The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.
Etodolac is a member of the pyranocarboxylic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Etodolac is a racemic mixture of [+]S and [-]R-enantiomers. Etodolac is a white crystalline compound, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohols, chloroform, dimethyl sulfoxide, and aqueous polyethylene glycol. The chemical name is (±) 1,8-diethyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano-[3,4-b]indole-1-acetic acid. The molecular weight of the base is 287.37. It has a pKa of 4.65 and an n-octanol:water partition coefficient of 11.4 at pH 7.4. The molecular formula for etodolac is C17H21NO3, and it has the following structural formula: Each etodolac tablet, USP is for oral administration, contains 400 mg or 500 mg of etodolac. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: crospovidone, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, methylcellulose, polyethylene glycol and titanium dioxide.
Etodolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in animal models. The mechanism of action of etodolac, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood, but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. Etodolac is a racemic mixture of [-]R- and [+]S-etodolac. As with other NSAIDs, it has been demonstrated in animals that the [+]S-form is biologically active. Both enantiomers are stable and there is no [-]R to [+]S conversion in vivo.
The systemic bioavailability of etodolac is 100% as compared to solution and at least 80% as determined from mass balance studies. Etodolac is well absorbed and had a relative bioavailability of 100% when 200 mg capsules were compared with a solution of etodolac. Based on mass balance studies, the systemic availability of etodolac from either the tablet or capsule formulation is at least 80%. Etodolac does not undergo significant first-pass metabolism following oral administration. Mean (± 1 SD) peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) range from approximately 14 ± 4 to 37 ± 9 mcg/mL after 200 to 600 mg single doses and are reached in 80 ± 30 minutes (see Table 1 for summary of pharmacokinetic parameters). The dose-proportionality based on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) is linear following doses up to 600 mg every 12 hours. Peak concentrations are dose proportional for both total and free etodolac following doses up to 400 mg every 12 hours, but following a 600 mg dose, the peak is about 20% higher than predicted on the basis of lower doses. The extent of absorption of etodolac is not affected when etodolac is administered after a meal. Food intake, however, reduces the peak concentration reached by approximately one-half and increases the time to peak concentration by 1.4 to 3.8 hours. Table 1. Mean (CV%)† Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Etodolac in Normal Healthy Adults and Various Special Populations †% Coefficient of variation *Age Range (years) N/A = not available PKParametersNormalHealthyAdults(18-65)*(n=179) HealthyMales(18-65)(n=176) HealthyFemales(27-65)(n=3) Elderly(>65)(70-84) Hemodialysis(24-65)(n=9) RenalImpairment(46-73)(n=10) HepaticImpairment(34-60)(n=9) DialysisOn DialysisOff Tmax, h 1.4(61%)†1.4(60%) 1.7(60%) 1.2(43%) 1.7(88%) 0.9(67%) 2.1(46%) 1.1(15%) Oral Clearance,mL/h/kg(CL/F) 49.1(33%) 49.4(33%) 35.7(28%) 45.7(27%) N/A N/A 58.3(19%) 42.0(43%) Apparent Volume of Distribution, mL/kg (Vd/F) 393(29%) 394(29%) 300(8%)414(38%) N/A N/A N/A N/A Terminal Half-Life, h 6.4(22%) 6.4(22%) 7.9(35%) 6.5(24%) 5.1(22%) 7.5(34%) N/A 5.7(24%)
The mean apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) of etodolac
is approximately 390 mL/kg. Etodolac is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins,
primarily to albumin. The free fraction is less than 1% and is independent
of etodolac total concentration over the dose range studied. It is not known
whether etodolac is excreted in human milk; however, based on its physical-chemical
properties, excretion into breast milk is expected. Data from in
vitro studies, using peak serum concentrations at reported therapeutic
doses in humans, show that the etodolac free fraction is not significantly
altered by acetaminophen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, piroxicam, chlorpropamide,
glipizide, glyburide, phenytoin, and probenecid.
Etodolac is extensively metabolized in the liver. The role,
if any, of a specific cytochrome P450 system in the metabolism of etodolac
is unknown. Several etodolac metabolites have been identified in human plasma
and urine. Other metabolites remain to be identified. The metabolites include
6-, 7-, and 8-hydroxylated-etodolac and etodolac glucuronide. After a single
dose of 14C-etodolac, hydroxylated metabolites accounted for less than 10%
of total drug in serum. On chronic dosing, hydroxylated-etodolac metabolite
does not accumulate in the plasma of patients with normal renal function.
The extent of accumulation of hydroxylated-etodolac metabolites in patients
with renal dysfunction has not been studied. The hydroxylated-etodolac metabolites
undergo further glucuronidation followed by renal excretion and partial elimination
in the feces.
