NDC 52584-978 Naloxone Hydrochloride

Naloxone Hydrochloride

NDC Product Code 52584-978

NDC 52584-978-01

Package Description: 1 BOX in 1 BAG > 1 SYRINGE in 1 BOX > 2 mL in 1 SYRINGE

NDC Product Information

Naloxone Hydrochloride with NDC 52584-978 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by General Injectables & Vaccines, Inc. The generic name of Naloxone Hydrochloride is naloxone hydrochloride. The product's dosage form is injection and is administered via parenteral form. The RxNorm Crosswalk for this NDC code indicates a single RxCUI concept is associated to this product: 1191250.

Dosage Form: Injection - A sterile preparation intended for parenteral use; five distinct classes of injections exist as defined by the USP.

Product Type: Human Prescription Drug What kind of product is this?
Indicates the type of product, such as Human Prescription Drug or Human Over the Counter Drug. This data element matches the “Document Type” field of the Structured Product Listing.

Naloxone Hydrochloride Active Ingredient(s)

What is the Active Ingredient(s) List?
This is the active ingredient list. Each ingredient name is the preferred term of the UNII code submitted.


Administration Route(s)

What are the Administration Route(s)?
The translation of the route code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration.

  • Parenteral - Administration by injection, infusion, or implantation.

Pharmacological Class(es)

What is a Pharmacological Class?
These are the reported pharmacological class categories corresponding to the SubstanceNames listed above.

  • Opioid Antagonist - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)
  • Opioid Antagonists - [MoA] (Mechanism of Action)

Product Labeler Information

What is the Labeler Name?
Name of Company corresponding to the labeler code segment of the Product NDC.

Labeler Name: General Injectables & Vaccines, Inc
Labeler Code: 52584
FDA Application Number: ANDA072076 What is the FDA Application Number?
This corresponds to the NDA, ANDA, or BLA number reported by the labeler for products which have the corresponding Marketing Category designated. If the designated Marketing Category is OTC Monograph Final or OTC Monograph Not Final, then the Application number will be the CFR citation corresponding to the appropriate Monograph (e.g. “part 341”). For unapproved drugs, this field will be null.

Marketing Category: ANDA - A product marketed under an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application. What is the Marketing Category?
Product types are broken down into several potential Marketing Categories, such as NDA/ANDA/BLA, OTC Monograph, or Unapproved Drug. One and only one Marketing Category may be chosen for a product, not all marketing categories are available to all product types. Currently, only final marketed product categories are included. The complete list of codes and translations can be found at www.fda.gov/edrls under Structured Product Labeling Resources.

Start Marketing Date: 12-06-2013 What is the Start Marketing Date?
This is the date that the labeler indicates was the start of its marketing of the drug product.

Listing Expiration Date: 12-31-2021 What is the Listing Expiration Date?
This is the date when the listing record will expire if not updated or certified by the product labeler.

Exclude Flag: N - NO What is the NDC Exclude Flag?
This field indicates whether the product has been removed/excluded from the NDC Directory for failure to respond to FDA"s requests for correction to deficient or non-compliant submissions ("Y"), or because the listing certification is expired ("E"), or because the listing data was inactivated by FDA ("I"). Values = "Y", "N", "E", or "I".

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Information for Patients

Naloxone Injection

Naloxone Injection is pronounced as (nal ox' one)

Why is naloxone injection medication prescribed?
Naloxone injection and naloxone prefilled auto-injection device (Evzio) are used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known...
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Naloxone Hydrochloride Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

Description

NALOXONE HYDROCHLORIDEINJECTION, USPOpioid AntagonistRx OnlyNaloxone hydrochloride, an opioid antagonist, is a synthetic congener of oxymorphone. In structure it differs from oxymorphone in that the methyl group on the nitrogen atom is replaced by an allyl group.NALOXONE HYDROCHLORIDE(-)-17-Allyl-4,5α-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxymorphinan-6-one hydrochlorideNaloxone hydrochloride occurs as a white to slightly off-white powder, and is soluble in water, in dilute acids, and in strong alkali; slightly soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in ether and in chloroform.Naloxone Hydrochloride Injection is available as a sterile solution for intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in 1 mg/mL concentration. pH is adjusted to 3.5 ± 0.5 with hydrochloric acid. Each mL also contains 8.35 mg of sodium chloride. Naloxone Hydrochloride Injection is preservative-free.

