doxycycline in pregnant women such as that proposed for the treatment of anthrax exposure. An expert review of published data on experiences with doxycycline use during pregnancy by TERIS - the Teratogen Information System - concluded that therapeutic doses during pregnancy are unlikely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk (the quantity and quality of data were assessed as limited to fair), but the data are insufficient to state that there is no risk.1A case-control study (18,515 mothers of infants with congenital anomalies and 32,804 mothers of infants with no congenital anomalies) shows a weak but marginally statistically significant association with total malformations and use of doxycycline anytime during pregnancy. Sixty-three (0.19%) of the controls and 56 (0.30%) of the cases were treated with doxycycline. This association was not seen when the analysis was confined to maternal treatment during the period of organogenesis (that is, in the second and third months of gestation), with the exception of a marginal relationship with neural tube defect based on only two-exposed cases.2A small prospective study of 81 pregnancies describes 43 pregnant women treated for 10 days with doxycycline during early first trimester. All mothers reported their exposed infants were normal at 1 year of age.3
Nonteratogenic effects: [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6)].
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk, however, the extent of absorption of tetracyclines including doxycycline, by the breastfed infant is not known. Short-term use by lactating women is not necessarily contraindicated. The effects of prolonged exposure to doxycycline in breast milk are unknown4. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from doxycycline, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6)].
8.4 Pediatric Use
Because of the effects of drugs of the tetracycline-class on tooth development and growth, doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets should not be used in pediatric patients to the age of 8 years, unless the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks such as for anthrax, or when other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6) and Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.3)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 50 mg tablets contain 3 mg (0.131 mEq) of sodium. Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 75 mg tablets contain 4.5 mg (0.196 mEq) of sodium.Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 100 mg tablets contain 6 mg (0.261 mEq) of sodium.Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 150 mg tablets contain 9 mg (0.392 mEq) of sodium.Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 200 mg tablets contain 12 mg (0.522 mEq) of sodium.
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life and thus would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.
Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, for oral administration, contain specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate, a broad-spectrum antibacterial synthetically derived from oxytetracycline, in a delayed-release formulation for oral administration.The structural formula for doxycycline hyclate is:with a molecular formula of C22H24N2O8, HCl, ½ C2H6O, ½ H2O and a molecular weight of 512.9. The chemical designation for doxycycline hyclate is [4S(4aR,5S,5aR,6R,12aS)]-4-(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-deoxonaphthacene-2-carboxamide monohydrochloride, compound with ethyl alcohol (2:1), monohydrate. Doxycycline hyclate is a yellow crystalline powder soluble in water and in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates. Doxycycline has a high degree of lipid solubility and a low affinity for calcium binding. It is highly stable in normal human serum. Doxycycline will not degrade into an epianhydro form. Inactive ingredients in the tablet formulation are: lactose monohydrate; microcrystalline cellulose; sodium lauryl sulfate; sodium chloride; talc; anhydrous lactose; corn starch; crospovidone; magnesium stearate; cellulosic polymer coating.
12.1 Mechanism Of Action
Doxycycline is an antibacterial drug [see Microbiology (12.4)].
Doxycycline is virtually completely absorbed after oral administration. Following single and multiple-dose administration of doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 200 mg to adult volunteers, average peak plasma doxycycline concentration (Cmax) was 4.6 mcg/mL and 6.3 mcg/mL, respectively with median tmax of 3 hours; the corresponding mean plasma concentration values 24 hours after single and multiple doses were 1.5 mcg/mL and 2.3 mcg/mL, respectively. The mean Cmax and AUC 0-∞ of doxycycline are 24% and 13% lower, respectively, following single dose administration of doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 100 mg with a high fat meal (including milk) compared to fasted conditions. The mean Cmax of doxycycline is 19% lower and the AUC 0-∞ is unchanged following single dose administration of doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 150 mg with a high fat meal (including milk) compared to fasted conditions. The clinical significance of these decreases is unknown. Doxycycline bioavailability from doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 200 mg was not affected by food, but the incidence of nausea was higher in fasted subjects. The 200 mg tablets may be administered without regard to meals.When doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets are sprinkled over applesauce and taken with or without water, the extent of doxycycline absorption is unchanged, but the rate of absorption is increased slightly.Tetracyclines are concentrated in bile by the liver and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations and in a biologically active form. Excretion of doxycycline by the kidney is about 40%/72 hours in individuals with a creatinine clearance of about 75 mL/min. This percentage may fall as low as 1-5%/72 hours in individuals with a creatinine clearance below 10 mL/min.Studies have shown no significant difference in the serum half-life of doxycycline (range 18 to 22 hours) in individuals with normal and severely impaired renal function. Hemodialysis does not alter the serum half-life.