The mean oral clearance of etodolac following oral dosing is 49 (±16) mL/h/kg. Approximately 1% of an etodolac dose is excreted unchanged in the urine with 72% of the dose excreted into urine as parent drug plus metabolite: - etodolac, unchanged 1% - etodolac glucuronide 13% - hydroxylated metabolites (6-, 7-, and 8-OH) 5% - hydroxylated metabolite glucuronides 20% - unidentified metabolites 33% Although renal elimination is a significant pathway of excretion for etodolac metabolites, no dosing adjustment in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction is generally necessary. The terminal half-life (t½) of etodolac is 6.4 hours (22% CV). In patients with severe renal dysfunction or undergoing hemodialysis, dosing adjustment is not generally necessary. Fecal excretion accounted for 16% of the dose.
Controlled clinical trials in analgesia were single-dose, randomized, double-blind, parallel studies in three pain models, including dental extractions. The analgesic effective dose for etodolac established in these acute pain models was 200 to 400 mg. The onset of analgesia occurred approximately 30 minutes after oral administration. Etodolac 200 mg provided efficacy comparable to that obtained with aspirin (650 mg). Etodolac 400 mg provided efficacy comparable to that obtained with acetaminophen with codeine (600 mg + 60 mg). The peak analgesic effect was between 1 to 2 hours. Duration of relief averaged 4 to 5 hours for 200 mg of etodolac and 5 to 6 hours for 400 mg of etodolac as measured by when approximately half of the patients required remedication.
The recommended total daily dose of etodolac for acute pain is up to 1,000 mg, given as 200 to 400 mg every 6 to 8 hours. Doses of etodolac greater than 1,000 mg/day have not been adequately evaluated in well-controlled clinical trials.
The use of etodolac in managing the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee was assessed in double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials in 341 patients. In patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, etodolac, in doses of 600 to 1,000 mg/day, was better than placebo in two studies. The clinical trials in osteoarthritis used b.i.d. dosage regimens.
In a 3-month study with 426 patients, etodolac 300 mg b.i.d. was effective in management of rheumatoid arthritis and comparable in efficacy to piroxicam 20 mg/day. In a long-term study with 1,446 patients in which 60% of patients completed 6 months of therapy and 20% completed 3 years of therapy, etodolac in a dose of 500 mg b.i.d. provided efficacy comparable to that obtained with ibuprofen 600 mg q.i.d. In clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis patients, etodolac has been used in combination with gold, d-penicillamine, chloroquine, corticosteroids, and methotrexate.
Indications And Usage
- Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of etodolac and other treatment options before deciding to use etodolac. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS). Etodolac tablets, USP are indicated:For acute and long-term use in the management of signs and symptoms of the following:Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis For the management of acute pain
- Etodolac is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to etodolac. Etodolac should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid Reactions and PRECAUTIONS, Pre-existing Asthma). Etodolac tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).
Cardiovascular EffectsCardiovascular Thrombotic EventsClinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as etodolac, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events (see WARNINGS).Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Post-MI PatientsObservational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.Avoid the use of etodolac in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If etodolac is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.HypertensionNSAIDs, including etodolac, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including etodolac, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.Heart Failure and EdemaThe Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of etodolac may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions [e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] (see Drug Interactions).Avoid the use of etodolac in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If etodolac is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.Gastrointestinal (GI) Effects - Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and PerforationNSAIDs, including etodolac, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2% to 4% of patients treated for 1 year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk. Physicians should inform patients about the signs and/or symptoms of serious GI toxicity and what steps to take if they occur.NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease, and/or gastrointestinal bleeding, and who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold risk for developing a GI bleed than patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly of debilitated patients, and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.Renal EffectsLong-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at a greater risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.Renal pelvic transitional epithelial hyperplasia, a spontaneous change occurring with variable frequency, was observed with increased frequency in treated male rats in a 2-year chronic study.Advanced Renal DiseaseNo information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of etodolac in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with etodolac is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If etodolac therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient’s renal function is advisable.Anaphylactoid ReactionsAs with other NSAIDS, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without prior exposure to etodolac. Etodolac should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Fatal reactions have been reported in such patients (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS, General, Pre-existing Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.Skin ReactionsNSAIDs, including etodolac, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.PregnancyIn late pregnancy, the third trimester, as with other NSAIDs, etodolac should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus (see PRECAUTIONS, Pregnancy, Non-teratogenic Effects).
Etodolac cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered solely if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids. The pharmacological activity of etodolac in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.
Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including etodolac. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes, have been reported. A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with etodolac. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), etodolac should be discontinued.
Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs including etodolac. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including etodolac, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia. NSAIDS inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving etodolac who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthmas has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, etodolac should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in all patients with pre-existing asthma.