Clinical Pharmacology

Complete or Partial Reversal of Opioid DepressionNaloxone hydrochloride prevents or reverses the effects of opioids including respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension. Also, it can reverse the psychotomimetic and dysphoric effects of agonist-antagonist such as pentazocine.Naloxone hydrochloride is an essentially pure opioid antagonist, i.e., it does not possess the “agonistic” or morphine-like properties characteristic of other opioid antagonists. When administered in usual doses and in the absence of opioids or agonistic effects of other opioid antagonists, it exhibits essentially no pharmacologic activity.Naloxone hydrochloride has not been shown to produce tolerance or cause physical or psychological dependence. In the presence of physical dependence on opioids, naloxone hydrochloride will produce withdrawal symptoms. However, in the presence of opioid dependence, opiate withdrawal symptoms may appear within minutes of naloxone hydrochloride administration and subside in about 2 hours. The severity and duration of the withdrawal syndrome are related to the dose of naloxone hydrochloride and to the degree and type of opioid dependence.While the mechanism of action of naloxone hydrochloride is not fully understood, in vitro evidence suggests that naloxone hydrochloride antagonizes opioid effects by competing for the μ, κ and σ opiate receptor sites in the CNS, with the greatest affinity for the μ receptor.When naloxone hydrochloride is administered intravenously (I.V.), the onset of action is generally apparent within two minutes. The onset of action is slightly less rapid when it is administered subcutaneously (S.C.) or intramuscularly (I.M.). The duration of action is dependent upon the dose and route of administration of naloxone hydrochloride. Intramuscular administration produces a more prolonged effect than intravenous administration. Since the duration of action of naloxone hydrochloride may be shorter than that of some opiates, the effect of the opiate may return as the effects of naloxone hydrochloride dissipates. The requirement for repeat doses of naloxone hydrochloride will also be dependent upon the amount, type and route of administration of the opioid being antagonized.Adjunctive Use in Septic ShockNaloxone hydrochloride has been shown in some cases of septic shock to produce a rise in blood pressure that may last up to several hours; however, this pressor response has not been demonstrated to improve patient survival. In some studies, treatment with naloxone hydrochloride in the setting of septic shock has been associated with adverse effects, including agitation, nausea and vomiting, pulmonary edema, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures. The decision to use naloxone hydrochloride in septic shock should be exercised with caution, particularly in patients who may have underlying pain or have previously received opioid therapy and may have developed opioid tolerance.Because of the limited number of patients who have been treated, optimal dosage and treatment regimens have not been established.Complete or Partial Reversal of Opioid DepressionNaloxone hydrochloride prevents or reverses the effects of opioids including respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension. Also, it can reverse the psychotomimetic and dysphoric effects of agonist-antagonist such as pentazocine.Naloxone hydrochloride is an essentially pure opioid antagonist, i.e., it does not possess the "agonistic" or morphine-like properties characteristic of other opioid antagonists. When administered in usual doses and in the absence of opioids or agonistic effects of other opioid antagonists, it exhibits essentially no pharmacologic activity.Naloxone hydrochloride has not been shown to produce tolerance or cause physical or psychological dependence. In the presence of physical dependence on opioids, naloxone hydrochloride will produce withdrawal symptoms. However, in the presence of opioid dependence, opiate withdrawal symptoms may appear within minutes of naloxone hydrochloride administration and subside in about 2 hours. The severity and duration of the withdrawal syndrome are related to the dose of naloxone hydrochloride and to the degree and type of opioid dependence.While the mechanism of action of naloxone hydrochloride is not fully understood, in vitro evidence suggests that the naloxone hydrochloride antagonizes opioid effects by competing for the u, k and o opiate receptor sites in the CNS, with the greatest affinity for the u receptor.When naloxone hydrochloride is administered intravenously (I.V.), the onset of action is generally apparent within two minutes. The onset of action is slightly less rapid when it is administered subcutaneously (S.C.) or intramuscularly (I.M.). The duration of action is dependent upon the dose and route of administration of naloxone hydrochloride. Intramuscular administration produces a more prolonged effect than intravenous administration. Since the duration of action of naloxone hydrochloride may be shorter than that of some opiates, the effect of the opiate may return as the effects of naloxone hydrochloride dissipates. The requirement for repeat doses of naloxone hydrochloride will also be dependent upon the amount, type and route of administration of the opioid being antagonized.Adjunctive Use in Septic ShockNaloxone hydrochloride has been shown in some cases of septic shock to produce a rise in blood pressure that may last up to several hours; however, this pressor response has not been demonstrated to improve patient survival. In some studies, treatment with naloxone hydrochloride in the setting of septic shock has been associated with adverse effects, including agitation, nausea and vomiting, pulmonary edema, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures. The decision to use naloxone hydrochloride in septic shock should be exercised with caution, particularly in patients who may have underlying pain or have previously received opioid therapy and may have developed opioid tolerance.Because of the limited number of patients who have been treated, optimal dosage and treatment regimens have not been established.

