NDC 60760-550 Alprazolam

Alprazolam

NDC Product Code 60760-550

NDC Code: 60760-550

Proprietary Name: Alprazolam Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Proprietary Name?
The proprietary name also known as the trade name is the name of the product chosen by the medication labeler for marketing purposes.

Non-Proprietary Name: Alprazolam Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Non-Proprietary Name?
The non-proprietary name is sometimes called the generic name. The generic name usually includes the active ingredient(s) of the product.


Product Characteristics
Color(s):
BLUE (C48333 - LIGHT BLUE TO BLUE)
Shape: OVAL (C48345)
Size(s):
9 MM
Imprint(s):
B706
Score: 2

Code Structure
  • 60760 - St. Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
    • 60760-550 - Alprazolam

NDC 60760-550-30

Package Description: 30 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC

NDC Product Information

Alprazolam with NDC 60760-550 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by St. Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy. The generic name of Alprazolam is alprazolam. The product's dosage form is tablet and is administered via oral form.

Labeler Name: St. Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy

Dosage Form: Tablet - A solid dosage form containing medicinal substances with or without suitable diluents.

Product Type: Human Prescription Drug Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat kind of product is this?
Indicates the type of product, such as Human Prescription Drug or Human Over the Counter Drug. This data element matches the “Document Type” field of the Structured Product Listing.

DEA Schedule: Schedule IV (CIV) Substances Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) CIV Schedule?
The controlled substances in the CIV schedule have an abuse potential and dependence liability less than those listed in CIII and have an accepted medical use in the United States.


Alprazolam Active Ingredient(s)

Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Active Ingredient(s) List?
This is the active ingredient list. Each ingredient name is the preferred term of the UNII code submitted.

  • ALPRAZOLAM 1 mg/1

Inactive Ingredient(s)

Additional informationCallout TooltipAbout the Inactive Ingredient(s)
The inactive ingredients are all the component of a medicinal product OTHER than the active ingredient(s). The acronym "UNII" stands for “Unique Ingredient Identifier” and is used to identify each inactive ingredient present in a product.

  • LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE (UNII: EWQ57Q8I5X)
  • MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE (UNII: OP1R32D61U)
  • SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A CORN (UNII: AG9B65PV6B)
  • HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE (1600000 WAMW) (UNII: RFW2ET671P)
  • SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (UNII: 368GB5141J)
  • MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)
  • FD&C BLUE NO. 2 (UNII: L06K8R7DQK)

Administration Route(s)

Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat are the Administration Route(s)?
The translation of the route code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration.

  • Oral - Administration to or by way of the mouth.

Pharmacological Class(es)

Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is a Pharmacological Class?
These are the reported pharmacological class categories corresponding to the SubstanceNames listed above.

  • Benzodiazepine - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)
  • Benzodiazepines - [CS]
  • Benzodiazepine - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)
  • Benzodiazepines - [CS]

Product Labeler Information

Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Labeler Name?
Name of Company corresponding to the labeler code segment of the Product NDC.

Labeler Name: St. Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
Labeler Code: 60760
FDA Application Number: ANDA207507 Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the FDA Application Number?
This corresponds to the NDA, ANDA, or BLA number reported by the labeler for products which have the corresponding Marketing Category designated. If the designated Marketing Category is OTC Monograph Final or OTC Monograph Not Final, then the Application number will be the CFR citation corresponding to the appropriate Monograph (e.g. “part 341”). For unapproved drugs, this field will be null.

Marketing Category: ANDA - A product marketed under an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application. Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Marketing Category?
Product types are broken down into several potential Marketing Categories, such as NDA/ANDA/BLA, OTC Monograph, or Unapproved Drug. One and only one Marketing Category may be chosen for a product, not all marketing categories are available to all product types. Currently, only final marketed product categories are included. The complete list of codes and translations can be found at www.fda.gov/edrls under Structured Product Labeling Resources.

Start Marketing Date: 02-20-2019 Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Start Marketing Date?
This is the date that the labeler indicates was the start of its marketing of the drug product.

Listing Expiration Date: 12-31-2020 Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Listing Expiration Date?
This is the date when the listing record will expire if not updated or certified by the product labeler.

Exclude Flag: N Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the NDC Exclude Flag?
This field indicates whether the product has been removed/excluded from the NDC Directory for failure to respond to FDA’s requests for correction to deficient or non-compliant submissions. Values = ‘Y’ or ‘N’.

* Please review the disclaimer below.