Information For Patients
- Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.Cardiovascular Thrombotic EventsAdvise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately (see WARNINGS).Etodolac, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects, Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation). Etodolac, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS, and TEN, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible. Heart Failure And EdemaAdvise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur (see WARNINGS). Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy. Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS). In late pregnancy, the third trimester, as with other NSAIDs, etodolac should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically for signs or symptoms of anemia. Appropriate measures should be taken in case such signs of anemia occur. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) and if abnormal liver tests are detected, persist or worsen, etodolac should be discontinued.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
The urine of patients who take etodolac can give a false-positive reaction for urinary bilirubin (urobilin) due to the presence of phenolic metabolites of etodolac. Diagnostic dip-stick methodology, used to detect ketone bodies in urine, has resulted in false-positive findings in some patients treated with etodolac. Generally, this phenomenon has not been associated with other clinically significant events. No dose relationship has been observed. Etodolac treatment is associated with a small decrease in serum uric acid levels. In clinical trials, mean decreases of 1 to 2 mg/dL were observed in arthritic patients receiving etodolac (600 mg to 1,000 mg/day) after 4 weeks of therapy. These levels then remained stable for up to 1 year of therapy.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, And Impairment Of Fertility
No carcinogenic effect of etodolac was observed in mice or rats receiving oral doses of 15 mg/kg/day (45 to 89 mg/m2, respectively) or less for periods of 2 years or 18 months, respectively. Etodolac was not mutagenic in in vitro tests
performed with S. typhimurium and mouse lymphoma cells as well as in an in vivo mouse micronucleus test. However, data from the in
vitro human peripheral lymphocyte test showed an increase in the number of gaps (3.0 to 5.3% unstained regions in the chromatid without dislocation) among the etodolac-treated cultures (50 to 200 mcg/mL) compared to negative controls (2.0%); no other difference was noted between the controls and drug-treated groups. Etodolac showed no impairment of fertility in male and female rats up to oral doses of 16 mg/kg (94 mg/m2). However, reduced implantation of fertilized eggs occurred in the 8 mg/kg group.
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C
In teratology studies, isolated occurrences of alterations in limb development were found and included polydactyly, oligodactyly, syndactyly, and unossified phalanges in rats and oligodactyly and synostosis of metatarsals in rabbits. These were observed at dose levels (2 to 14 mg/kg/day) close to human clinical doses. However, the frequency and the dosage group distribution of these findings in initial or repeated studies did not establish a clear drug or dose-response relationship. Animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Etodolac should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Etodolac should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the potential risk to the fetus. Because of the known effects of NSAIDs on parturition and on the human fetal cardiovascular system with respect to closure of the ductus arteriosus, use during late pregnancy should be avoided.
Labor And Delivery
In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of etodolac on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.
It is not known whether etodolac is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from etodolac, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the
age of 18 years have not been established.
As with any NSAID, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older) and when increasing the dose (see WARNINGS). In etodolac clinical studies, no overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. In pharmacokinetic studies, age was shown not to have any effect on etodolac half-life or protein binding, and there was no change in expected drug accumulation. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is generally necessary in the elderly on the basis of pharmacokinetics (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Populations). Elderly patients may be more sensitive to the antiprostaglandin effects of NSAIDs (on the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys) than younger patients (see WARNINGS). In particular, elderly or debilitated patients who receive NSAID therapy seem to tolerate gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding less well than other individuals, and most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in this population. Etodolac is eliminated primarily by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see PRECAUTIONS, Renal Effects).
In patients taking etodolac or other NSAIDs, the most frequently reported adverse experiences occurring in approximately 1 to 10% of patients are: Gastrointestinal experiences including: abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, heartburn, nausea, GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal), vomiting. Other events including: abnormal renal function, anemia, dizziness, edema, elevated liver enzymes, headaches, increased bleeding time, pruritis, rashes, tinnitus. Adverse-reaction information for etodolac was derived from 2,629 arthritic patients treated with etodolac in double-blind and open-label clinical trials of 4 to 320 weeks in duration and worldwide postmarketing surveillance studies. In clinical trials, most adverse reactions were mild and transient. The discontinuation rate in controlled clinical trials, because of adverse events, was up to 10% for patients treated with etodolac. New patient complaints (with an incidence greater than or equal to 1%) are listed below by body system. The incidences were determined from clinical trials involving 465 patients with osteoarthritis treated with 300 to 500 mg of etodolac b.i.d. (i.e., 600 to 1,000 mg/day).
Body as a whole - Chills and fever. Digestive system - Dyspepsia (10%), abdominal pain*, diarrhea*, flatulence*, nausea*, constipation, gastritis, melena, vomiting. Nervous system - Asthenia/malaise*, dizziness*, depression, nervousness. Skin and appendages - Pruritus, rash. Special senses - Blurred vision, tinnitus. Urogenital system - Dysuria, urinary frequency.* Drug-related patient complaints occurring in 3 to 9% of patients treated with etodolac. Drug-related patient-complaints occurring in fewer than 3%, but more than 1%, are unmarked.