Pharmacokinetics

DistributionFollowing parenteral administration, naloxone hydrochloride is rapidly distributed in the body and readily crosses the placenta. Plasma protein binding occurs but is relatively weak. Plasma albumin is the major binding constituent but significant binding of naloxone also occurs to plasma constituents other than albumin. It is not known whether naloxone is excreted into human milk.Metabolism and EliminationNaloxone hydrochloride is metabolized in the liver, primarily by glucuronide conjugation with naloxone-3-glucoronide as the major metabolite. In one study the serum half-life in adults ranged from 30 to 81 minutes (mean 64 ± 12 minutes). In a neonatal study the mean plasma half-life was observed to be 3.1 ± 0.5 hours. After an oral or intravenous dose, about 25-40% of the drug is excreted as metabolites in urine within 6 hours, about 50% in 24 hours, and 60-70% in 72 hours.DistributionFollowing parenteral administration, naloxone hydrochloride is rapidly distributed in the body and readily crosses the placenta. Plasma protein binding occurs but is relatively weak. Plasma albumin is the major binding constituent but significant binding of naloxone also occurs to plasma constituents other than albumin. It is not known whether naloxone is excreted into human milk.Metabolism and EliminationNaloxone hydrochloride is metabolized in the liver, primarily by glucuronide conjugation with naloxone-3-glucoronide as the major metabolite. In one study the serum half-life in adults ranged from 30 to 81 minutes (mean 64 ± 12 minutes). In a neonatal study the mean plasma half-life was observed to be 3.1 ± 0.5 hours. After an oral or intravenouse dose, about 25-40% of the drug is excreted as metabolites in urine within 6 hours, about 50% in 24 hours, and 60-70% in 72 hours.

Indications And Usage

Naloxone hydrochloride injection is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of opioid depression, including respiratory depression, induced by natural and synthetic opioids including, propoxyphene, methadone and certain mixed agonist-antagonist analgesics: nalbuphine, pentazocine and butorphanol and cyclazocine. Naloxone hydrochloride is also indicated for the diagnosis of suspected or known acute opioid overdosage.Naloxone hydrochloride injection may be useful as an adjunctive agent to increase blood pressure in the management of septic shock. (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY; Adjunctive Use in Septic Shock).

Contraindications

Naloxone hydrochloride injection is contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to it or to any of the other ingredients in naloxone hydrochloride.

Warnings

Drug DependenceNaloxone hydrochloride should be administered cautiously to persons including newborns of mothers who are known or suspected to be physically dependent on opioids. In such cases an abrupt and complete reversal of opioid effects may precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome.The signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal in a patient physically dependent on opioids may include, but are not limited to, the following: body aches, diarrhea, tachycardia, fever, runny nose, sneezing, piloerection, sweating, yawning, nausea or vomiting, nervousness, restlessness or irritability, shivering or trembling, abdominal cramps, weakness, and increased blood pressure. In the neonate, opioid withdrawal may also include: convulsions, excessive crying, and hyperactive reflexes.Repeat AdministrationThe patient who has satisfactorily responded to naloxone hydrochloride should be kept under continued surveillance and repeated doses of naloxone hydrochloride should be administered, as necessary, since the duration of action of some opioids may exceed that of naloxone hydrochloride.Respiratory Depression due to Other DrugsNaloxone hydrochloride is not effective against respiratory depression due to non-opioid drugs and in the management of acute toxicity caused by levopropoxyphene. Reversal of respiratory depression by partial agonists or mixed agonist/antagonists, such as buprenorphine and pentazocine, may be incomplete or require higher doses of naloxone. If an incomplete response occurs, respirations should be mechanically assisted as clinically indicated.Drug DependenceNaloxone hydrochloride should be administered cautiously to persons including newborns of mothers who are known or suspected to be physically dependent on opioids. In such cases an abrupt and complete reversal of opioid effects may precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome.The signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal in a patient physically dependent on opioids may include, but are not limited to, the following: body aches, diarrhea, tachycardia, fever, runny nose, sneezing, piloerection, sweating, yawning, nausea or vomiting, nervousness, restlessness or irritability, shivering or trembling, abdominal cramps, weakness, and increased blood pressure. In the neonate, opioid withdrawal may also include: convulsions, excessive crying, and hyperactive reflexes.Repeat AdministrationThe patient who has satisfactorily responded to naloxone hydrochloride should be kept under continued surveillance and repeated doses of naloxone hydrochloride should be administered, as necessary, since the duration of action of some opioids may exceed that of naloxone hydrochloride.Respiratory Depression due to Other DrugsNaloxone hydrochloride is not effective against respiratory depression due to non-opioid drugs and in the management of acute toxicity caused by levopropoxyphene. Reversal of respiratory depression by partial agonists or mixed agonist/antagonists, such as buprenorphine and pentazocine, may be incomplete or require higher doses of naloxone. If an incomplete response occurs, respirations should be mechanically assisted as clinically indicated.