Alprazolam Product Label Images

Alprazolam Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

Other

CIV

Manufactured By:


Centaur Pharmaceuticals Private Limited


Plot no. 4, International Biotech Park,


Phase-II, Hinjewadi, Pune,


Maharashtra 411057, India.


Distributed by:


Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.


Boca Raton, FL 33487


Revised: 06/2018


208775

Warning: Risks From Concomitant Use With Opioids

  • Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death
  • [see
  • Warnings,
  • Drug Interactions].
  • Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

Description

Alprazolam Tablets, USP contain alprazolam which is a triazolo analog of the 1,4 benzodiazepine class of central nervous system- active compounds.The chemical name of alprazolam is 8-Chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-s-triazolo [4,3-α] [1,4] benzodiazepine.The structural formula is represented to the right:Alprazolam is a white crystalline powder, which is soluble in methanol or ethanol but which has no appreciable solubility in water at physiological pH.Each Alprazolam tablet, USP, for oral administration, contains 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg of alprazolam Alprazolam Tablets USP, 2 mg, are multi-scored and may be divided as shown below:Complete 2 mg TabletTwo 1 mg segmentsFour 0.5 mg segmentsInactive ingredients: Lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, hydroxy propyl cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate. In addition, the 0.5 mg tablet contains FD & C Yellow 6 lake and the 1 mg and 2 mg tablet contains FD & C Blue 2 lake.

Pharmacodynamics

CNS agents of the 1, 4 benzodiazepine class presumably exert their effects by binding at stereo specific receptors at several sites within the central nervous system. Their exact mechanism of action is unknown. Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause a dose-related central nervous system depressant activity varying from mild impairment of task performance to hypnosis.

Absorption

Following oral administration, alprazolam is readily absorbed. Peak concentrations in the plasma occur in 1 to 2 hours following administration. Plasma levels are proportionate to the dose given; over the dose range of 0.5 to 3.0 mg, peak levels of 8.0 to 37 ng/mL were observed. Using a specific assay methodology, the mean plasma elimination half-life of alprazolam has been found to be about 11.2 hours (range: 6.3–26.9 hours) in healthy adults.

Distribution

In vitro, alprazolam is bound (80 percent) to human serum protein. Serum albumin accounts for the majority of the binding.

Metabolism/Elimination

Alprazolam is extensively metabolized in humans, primarily by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), to two major metabolites in the plasma: 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam. A benzophenone derived from alprazolam is also found in humans. Their half-lives appear to be similar to that of alprazolam. The plasma concentrations of 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam relative to unchanged alprazolam concentration were always less than 4%.The reported relative potencies in benzodiazepine receptor binding experiments and in animal models of induced seizure inhibition are 0.20 and 0.66, respectively, for 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam. Such low concentrations and the lesser potencies of 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam suggest that they are unlikely to contribute much to the pharmacological effects of alprazolam. The benzophenone metabolite is essentially inactive. Alprazolam and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine.

Special Populations

Changes in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of benzodiazepines have been reported in a variety of disease states including alcoholism, impaired hepatic function and impaired renal function. Changes have also been demonstrated in geriatric patients. A mean half-life of alprazolam of 16.3 hours has been observed in healthy elderly subjects (range: 9.0–26.9 hours, n=16) compared to 11.0 hours (range: 6.3–15.8 hours, n=16) in healthy adult subjects. In patients with alcoholic liver disease the half-life of alprazolam ranged between 5.8 and 65.3 hours (mean: 19.7 hours, n=17) as compared to between 6.3 and 26.9 hours (mean=11.4 hours, n=17) in healthy subjects. In an obese group of subjects the half-life of alprazolam ranged between 9.9 and 40.4 hours (mean=21.8 hours, n=12) as compared to between 6.3 and 15.8 hours (mean=10.6 hours, n=12) in healthy subjects.Because of its similarity to other benzodiazepines, it is assumed that alprazolam undergoes transplacental passage and that it is excreted in human milk.

Race

Maximal concentrations and half-life of alprazolam are approximately 15% and 25% higher in Asians compared to Caucasians.

Pediatrics

The pharmacokinetics of alprazolam in pediatric patients have not been studied.

Gender

Gender has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam.

Cigarette Smoking

Alprazolam concentrations may be reduced by up to 50% in smokers compared to non-smokers.