(Adverse reactions reported only in worldwide postmarketing experience, not seen in clinical trials, are considered rarer and are italicized.) Body as a whole - Allergic reaction, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (including shock).Cardiovascular system - Hypertension, congestive heart failure, flushing, palpitations, syncope, vasculitis (including necrotizing and allergic).Digestive system - Thirst, dry mouth, ulcerative stomatitis, anorexia, eructation, elevated liver enzymes, cholestatic hepatitis, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, duodenitis, jaundice, hepatic failure, liver necrosis, peptic ulcer with or without bleeding and/or perforation,
intestinal ulceration, pancreatitis.Hemic and lymphatic system - Ecchymosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, bleeding time increased, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia.Metabolic and nutritional - Edema, serum creatinine increase, hyperglycemia in previously controlled diabetic patients.Nervous system - Insomnia, somnolence. Respiratory system - Asthma, pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia.Skin and appendages - Angioedema, sweating, urticaria, vesiculobullous rash, cutaneous vasculitis with purpura, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, hyperpigmentation, erythema multiforme.Special senses - Photophobia, transient visual disturbances. Urogenital system - Elevated BUN, renal failure, renal insufficiency, renal papillary necrosis.
Incidence Less Than 1% - Causal Relationship Unknown
(Medical events occurring under circumstances where causal relationship to etodolac is uncertain. These reactions are listed as alerting information for physicians.) Body as a whole - Infection, headache. Cardiovascular system - Arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident. Digestive system - Esophagitis with or without stricture or cardiospasm, colitis. Metabolic and nutritional - Change in weight. Nervous system - Paresthesia, confusion. Respiratory system - Bronchitis, dyspnea, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis. Skin and appendages - Alopecia, maculopapular rash, photosensitivity, skin peeling. Special senses - Conjunctivitis, deafness, taste perversion. Urogenital system - Cystitis, hematuria, leukorrhea, renal calculus, interstitial nephritis, uterine bleeding irregularities.
Additional Adverse Reactions Reported With Nsaids
Body as a whole - Sepsis, death Cardiovascular system - Tachycardia Digestive system - Gastric ulcers, gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, glossitis, hematemesis Hemic and lymphatic system - Lymphadenopathy Nervous system - Anxiety, dream abnormalities, convulsions, coma, hallucinations, meningitis, tremors, vertigo Respiratory system - Respiratory depression, pneumonia Urogenital system - Oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria
Symptoms following acute NSAID overdose are usually limited
to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which are
generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur
and coma has occurred following massive ibuprofen or mefenamic-acid overdose.
Hypertension, acute renal failure, and respiratory depression may occur but
are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion
of NSAIDs, and may occur following overdose. Patients
should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdose.
There are no specific antidotes. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 g
in adults, 1 to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic
may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms
or following a large overdose (5 to 10 times the usual dose). Forced diuresis,
alkalinization of the urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion would probably
not be useful due to etodolac's high protein binding.
Dosage And Administration
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of etodolac and other treatment options before deciding to use etodolac. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS). After observing the response to the initial therapy with etodolac, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient's needs. Dosage adjustment of etodolac is generally not required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Etodolac should be used with caution in such patients, because, as with other NSAIDs, it may further decrease renal function in some patients with impaired renal function (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects).
Osteoarthritis And Rheumatoid Arthritis
The recommended starting dose of etodolac for the management of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis is: 300 mg b.i.d., t.i.d., or 400 mg b.i.d., or 500 mg b.i.d. A lower dose of 600 mg/day may suffice for long-term administration. Physicians should be aware that doses above 1,000 mg/day have not been adequately evaluated in well-controlled clinical trials. In chronic conditions, a therapeutic response to therapy with etodolac is sometimes seen within one week of therapy, but most often is observed by two weeks. After a satisfactory response has been achieved, the patient's dose should be reviewed and adjusted as required.
Etodolac Tablets, USP are available as:400 mg Tablets (White to off-white, oval, unscored, film-coated tablets, imprinted "APO 041" on one side and "400" on the other side.)500 mg tablets (White to off-white, oval, unscored, film-coated tablets imprinted "APO 102" on one side and "500" on the other side.)55700-757-30Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C to 30° (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container [see USP].APOTEX INC. ETODOLAC TABLETS, USP 400 mg and 500 mgManufactured byApotex Inc.Toronto, OntarioCanada M9L 1T9Manufactured forApotex Corp.Weston, Florida33326Revised: July 2016Rev. 4
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