Precautions

GeneralIn addition to naloxone hydrochloride, other resuscitative measures such as maintenance of a free airway, artificial ventilation, cardiac massage, and vasopressor agents should be available and employed when necessary to counteract acute opioid poisoning.Abrupt postoperative reversal of opioid depression may result in nausea, vomiting, sweating, tremulousness, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, seizures, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest which may result in death. Excessive doses of naloxone hydrochloride in postoperative patients may result in significant reversal of analgesia and may cause agitation (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION; Usage in Adults-Postoperative Opioid Depression).Several instances of hypotension, hypertension, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest have been reported in postoperative patients. Death, coma, and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae of these events. These have occurred in patients most of whom had preexisting cardiovascular disorders or received other drugs which may have similar adverse cardiovascular effects. Although a direct cause and effect relationship has not been established, naloxone hydrochloride should be used with caution in patients with preexisting cardiac disease or patients who have received medications with potential adverse cardiovascular effects, such as hypotension, ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, and pulmonary edema. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema associated with the use of naloxone hydrochloride is similar to neurogenic pulmonary edema, i.e., a centrally mediated massive catecholamine response leading to a dramatic shift of blood volume into the pulmonary vascular bed resulting in increased hydrostatic pressures.Drug InteractionsLarge doses of naloxone are required to antagonize buprenorphine since the latter has a long duration of action due to its slow rate of binding and subsequent slow dissociation from the opioid receptor. Buprenorphine antagonism is characterized by a gradual onset of the reversal effects and a decreased duration of action of the normally prolonged respiratory depression. The barbiturate methohexital appears to block the acute onset of withdrawal symptoms induced by naloxone in opiate addicts.Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of FertilityStudies in animals to assess the carcinogenic potential of naloxone hydrochloride have not been conducted. Naloxone hydrochloride was weakly positive in the Ames mutagenicity and in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test but was negative in the in vitro Chinese hamster V79 cell HGPRT mutagenicity assay and in the in vivo rat bone marrow chromosome aberration study.Reproduction studies conducted in mice and rats at doses 4-times and 8-times, respectively, the dose of a 50 kg human given 10 mg/day (when based on surface area or mg/m2), demonstrated no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects due to naloxone hydrochloride.Use in PregnancyTeratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C: Teratology studies conducted in mice and rats at doses 4-times and 8-times, respectively, the dose of a 50 kg human given 10 mg/day (when based on surface area or mg/m2), demonstrated no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects due to naloxone hydrochloride. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, naloxone hydrochloride should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.Non-teratogenic Effects: Risk-benefit must be considered before naloxone hydrochloride is administered to a pregnant woman who is known or suspected to be opioid-dependent since maternal dependence may often be accompanied by fetal dependence. Naloxone crosses the placenta, and may precipitate withdrawal in the fetus as well as in the mother. Patients with mild to moderate hypertension who receive naloxone during labor should be carefully monitored as severe hypertension may occur.Use in Labor and DeliveryIt is not known if naloxone hydrochloride affects the duration of labor and/or delivery. However, published reports indicated that administration of naloxone during labor did not adversely affect maternal or neonatal status.Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether naloxone is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when naloxone is administered to a nursing woman.Pediatric UseNaloxone hydrochloride injection, USP may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously in children and neonates to reverse the effects of opiates. The American Academy of Pediatrics, however, does not endorse subcutaneous or intramuscular administration in opiate intoxication since absorption may be erratic or delayed. Although the opiate-intoxicated child responds dramatically to naloxone hydrochloride, he/she must be carefully monitored for at least 24 hours as a relapse may occur as naloxone is metabolized.When naloxone hydrochloride is given to the mother shortly before delivery, the duration of its effect lasts only for the first two hours of neonatal life. It is preferable to administer naloxone hydrochloride directly to the neonate if needed after delivery. Naloxone hydrochloride has no apparent benefit as an additional method of resuscitation in the newly born infant with intrauterine asphyxia which is not related to opioid use.Usage in Pediatric Patients and Neonates for Septic Shock: The safety and effectiveness of naloxone hydrochloride in the treatment of hypotension in pediatric patients and neonates with septic shock have not been established. One study of two neonates in septic shock reported a positive pressor response; however, one patient subsequently died after intractable seizures.Geriatric UseClinical studies of naloxone hydrochloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.Renal Insufficiency/FailureThe safety and effectiveness of naloxone hydrochloride in patients with renal insufficiency/failure have not been established in well-controlled clinical trials. Caution should be exercised when naloxone hydrochloride is administered to this patient population.Liver DiseaseThe safety and effectiveness of naloxone hydrochloride in patients with liver disease have not been established in well-controlled clinical trials. Caution should be exercised when naloxone hydrochloride is administered to patients with liver disease.GeneralIn addition to naloxone hydrochloride, other