Drug-Drug Interactions

Alprazolam is primarily eliminated by metabolism via cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Most of the interactions that have been documented with alprazolam are with drugs that inhibit or induce CYP3A4.Compounds that are potent inhibitors of CYP3A would be expected to increase plasma alprazolam concentrations. Drug products that have been studied in vivo, along with their effect on increasing alprazolam AUC, are as follows: ketoconazole, 3.98 fold; itraconazole, 2.70 fold; nefazodone,1.98 fold; fluvoxamine,1.96 fold; and erythromycin, 1.61 fold (see


CONTRAINDICATIONS,


WARNINGS and


PRECAUTIONS – Drug Interactions).


CYP3A inducers would be expected to decrease alprazolam concentrations and this has been observed in vivo. The oral clearance of alprazolam (given in a 0.8 mg single dose) was increased from 0.90±0.21 mL/min/kg to 2.13±0.54 mL/min/kg and the elimination t


1/2 was shortened (from 17.1±4.9 to 7.7 ±1.7 h) following administration of 300 mg/day carbamazepine for 10 days (see


PRECAUTIONS–Drug Interactions). However, the carbamazepine dose used in this study was fairly low compared to the recommended doses (1,000mg to 1,200 mg/day); the effect at usual carbamazepine doses is unknown.


The ability of alprazolam to induce human hepatic enzyme systems has not yet been determined. However, this is not a property of benzodiazepines in general. Further, alprazolam did not affect the prothrombin or plasma warfarin levels in male volunteers administered sodium warfarin orally.

Anxiety Disorders

Alprazolam Tablets USP were compared to placebo in double blind clinical studies (doses up to 4 mg/day) in patients with a diagnosis of anxiety or anxiety with associated depressive symptomatology. Alprazolam Tablets USP was significantly better than placebo at each of the evaluation periods of these 4-week studies as judged by the following psychometric instruments: Physician's Global Impressions, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Target Symptoms, Patient's Global Impressions and Self-Rating Symptom Scale.

Alprazolam Tablets, USP (alprazolam) are indicated for the management of anxiety disorder (a condition corresponding most closely to the APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM-III-R] diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder) or the short- term relief of symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic.Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by unrealistic or excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation) about two or more life circumstances, for a period of 6 months or longer, during which the person has been bothered more days than not by these concerns. At least 6 of the following 18 symptoms are often present in these patients:


Motor Tension (trembling, twitching, or feeling shaky; muscle tension, aches, or soreness; restlessness; easy fatigability);


Autonomic Hyperactivity (shortness of breath or smothering sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; sweating, or cold clammy hands; dry mouth; dizziness or light-headedness; nausea, diarrhea, or other abdominal distress; flushes or chills; frequent urination; trouble swallowing or 'lump in throat');


Vigilance and Scanning (feeling keyed up or on edge; exaggerated startle response; difficulty concentrating or 'mind going blank' because of anxiety; trouble falling or staying asleep; irritability). These symptoms must not be secondary to another psychiatric disorder or caused by some organic factor.


Anxiety associated with depression is responsive to Alprazolam tablets, USP.

Panic Disorder

Support for the effectiveness of alprazolam tablets in the treatment of panic disorder came from three short-term, placebo- controlled studies (up to 10 weeks) in patients with diagnoses closely corresponding to DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder.The average dose of alprazolam tablets was 5–6 mg/day in two of the studies, and the doses of alprazolam tablets were fixed at 2 and 6 mg/day in the third study. In all three studies, alprazolam tablets was superior to placebo on a variable defined as "the number of patients with zero panic attacks" (range, 37–83% met this criterion), as well as on a global improvement score. In two of the three studies, alprazolam tablets was superior to placebo on a variable defined as "change from baseline on the number of panic attacks per week" (range, 3.3–5.2), and also on a phobia rating scale. A subgroup of patients who were improved on alprazolam tablets during short-term treatment in one of these trials was continued on an open basis up to 8 months, without apparent loss of benefit.

Alprazolam Tablets, USP is also indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.Studies supporting this claim were conducted in patients whose diagnoses corresponded closely to the DSM-III-R/IV criteria for panic disorder (see


CLINICAL STUDIES).