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential of doxycycline have not been conducted. However, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with the related antibacterials, oxytetracycline (adrenal and pituitary tumors) and minocycline (thyroid tumors). Likewise, although mutagenicity studies of doxycycline have not been conducted, positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays have been reported for related antibacterials (tetracycline, oxytetracycline).Doxycycline administered orally at dosage levels as high as 250 mg/kg/day had no apparent effect on the fertility of female rats. Effect on male fertility has not been studied.
13.2 Animal Toxicology And/Or Pharmacology
Hyperpigmentation of the thyroid has been produced by members of the tetracycline- class in the following species: in rats by oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline PO4, and methacycline; in minipigs by doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline PO4, and methacycline; in dogs by doxycycline and minocycline; in monkeys by minocycline.Minocycline, tetracycline PO4, methacycline, doxycycline, tetracycline base, oxytetracycline HCl, and tetracycline HCl, were goitrogenic in rats fed a low iodine diet. This goitrogenic effect was accompanied by high radioactive iodine uptake. Administration of minocycline also produced a large goiter with high radioiodine uptake in rats fed a relatively high iodine diet.Treatment of various animal species with this class of drugs has also resulted in the induction of thyroid hyperplasia in the following: in rats and dogs (minocycline); in chickens (chlortetracycline); and in rats and mice (oxytetracycline). Adrenal gland hyperplasia has been observed in goats and rats treated with oxytetracycline.Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta and are found in fetal tissues.
14 Clinical Studies
This was a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter trial which enrolled 495 subjects, between 19 to 45 years of age with a confirmed diagnosis of urogenital C. trachomatis infection < 14 days prior to enrollment, or partner(s) of a subject with a known positive test for urogenital C. trachomatis infection.The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 200 mg once daily versus doxycycline hyclate capsules, 100 mg twice daily for seven days for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital C. trachomatis infection. The primary efficacy objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of the doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 200 mg once daily treatment regimen versus the doxycycline 100 mg twice daily treatment regimen for the indication using a negative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) at the test of cure visit (day 28) in the mITT population (subjects who were positive at baseline and took at least one day of study drug). Microbiological cure rates are provided in Table 4.Table 4: Primary Efficacy Outcome – Microbiological Cure of C. trachomatis at Day 28mITT PopulationDoxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 200 mg once dailyCure Rate (%)Doxycycline hyclate capsules, 100 mg twice dailyCure Rate (%)Difference(%)N188190Microbiological Cure, n (%)163 (86.7)171 (90.0)-3.3%95% Confidence Interval for Cure Rate-10.3, 3.7
- Friedman JM, Polifka JE. Teratogenic Effects of Drugs. A Resource for Clinicians (TERIS). Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press: 2000: 149-195. Cziezel AE and Rockenbauer M. Teratogenic study of doxycycline. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89: 524-528.Horne HW Jr. and Kundsin RB. The role of mycoplasma among 81 consecutive pregnancies: a prospective study. Int J Fertil 1980; 25: 315-317.Hale T. Medications and Mothers Milk. 9th edition. Amarillo, TX: Pharmasoft Publishing 2000; 225-226.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-fourth Informational Supplement, CLSI document M100-S24. Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2014.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard – Ninth Edition. CLSI document M07-A9, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2012.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard – Eleventh Edition. CLSI document M02-A11, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2012.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria; Approved Guideline – Second Edition CLSI document M45-A2, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2010.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; Approved Standard – Eighth Edition. CLSI document M11-A8, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2012.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Mycobacteria, Nocardiae, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes; Approved Standard – Second Edition. CLSI document M24-A2, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2011.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Human Mycoplasmas; Approved Guideline. CLSI document M43-A, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2011.