resuscitative measures such as maintenance of a free airway, artificial ventilation, cardiac massage, and vasopressor agents should be available and employed when necessary to counteract acute opioid poisoning.Abrupt postoperative reversal of opioid depressioin may result in nausea, vomiting, sweating, tremulousness, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, seizures, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest which may result in death. Excessive doses of naloxone hydrochloride in postoperative patients may result in significant reversal of analgesia and may cause agitation (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION; Usage in Adults-Postoperative Opioid Depression).Several instances of hypotension hypertension, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest have been reported in postpoerative patients. Death, coma, and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae of these events. These have occurred in patients most of whom had preexisting cardiovascular disorders or received other drugs which may have similar adverse cardiovascular effects. Although a direct cause and effect relationship has not been established, naloxone hydrochloride should be used with caution in patients with preexisting cardiac disease or patients who have received medications with potential adverse cardiovascular effects, such as hypotension, ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, and pulmonary edema. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema associated with the use of naloxone hydrochloride is similar to neurogenic pulmonary edema, i.e., a centrally mediated massive catecholamine response leading to a dramatic shift of blood volume into the pulmonary vascular bed resulting in increased hydrostatic pressures.Drug InteractionsLarge doses of naloxone are required to antagonize buprenorphine since the latter has a long duration of action due to its slow rate of binding and subsequent slow dissociation from the opioid receptor. Buprenorphine antagonism is characterized by a gradual onset of the reversal effects and a decreased duration of action of the normally prolonged respiratory depression. The barbiturate methohexital appears to block the acute onset of withdrawal symptoms induced by naloxone in opiate addicts.Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of FertilityStudies in animals to assess the carcinogenic potential of naloxone hydrochloride have not been conducted. Naloxone hydrochloride was weakly positive in the Ames mutagenicity and in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test but was negative in the in vitro Chinese hamster V79 cell HGPRT mutagenicity assay and in the in vivo rat bone marrow chromosome aberration study.Reproduction studies conducted in mice and rats at doses 4-times and 8-times, respectively, the dose of a 50 kg human given 10 mg/day (when based on surface area or mg/m2), demonstrated no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects due to naloxone hydrochloride.Use in PregnancyTerotogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C: Teratology studies conducted in mice and rats at doses 4-times and 8-times, respectively, the dose of a 50 kg human given 10 mg/day (when based on surface area or mg/m2), demonstrated no embryotoxic teratogenic effects due to naloxone hydrochloride. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studeis are not always predictive of human response, naloxone hydrochloride should be used during pregnancy only of clearly needed.Non-teratogenic Effects: Risk-benefit just be considered before naloxone hydrochloride is administered to a pregnant woman who is known or suspected to be opioid-dependent since maternal dependence may ofter be accompanied by fetal dependence. Naloxone crosses the placenta, and may precipitate withdrawal in the fetus as well as in the mother. Patients with mild to moderate hypertension who receive naloxone during labor should be carefully monitored as severe hypertension may occur.Use in Labor and DeliveryIt is not known if naloxone hydrochloride affects the duration of labor and/or delivery. However, published reports indicated that administration of naloxone during labor did not adversely affect maternal or neonatal status.Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether naloxone is excreted in human milk Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when naloxone is administered to a nursing woman.Pediatric UseNalxone hydrochloride injection, USP may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously in children and neonates to reverse the effects of opiates. The American Academy of Pediatrics, however, does not endorse subcutaneous or intramuscular administration in opiate intoxication since absorption may be erratic or delayed. Although the opiate-intoxicated child responds dramatically to naloxone hydrochloride, he/she must be carefully monitored for at least 24 hours as a relapse may occur as naloxone is metabolized.When naloxone hydrochloride is given to the mother shortly before delivery, the duration of its effect lasts only for the first two hours of neonatal life. It is preferable to administer naloxone hydrochloride directly to the neonate if needed after delivery. Naloxone hydrochloride has no apparent benefit as an additional method of resuscitation in the newly born infant with intrauterine asphyxia which is not related to opioid use.Usage in Pediatric Patients and Neonates for Septic Shock:The safety and effectiveness of naloxone hydrochloride in the treatment of hypotension in pediatric patients and neonates with septic shock have not been established. One study of two neonates in septic shock reported a positive pressor response; however, one patient subsequently died after intractable seizures.Geriatric UseClinical studies of naloxone hydrochloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differenly from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.Renal Insufficiency/FailureThe safety and effectiveness of naloxone hydrochloride in patients with liver disease have not been established in well-controlled clinical trials. Caution should be exercised when naloxone hydrochloride is administered to patients with liver disease.Liver DiseaseThe safety and effectiveness of naloxone hydrochloride in patients with liver disease have not been established in well-controlled clinical trials. Caution should be exercised when naloxone hydrochloride is administered to patients with liver disease.