Panic disorder (DSM-IV) is characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks, ie, a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which four (or more) of the following symptoms develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes: (1) palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate; (2) sweating; (3) trembling or shaking; (4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering; (5) feeling of choking; (6) chest pain or discomfort; (7) nausea or abdominal distress; (8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint; (9) derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself); (10) fear of losing control; (11) fear of dying; (12) paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations); (13) chills or hot flushes.Demonstrations of the effectiveness of Alprazolam tablets, USP by systematic clinical study are limited to 4 months duration for anxiety disorder and 4 to 10 weeks duration for panic disorder; however, patients with panic disorder have been treated on an open basis for up to 8 months without apparent loss of benefit. The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

The successful treatment of many panic disorder patients has required the use of alprazolam tablets at doses greater than 4 mg daily. In controlled trials conducted to establish the efficacy of alprazolam tablets in panic disorder, doses in the range of 1 to 10 mg daily were used. The mean dosage employed was approximately 5 to 6 mg daily. Among the approximately 1700 patients participating in the panic disorder development program, about 300 received alprazolam tablets in dosages of greater than 7 mg/day, including approximately 100 patients who received maximum dosages of greater than 9 mg/day. Occasional patients required as much as 10 mg a day to achieve a successful response.

Contraindications

Alprazolam Tablets, USP are contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity to this drug or other benzodiazepines.Alprazolam Tablets USP is contraindicated with ketoconazole and itraconazole, since these medications significantly impair the oxidative metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) (see


WARNINGS and


PRECAUTIONS–Drug Interactions).

Risks From Concomitant Use With Opioids

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including alprazolam tablets, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe alprazolam tablets concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of alprazolam tablets than indicated in the absence of an opioid and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioids is initiated in a patient already taking alprazolam tablets, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid and titrate based upon clinical response.Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when alprazolam tablets is used with opioids. Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use with the opioid have been determined [see


Drug Interactions].

Dependence And Withdrawal Reactions, Including Seizures

Certain adverse clinical events, some life-threatening, are a direct consequence of physical dependence to alprazolam tablets. These include a spectrum of withdrawal symptoms; the most important is seizure (see


DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE). Even after relatively short term use at the doses recommended for the treatment of transient anxiety and anxiety disorder (ie, 0.75 to 4.0 mg per day), there is some risk of dependence. Spontaneous reporting system data suggest that the risk of dependence and its severity appear to be greater in patients treated with doses greater than 4 mg/day and for long periods (more than 12 weeks). However, in a controlled postmarketing discontinuation study of panic disorder patients, the duration of treatment (3 months compared to 6 months) had no effect on the ability of patients to taper to zero dose. In contrast, patients treated with doses of alprazolam tablets greater than 4 mg/day had more difficulty tapering to zero dose than those treated with less than 4 mg/day.

The Importance Of Dose And The Risks Of Alprazolam Tablets, Usp As A Treatment For Panic Disorder

Because the management of panic disorder often requires the use of average daily doses of alprazolam tablets above 4 mg, the risk of dependence among panic disorder patients may be higher than that among those treated for less severe anxiety. Experience in randomized placebo-controlled discontinuation studies of patients with panic disorder showed a high rate of rebound and withdrawal symptoms in patients treated with alprazolam tablets compared to placebo-treated patients.Relapse or return of illness was defined as a return of symptoms characteristic of panic disorder (primarily panic attacks) to levels approximately equal to those seen at baseline before active treatment was initiated. Rebound refers to a return of symptoms of panic disorder to a level substantially greater in frequency, or more severe in intensity than seen at baseline. Withdrawal symptoms were identified as those which were generally not characteristic of panic disorder and which occurred for the first time more frequently during discontinuation than at baseline.In a controlled clinical trial in which 63 patients were randomized to alprazolam tablets and where withdrawal symptoms were specifically sought, the following were identified as symptoms of withdrawal: heightened sensory perception, impaired concentration, dysosmia, clouded sensorium, paresthesias, muscle cramps, muscle twitch, diarrhea, blurred vision, appetite decrease, and weight loss. Other symptoms, such as anxiety and insomnia, were frequently seen during discontinuation, but it could not be determined if they were due to return of illness, rebound, or withdrawal.In two controlled trials of 6 to 8 weeks duration where the ability of patients to discontinue medication was measured, 71%–93% of patients treated with alprazolam tablets tapered completely off therapy compared to 89%–96% of placebo-treated patients. In a controlled postmarketing discontinuation study of panic disorder patients, the duration of treatment (3 months compared to 6 months) had no effect on the ability of patients to taper to zero dose.Seizures attributable to alprazolam tablets were seen after drug discontinuance or dose reduction in 8 of 1980 patients with panic disorder or in patients participating in clinical trials where doses of alprazolam tablets greater than 4 mg/day for over 3 months were permitted. Five of these cases clearly occurred during abrupt dose reduction or discontinuation from daily doses of 2 to 10 mg. Three cases occurred in situations where there was not a clear relationship to abrupt dose reduction or discontinuation. In one instance, seizure occurred after discontinuation from a single dose of 1 mg after tapering at a rate of 1 mg every 3 days from 6 mg daily. In two other instances, the relationship to taper is indeterminate; in both of these cases the patients had been receiving doses of 3 mg daily prior to seizure. The duration of use in the above 8 cases ranged from 4 to 22 weeks. There have been occasional voluntary reports of patients developing seizures while apparently tapering gradually from alprazolam tablets. The risk of seizure seems to be greatest 24–72 hours after discontinuation (see