16 How Supplied/Storage And Handling
Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 50 mg are white, oval tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "DV" on one face and plain on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 50 mg of doxycycline.Bottles of 120 tablets: NDC 51862-709-12 Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 75 mg are white, oval scored tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "D|5" on one face and plain on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 75 mg of doxycycline.Bottles of 60 tablets: NDC 68308-775-60Bottles of 100 tablets: NDC 68308-775-01Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 100 mg are white, oval scored tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "D|0" on one face and plain on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 100 mg of doxycycline.Bottles of 100 tablets: NDC 68303-710-10Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 150 mg are white, rectangular dual-scored tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "D|I|I" on one face and dual-scored on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 150 mg of doxycycline.Bottles of 100 tablets: NDC 68303-715-10Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, USP, 200 mg are white, oval scored tablets containing yellow pellets and debossed with "D|D" on one face and plain on the other. Each tablet contains specially coated pellets of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to 200 mg of doxycycline.Bottles of 60 tablets: NDC 68303-716-60
Storage And Handling
Store at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted to 15 – 30° C (59 – 86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container (USP).
17 Patient Counseling Information
- Patients taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis should be advised: that no present-day antimalarial agent, including doxycycline, guarantees protection against malaria. to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes by using personal protective measures that help avoid contact with mosquitoes, especially from dusk to dawn (for example, staying in well-screened areas, using mosquito nets, covering the body with clothing, and using an effective insect repellent).that doxycycline prophylaxis: should begin 1 to 2 days before travel to the malarious area, should be continued daily while in the malarious area and after leaving the malarious area, should be continued for 4 further weeks to avoid development of malaria after returning from an endemic area, should not exceed 4 months.All patients taking doxycycline should be advised:to avoid excessive sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light while receiving doxycycline and to discontinue therapy if phototoxicity (for example, skin eruptions, etc.) occurs. Sunscreen or sunblock should be considered [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].to drink fluids liberally along with doxycycline to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].that the absorption of tetracyclines is reduced when taken with foods, especially those that contain calcium. However, the absorption of doxycycline is not markedly influenced by simultaneous ingestion of food or milk [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].that the absorption of tetracyclines is reduced when taken with antacids containing aluminum, calcium or magnesium, bismuth subsalicylate, and iron-containing preparations [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].that the use of doxycycline might increase the incidence of vaginal candidiasis.Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibacterials which usually ends when the antibacterial is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibacterials, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of antibacterial. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (for example, the common cold). When doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
17.1 Instructions For Breaking The 150 Mg Doxycycline Hyclate Delayed-Release Dual-Scored Tablet
- The tablet is marked with separation lines (score lines) and may be broken at these score lines to provide any of the following doses.150 mg treatment (the entire tablet is taken)100 mg treatment (two thirds of the tablet or two 50 mg tablet segments are taken)50 mg treatment (one third of the tablet is taken)To break the tablet, the tablet is held between the thumbs and index fingers close to the appropriate score line. Then, with the score line facing the patient, enough pressure is applied to snap the tablet segments apart (segments that do not break along the score line should not be used).
Spl Patient Package Insert
- FDA-Approved Patient LabelingDoxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg and 200 mgInstructions for Breaking the 150 mg Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release Dual-Scored TabletYour doctor may find it necessary to adjust your dosage of doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets to obtain the proper treatment response. The tablet is marked with separation lines (score lines) and may be broken at these score lines to provide any of the following doses.If your doctor prescribed:150 mg treatment (take the entire tablet)100 mg treatment (take two thirds of the tablet or two 50 mg tablet segments)50 mg treatment (take one third of the tablet)To break the tablet, hold the tablet between your thumbs and index fingers close to the appropriate score line. Then, with the score line facing you, apply enough pressure to snap the tablet segments apart (do not use segments that do not break along the score line).Rx onlyDistributed by:Mayne PharmaGreenville, NC 278341-844-825-8500Manufactured by:Mayne Pharma International Pty Ltd1538 Main North RoadSalisbury South, SA 5106Australia501469/1
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