Adverse Reactions

PostoperativeThe following adverse events have been associated with the use of naloxone hydrochloride in postoperative patients: hypotension, hypertension, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest. Death, coma, and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae of these events. Excessive doses of naloxone hydrochloride in postoperative patients may result in significant reversal of analgesia and may cause agitation (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION; Usage in Adults-Postoperative Opioid Depression).Opioid DepressionAbrupt reversal of opioid depression may result in nausea, vomiting, sweating, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, tremulousness, seizures, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest which may result in death (see PRECAUTIONS).Opioid DependenceAbrupt reversal of opioid effects in persons who are physically dependent on opioids may precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome which may include, but is not limited to, the following signs and symptoms: body aches, fever, sweating, runny nose, sneezing, piloerection, yawning, weakness, shivering or trembling, nervousness, restlessness or irritability, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, abdominal cramps, increased blood pressure, tachycardia. In the neonate, opioid withdrawal may also include: convulsions; excessive crying; hyperactive reflexes (see WARNINGS).Adverse events associated with the postoperative use of naloxone hydrochloride are listed by organ system and in decreasing order of frequency as follows:Cardiac Disorders: pulmonary edema, cardiac arrest or failure, tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia. Death, coma, and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae of these events.Gastrointestinal Disorders:vomiting, nauseaNervous System Disorders: convulsions, paraesthesia, grand mal convulsionPsychiatric Disorders: agitation, hallucination, tremulousnessRespiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders:dyspnea, respiratory depression, hypoxiaSkin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:nonspecific injection site reactions, sweatingVascular Disorders: hypertension, hypotension, hot flushes or flushing.See also PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION; Usage in Adults; Postoperative Opioid Depression.PostoperativeThe following adverse events have been associated with the use of naloxone hydrochloride in postoperative patients: hypotension, hypertension, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest. Death, coma, and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae of these events. Excessive doses of naloxone hydrochloride in postoperative patients may result in significant reversal of analgesia and may cause agitation (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION; Usage in Adults-Postoperative Opioid Depression).Opioid DepressionAbrupt reversal of opioid depression may result in nausea, vomiting, sweating, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, tremulousness, seizures, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest which may result in death (see PRECAUTIONS).Opioid DependenceAbrupt reversal of opioid effects in persons who are physically dependent on opioids may precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome which may include, but is not limited to, the following signs and symptoms: body aches, fever, sweating, runny nose, sneezing, piloerection, yawning, weakness, shivering or trembling, nervousness, restlessness or irritability, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, abdominal cramps, increased blood pressure, tachycardia. In the neonate, opioid withdrawal may also include: convulsions; excessive crying; hyperactive reflexes (see WARNINGS).Adverse events associated with the postoperative use of naloxone hydrochloride are listed by organ system and in decreasing order of frequency as follows:Cardiac Disorders: pulmonary edema, cardiac arrest or failure, tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia. Death, coma, and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae of these events.Gastrointestinal Disorders: vomiting, nauseaNervous System Disorders: convulsions, paraesthesia, grand mal convulsionPsychiatric Disorders: agitation, hallucination, tremulousnessRespiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: dyspnea, respiratory depression, hypoxiaSkin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: nonspecific injection site reactions, sweatingVascular Disorders: hypertension, hypotension, hot flushes or flushingSee also PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION; Usage in Adults; Postoperative Opioid Depression.

Drug Abuse And Dependence

Naloxone hydrochloride is an opioid antagonist. Physical dependence associated with the use of naloxone hydrochloride has not been reported. Tolerance to the opioid antagonist effect of naloxone hydrochloride is not known to occur.