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for recommended tapering and discontinuation schedule).

Status Epilepticus And Its Treatment

The medical event voluntary reporting system shows that withdrawal seizures have been reported in association with the discontinuation of alprazolam tablets. In most cases, only a single seizure was reported; however, multiple seizures and status epilepticus were reported as well.

Interdose Symptoms

Early morning anxiety and emergence of anxiety symptoms between doses of alprazolam tablets have been reported in patients with panic disorder taking prescribed maintenance doses of alprazolam tablets. These symptoms may reflect the development of tolerance or a time interval between doses which is longer than the duration of clinical action of the administered dose. In either case, it is presumed that the prescribed dose is not sufficient to maintain plasma levels above those needed to prevent relapse, rebound or withdrawal symptoms over the entire course of the interdosing interval. In these situations, it is recommended that the same total daily dose be given divided as more frequent administrations (see


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Risk Of Dose Reduction

Withdrawal reactions may occur when dosage reduction occurs for any reason. This includes purposeful tapering, but also inadvertent reduction of dose (eg, the patient forgets, the patient is admitted to a hospital). Therefore, the dosage of alprazolam tablets should be reduced or discontinued gradually (see


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Cns Depression And Impaired Performance

Because of its CNS depressant effects, patients receiving alprazolam tablets should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations or activities requiring complete mental alertness such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle. For the same reason, patients should be cautioned about the simultaneous ingestion of alcohol and other CNS depressant drugs during treatment with alprazolam tablets.

Risk Of Fetal Harm

Benzodiazepines can potentially cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. If alprazolam tablets are used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Because of experience with other members of the benzodiazepine class, alprazolam tablets are assumed to be capable of causing an increased risk of congenital abnormalities when administered to a pregnant woman during the first trimester. Because use of these drugs is rarely a matter of urgency, their use during the first trimester should almost always be avoided. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. Patients should be advised that if they become pregnant during therapy or intend to become pregnant they should communicate with their physicians about the desirability of discontinuing the drug.

Alprazolam Interaction With Drugs That Inhibit Metabolism Via Cytochrome P4503a

The initial step in alprazolam metabolism is hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Drugs that inhibit this metabolic pathway may have a profound effect on the clearance of alprazolam. Consequently, alprazolam should be avoided in patients receiving very potent inhibitors of CYP3A. With drugs inhibiting CYP3A to a lesser but still significant degree, alprazolam should be used only with caution and consideration of appropriate dosage reduction. For some drugs, an interaction with alprazolam has been quantified with clinical data; for other drugs, interactions are predicted from in vitro data and/or experience with similar drugs in the same pharmacologic class.The following are examples of drugs known to inhibit the metabolism of alprazolam and/or related benzodiazepines, presumably through inhibition of CYP3A.

Azole Antifungal Agents

Ketoconazole and itraconazole are potent CYP3A inhibitors and have been shown in vivo to increase plasma alprazolam concentrations 3.98 fold and 2.70 fold, respectively. The coadministration of alprazolam with these agents is not recommended. Other azole-type antifungal agents should also be considered potent CYP3A inhibitors and the coadministration of alprazolam with them is not recommended (see


CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Nefazodone

Coadministration of nefazodone increased alprazolam concentration two-fold.

Fluvoxamine

Coadministration of fluvoxamine approximately doubled the maximum plasma concentration of alprazolam, decreased clearance by 49%, increased half-life by 71%, and decreased measured psychomotor performance.

Cimetidine

Coadministration of cimetidine increased the maximum plasma concentration of alprazolam by 86%, decreased clearance by 42%, and increased half-life by 16%.