Overdosage

There is limited clinical experience with naloxone hydrochloride overdosage in humans.Adult PatientsIn one small study, volunteers who received 24 mg/70 kg did not demonstrate toxicity. In another study, 36 patients with acute stroke received a loading dose of 4 mg/kg (10 mg/m2/min) of naloxone hydrochloride followed immediately by 2 mg/kg/hr for 24 hours. Twenty-three patients experienced adverse events associated with naloxone use, and naloxone was discontinued in seven patients because of adverse effects. The most serious adverse events were: seizures (2 patients), severe hypertension (1), and hypotension and/or bradycardia (3).At doses of 2 mg/kg in normal subjects, cognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, tension, suspiciousness, sadness, difficulty concentrating, and lack of appetite have been reported. In addition, somatic symptoms, including dizziness, heaviness, sweating, nausea, and stomachaches were also reported. Although complete information is not available, behavioral symptoms were reported to often persist for 2-3 days.Pediatric PatientsUp to 11 doses of 0.2 mg of naloxone (2.2 mg) have been administered to children following overdose of diphenoxylate hydrochloride with atropine sulfate. Pediatric reports include a 2-1/2 year-old child who inadvertently received a dose of 20 mg of naloxone for treatment of respiratory depression following overdose with diphenoxylate hydrochloride with atropine sulfate. The child responded well and recovered without adverse sequelae. There is also a report of a 4-1/2 year-old child who received 11 doses during a 12-hour period, with no adverse sequelae.Patient ManagementPatients who experience a naloxone hydrochloride overdose should be treated symptomatically in a closely supervised environment.Physicians should contact a poison control center for the most up-to-date patient management information.Adult PatientsIn one small study, volunteers who received 24 mg/70 kg did not demonstrate toxicity. In another study, 36 patients with acute stroke received a loading dose of 4 mg/kg (10 mg/m2/min) of naloxone hydrochloride followed immediately by 2 mg/kg/hr for 24 hours. Twenty-three patients experienced adverse events associated with naloxone use, and naloxone was discontinued in seven patients because of adverse effects. The most serious adverse events were: seizures (2 patients), severe hypertension (1), and hypotension and/or bradycardia (3).At doses of 2 mg/kg in normal subjects, cognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, tension, suspiciousness, sadness, difficulty concentrating, and lack of appetite have been reported. In addition, somatic symptoms, including dizziness, heaviness, sweating, nausea, and stomachaches were also reported. Although complete information is not available, behavioral symptoms were reported to often persist for 2-3 days.Pediatric PatientsUp to 11 doses of 0.2 mg of naloxone (2.2 mg) have been administered to children following overdose of diphenoxylate hydrochloride with atropine sulfate. Pediatric reports include a 2-1/2 year old child who inadvertently received a dose of 20 mg of naloxone for treatment of respiratory depression following overdose with diphenoxylate hydrochloride with atropine sulfate. The child responded well and recovered without adverse sequelae. There is also a report of a 4-1/2 year old child who received 11 doses during a 12-hour period, with no adverse sequelae.Patient ManagementPatients who experience a naloxone hydrochloride overdose should be treated symptomatically in a closely supervised environment. Physicians should contact a poison control center for the most up-to-date patient management information.