Other Drugs Possibly Affecting Alprazolam Metabolism

Other drugs possibly affecting alprazolam metabolism by inhibition of CYP3A are discussed in the PRECAUTIONS section (see


PRECAUTIONS – Drug Interactions).

Suicide

As with other psychotropic medications, the usual precautions with respect to administration of the drug and size of the prescription are indicated for severely depressed patients or those in whom there is reason to expect concealed suicidal ideation or plans. Panic disorder has been associated with primary and secondary major depressive disorders and increased reports of suicide among untreated patients.

Mania

Episodes of hypomania and mania have been reported in association with the use of alprazolam tablets in patients with depression.

Uricosuric Effect

Alprazolam has a weak uricosuric effect. Although other medications with weak uricosuric effect have been reported to cause acute renal failure, there have been no reported instances of acute renal failure attributable to therapy with alprazolam tablets.

Use In Patients With Concomitant Illness

It is recommended that the dosage be limited to the smallest effective dose to preclude the development of ataxia or oversedation which may be a particular problem in elderly or debilitated patients. (See


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) The usual precautions in treating patients with impaired renal, hepatic or pulmonary function should be observed. There have been rare reports of death in patients with severe pulmonary disease shortly after the initiation of treatment with alprazolam tablets. A decreased systemic alprazolam elimination rate (eg, increased plasma half-life) has been observed in both alcoholic liver disease patients and obese patients receiving alprazolam tablets (see


CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

For All Users Of Alprazolam Tablets

  • To assure safe and effective use of benzodiazepines, all patients prescribed alprazolam tablets should be provided with the following guidance.Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of potentially fatal respiratory depression and sedation when alprazolam tablets is used with opioids and not to use such drugs concomitantly unless supervised by a health care provider.Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use with the opioid have been determined [see
  • Drug Interactions].
  • Inform your physician about any alcohol consumption and medicine you are taking now, including medication you may buy without a prescription. Alcohol should generally not be used during treatment with benzodiazepines.Not recommended for use in pregnancy. Therefore, inform your physician if you are pregnant, if you are planning to have a child, or if you become pregnant while you are taking this medication.Inform your physician if you are nursing.Until you experience how this medication affects you, do not drive a car or operate potentially dangerous machinery, etc.Do not increase the dose even if you think the medication "does not work anymore" without consulting your physician. Benzodiazepines, even when used as recommended, may produce emotional and/or physical dependence.Do not stop taking this medication abruptly or decrease the dose without consulting your physician, since withdrawal symptoms can occur.

Additional Advice For Panic Disorder Patients

The use of alprazolam tablets at doses greater than 4 mg/day, often necessary to treat panic disorder, is accompanied by risks that you need to carefully consider. When used at doses greater than 4 mg/day, which may or may not be required for your treatment, alprazolam tablets has the potential to cause severe emotional and physical dependence in some patients and these patients may find it exceedingly difficult to terminate treatment. In two controlled trials of 6 to 8 weeks duration where the ability of patients to discontinue medication was measured, 7 to 29% of patients treated with alprazolam tablets did not completely taper off therapy. In a controlled postmarketing discontinuation study of panic disorder patients, the patients treated with doses of alprazolam tablets greater than 4 mg/day had more difficulty tapering to zero dose than patients treated with less than 4 mg/day. In all cases, it is important that your physician help you discontinue this medication in a careful and safe manner to avoid overly extended use of alprazolam tablets.In addition, the extended use at doses greater than 4 mg/day appears to increase the incidence and severity of withdrawal reactions when alprazolam tablets are discontinued. These are generally minor but seizure can occur, especially if you reduce the dose too rapidly or discontinue the medication abruptly. Seizure can be life-threatening.

Laboratory Tests

Laboratory tests are not ordinarily required in otherwise healthy patients. However, when treatment is protracted, periodic blood counts, urinalysis, and blood chemistry analyses are advisable in keeping with good medical practice.

Use With Opioids

The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GABA


A sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Limit dosage and duration of concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids, and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation.

Use With Other Cns Depressants

If alprazolam tablets are to be combined with other psychotropic agents or anticonvulsant drugs, careful consideration should be given to the pharmacology of the agents to be employed, particularly with compounds which might potentiate the action of benzodiazepines. The benzodiazepines, including alprazolam, produce additive CNS depressant effects when co-administered with other psychotropic medications, anticonvulsants, antihistaminics, ethanol and other drugs which themselves produce CNS depression.