Dosage And Administration

Naloxone hydrochloride injection may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. The most rapid onset of action is achieved by intravenous administration, which is recommended in emergency situations.Since the duration of action of some opioids may exceed that of naloxone, the patient should be kept under continued surveillance. Repeated doses of naloxone should be administered, as necessary.Intravenous InfusionNaloxone hydrochloride injection may be diluted for intravenous infusion in normal saline or 5% dextrose solutions. The addition of 2 mg of naloxone in 500 mL of either solution provides a concentration of 0.004 mg/mL. Mixtures should be used within 24 hours. After 24 hours, the remaining unused mixture must be discarded. The rate of administration should be titrated in accordance with the patient’s response.Naloxone hydrochloride injection should not be mixed with preparations containing bisulfite, metabisulfite, long-chain or high molecular weight anions, or any solution having an alkaline pH. No drug or chemical agent should be added to naloxone hydrochloride injection unless its effect on the chemical and physical stability of the solution has first been established.GeneralParenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.Usage in AdultsOpioid Overdose—Known or Suspected: An initial dose of 0.4 mg to 2 mg of naloxone hydrochloride may be administered intravenously. If the desired degree of counteraction and improvement in respiratory functions are not obtained, it may be repeated at two-to-three-minute intervals. If no response is observed after 10 mg of naloxone hydrochloride have been administered, the diagnosis of opioid-induced or partial opioid-induced toxicity should be questioned. Intramuscular or subcutaneous administration may be necessary if the intravenous route is not available.Postoperative Opioid Depression: For the partial reversal of opioid depression following the use of opioids during surgery, smaller doses of naloxone hydrochloride are usually sufficient. The dose of naloxone hydrochloride should be titrated according to the patient’s response. For the initial reversal of respiratory depression, naloxone hydrochloride should be injected in increments of 0.1 to 0.2 mg intravenously at two-to three-minute intervals to the desired degree of reversal—i.e., adequate ventilationand alertness without significant pain or discomfort. Larger than necessary dosage of naloxone may result in significant reversal of analgesia and increase in blood pressure. Similarly, too rapid reversal may induce nausea, vomiting, sweating, or circulatory stress.Repeat doses of naloxone may be required within one- to two-hour intervals depending upon the amount, type (i.e., short or long acting) and time interval since last administration of opioid. Supplemental intramuscular doses have been shown to produce a longer lasting effect.Septic Shock:The optimal dosage of naloxone hydrochloride or duration of therapy for the treatment of hypotension in septic shock patients has not been established (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).Usage in ChildrenOpioid Overdose—Known or Suspected:The usual initial dose in children is 0.01 mg/kg body weight given I.V. If this dose does not result in the desired degree of clinical improvement, a subsequent dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight may be administered. If an l.V. route of administration is not available, naloxone may be administered I.M. or S.C. in divided doses. If necessary, naloxone hydrochloride injection can be diluted with sterile water for injection.Postoperative Opioid Depression: Follow the recommendations and cautions under Adult Postoperative Depression. For the initial reversal of respiratory depression naloxone hydrochloride should be injected in increments of 0.005 mg to 0.01 mg intravenously at two- to three-minute intervals to the desired degree of reversal.Usage in NeonatesOpioid-lnduced Depression: The usual initial dose is 0.01 mg/kg body weight administered I.V., I.M., or S.C. This dose may be repeated in accordance with adult administration guidelines for postoperative opioid depression.Intravenous InfusionNaloxone hydrochloride injection may be diluted for intravenous infusion in normal saline or 5% dextrose solutions. The addition of 2 mg of naloxone in 500 mL of either solution provides a concentration of 0.004 mg/mL. Mixtures should be used within 24 hours. After 24 hours, the remaining unused mixture must be discarded. The rate of administration should be titrated in accoreance with the patient's response.Naloxone hydrochloride injection should not be mixed with preparations containing bisulfite, metabisulfite, long-chain or high molecular weight anions, or any solution having an alkaline pH. No drug or chemcial agent should be added to naloxone hydrochloride injection unless its effect on the chemical and physical stability of the solution has first been established.GeneralParenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.Usage in AdultsOpioid Overdose-Known or Suspected: An initial dose of 0.4 mg to 2 mg of naloxone hydrochloride may be administered intravenously. If the desired degree of counteraction and improvement in respiratory functions are not obtained, it may be repeated at two-three-minute intervals. If no response is observed after 10 mg of naloxone hydrochloride have been administered, the diagnosis of opioid-induced or partial opioid-induced toxicity should be questioned. Intramuscular or subcutaneous adminstration may be necessary if the intravenous route is not available.Postoperative Opioid Depression:For the partial reversal of opioid depression following the use of opioids during surgery, smaller doses of naloxone hydrochlroide are usually sufficient. The dose of naloxone hydrochloride should be titrated according to the patient's response. For the initial reversal of respiratory depression, naloxone hydrochloride should be injected in increments of 0.1 to 0.2 mg intravenously at two-to-three-minute intervals to the desired degree of reversal-i.e., adequate ventilation and alertness without significant pain or discomfor. Larger than necessary dosage of naloxone may result in significant reversal of analgesia and increase in blood pressure. Similarly, too rapid reversal may induce nausea, vomiting, sweatin, or circulatory stress.Repeat doses of naloxone may be required within on- to two-hour intervals depending upon the amount, type (i.e., short or long acting) and time interval since last administration of opioid. Supplemental intramuscular doses have been shown to produce a longer lasting effect.Septic Shock:The optimal dosage of naloxone hydrochloride or duration of therapy for the treatment of hypotension in septic shock patients has not been established (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).Usage in ChildrenOpioid Overdose-Known or Suspected: The usual initial dose in children is 0.01 mg/kg body weight given I.V. If this dose does not result in the desired degree of clinical improvement, a subsequent dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight may be administered. If an I.V. route of administration is not available, naloxone may be administered I.M. or S.C. in divided doses. If necessary, naloxone hydrochloride injection can be diluted with sterile water for injection.Postoperative Opioid Depression:Follow the recommendations and cautions under Adult Postoperative Depression. For the initial reversal of respiratory depression naloxone hydrochloride should be injected in increments of 0.005 mg to 0.01 mg intravenously at two- to three-minute intervals to the desired degree of reversal.Usage in NeonatesOpioid-Induced Depression: The usual initial dose is 0.01 mg/kg body weight administered I.V., I.M., or S.C. This dose may be repeated in accordance with adult administration guidelines for postoperative opioid depression.

How Supplied

1 mg/mL naloxone hydrochloride injection USP, for intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration.Available as follows:1 mg/mL2 mL single dose disposable prefilled syringes, in the MIN-I-JET® system with 21 G. x 11/2” needle. Shrink Wrapped Packages of 10.NDC 76329-1469-1 Stock No. 1469 (contains no preservative)2 mL single dose disposable Luer-JetTM Luer-Lock Prefilled Syringe. Shrink Wrapped Packages of 10.NDC 76329-3369-1 Stock No. 3369 (contains no preservative)Syringe Assembly Directions:The MIN-I-JET® syringe with needle, illustrated below, is the basic unit upon which all the other syringe systems are built; slight adaptations and/ or additional auxiliary parts create the other syringe systems. Assembly directions remain essentially the same.USE ASEPTIC TECHNIQUEDo not assemble until ready to use.

Other

Store at 25˚C (77˚F); excursions permitted to 15˚-30˚C (59˚-86˚F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]Protect from light.Store in carton until contents have been used.INTERNATIONAL MEDICATION SYSTEMS, LIMITEDSO. EL MONTE, CA 91733, U.S.A. REV. 11-13An Amphastar Pharmaceuticals Company© INTERNATIONAL MEDICATION SYSTEMS, LIMITED 2013

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