Use With Imipramine And Desipramine

The steady state plasma concentrations of imipramine and desipramine have been reported to be increased an average of 31% and 20%, respectively, by the concomitant administration of alprazolam tablets in doses up to 4 mg/day. The clinical significance of these changes is unknown.

Drugs That Inhibit Alprazolam Metabolism Via Cytochrome P450 3A

The initial step in alprazolam metabolism is hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Drugs which inhibit this metabolic pathway may have a profound effect on the clearance of alprazolam (see


CONTRAINDICATIONS and


WARNINGS for additional drugs of this type).

Fluoxetine

Coadministration of fluoxetine with alprazolam increased the maximum plasma concentration of alprazolam by 46%, decreased clearance by 21%, increased half-life by 17%, and decreased measured psychomotor performance.

Propoxyphene

Coadministration of propoxyphene decreased the maximum plasma concentration of alprazolam by 6%, decreased clearance by 38%, and increased half-life by 58%.

Oral Contraceptives

Coadministration of oral contraceptives increased the maximum plasma concentration of alprazolam by 18%, decreased clearance by 22%, and increased half-life by 29%.

Available data from clinical studies of benzodiazepines other than alprazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with alprazolam for the following: diltiazem, isoniazid, macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin and clarithromycin, and grapefruit juice. Data from in vitro studies of alprazolam suggest a possible drug interaction with alprazolam for the following: sertraline and paroxetine. However, data from an in vivo drug interaction study involving a single dose of alprazolam 1 mg and steady state dose of sertraline (50 to 150 mg/day) did not reveal any clinically significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam. Data from in vitro studies of benzodiazepines other than alprazolam suggest a possible drug interaction for the following: ergotamine, cyclosporine, amiodarone, nicardipine, and nifedipine. Caution is recommended during the coadministration of any of these with alprazolam (see


WARNINGS).

Drugs Demonstrated To Be Inducers Of Cyp3a

Carbamazepine can increase alprazolam metabolism and therefore can decrease plasma levels of alprazolam.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Although interactions between benzodiazepines and commonly employed clinical laboratory tests have occasionally been reported, there is no consistent pattern for a specific drug or specific test.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

No evidence of carcinogenic potential was observed during 2-year bioassay studies of alprazolam in rats at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (150 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 10 mg/day) and in mice at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (50 times the maximum recommended daily human dose).Alprazolam was not mutagenic in the rat micronucleus test at doses up to 100 mg/kg, which is 500 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 10 mg/day. Alprazolam also was not mutagenic in vitro in the DNA Damage/Alkaline Elution Assay or the Ames Assay.Alprazolam produced no impairment of fertility in rats at doses up to 5 mg/kg/day, which is 25 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 10 mg/day.

Pregnancy Category D

(See


WARNINGS section)

Nonteratogenic Effects

It should be considered that the child born of a mother who is receiving benzodiazepines may be at some risk for withdrawal symptoms from the drug during the postnatal period. Also, neonatal flaccidity and respiratory problems have been reported in children born of mothers who have been receiving benzodiazepines.

Labor And Delivery

Alprazolam Tablets USP has no established use in labor or delivery.

Nursing Mothers

Benzodiazepines are known to be excreted in human milk. It should be assumed that alprazolam is as well. Chronic administration of diazepam to nursing mothers has been reported to cause their infants to become lethargic and to lose weight. As a general rule, nursing should not be undertaken by mothers who must use alprazolam tablets.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of alprazolam tablets in individuals below 18 years of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use

The elderly may be more sensitive to the effects of benzodiazepines. They exhibit higher plasma alprazolam concentrations due to reduced clearance of the drug as compared with a younger population receiving the same doses. The smallest effective dose of alprazolam tablets should be used in the elderly to preclude the development of ataxia and oversedation (see


CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Adverse Reactions

Side effects to alprazolam tablets, if they occur, are generally observed at the beginning of therapy and usually disappear upon continued medication. In the usual patient, the most frequent side effects are likely to be an extension of the pharmacological activity of alprazolam, eg, drowsiness or light-headedness.The data cited in the two tables below are estimates of untoward clinical event incidence among patients who participated under the following clinical conditions: relatively short duration (ie, four weeks) placebo-controlled clinical studies with dosages up to 4 mg/day of alprazolam tablets (for the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety) and short-term (up to ten weeks) placebo-controlled clinical studies with dosages up to 10 mg/day of alprazolam tablets in patients with panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.These data cannot be used to predict precisely the incidence of untoward events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors often differ from those in clinical trials. These figures cannot be compared with those obtained from other clinical studies involving related drug products and placebo as each group of drug trials are conducted under a different set of conditions.Comparison of the cited figures, however, can provide the prescriber with some basis for estimating the relative contributions of drug and non-drug factors to the untoward event incidence in the population studied. Even this use must be approached cautiously, as a drug may relieve a symptom in one patient but induce it in others. (For example, an anxiolytic drug may relieve dry mouth [a symptom of anxiety] in some subjects but induce it [an untoward event] in others.)Additionally, for anxiety disorders the cited figures can provide the prescriber with an indication as to the frequency with which physician intervention (eg, increased surveillance, decreased dosage or discontinuation of drug therapy) may be necessary because of the untoward clinical event.

Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events Reported In Placebo-Controlled Trials Of Anxiety Disorders

ANXIETY DISORDERSTreatment Emergent Symptom Incidence


Events reported by 1% or more of Alprazolam Tablets patients are included.Incidence of Intervention Because of SymptomAlprazolam TabletsPlaceboAlprazolam TabletsNumber of Patients565505565% of Patients Reporting:Central Nervous SystemDrowsiness41.021.615.1Light-headedness20.819.31.2Depression13.918.12.4Headache12.919.61.1Confusion9.910.00.9Insomnia8.918.41.3Nervousness4.110.31.1Syncope3.14.0None reportedDizziness1.80.82.5Akathisia1.61.2Tiredness/Sleepiness1.8GastrointestinalDry Mouth14.713.30.7Constipation10.411.40.9Diarrhea10.110.31.2Nausea/Vomiting9.612.81.7Increased Salivation4.22.4CardiovascularTachycardia/Palpitations7.715.60.4Hypotension4.72.2SensoryBlurred Vision6.26.20.4MusculoskeletalRigidity4.25.3Tremor4.08.80.4CutaneousDermatitis/Allergy3.83.10.6OtherNasal Congestion7.39.3Weight Gain2.72.7Weight Loss2.33.0In addition to the relatively common (ie, greater than 1%) untoward events enumerated in the table above, the following adverse events have been reported in association with the use of benzodiazepines: dystonia, irritability, concentration difficulties, anorexia, transient amnesia or memory impairment, loss of coordination, fatigue, seizures, sedation, slurred speech, jaundice, musculoskeletal weakness, pruritus, diplopia, dysarthria, changes in libido, menstrual irregularities, incontinence and urinary retention.

Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events Reported In Placebo-Controlled Trials Of Panic Disorder

PANIC DISORDERTreatment-Emergent Symptom Incidence


Events reported by 1% or more of Alprazolam Tablets patients are included.Alprazolam TabletsPlaceboNumber of Patients


% of Patients Reporting:


13881231Central Nervous SystemDrowsiness76.842.7Fatigue and Tiredness48.642.3Impaired Coordination40.117.9Irritability33.130.1Memory Impairment33.122.1Light-headedness/Dizziness29.836.9Insomnia29.441.8Headache29.235.6Cognitive Disorder28.820.5Dysarthria23.36.3Anxiety16.624.9Abnormal Involuntary Movement14.821.0Decreased Libido14.48.0Depression13.814.0Confusional State10.48.2Muscular Twitching7.911.8Increased Libido7.74.1Change in Libido (Not Specified)7.15.6Weakness7.18.4Muscle Tone Disorders6.37.5Syncope3.84.8Akathisia3.04.3Agitation2.92.6Disinhibition2.71.5Paresthesia2.43.2Talkativeness2.21.0Vasomotor Disturbances2.02.6Derealization1.91.2Dream Abnormalities1.81.5Fear1.41.0Feeling Warm1.30.5GastrointestinalDecreased Salivation32.834.2Constipation26.215.4Nausea/Vomiting22.031.8Diarrhea20.622.8Abdominal Distress18.321.5Increased Salivation5.64.4Cardio-RespiratoryNasal Congestion17.416.5Tachycardia15.426.8Chest Pain10.618.1Hyperventilation9.714.5Upper Respiratory Infection4.33.7SensoryBlurred Vision21.021.4Tinnitus6.610.4MusculoskeletalMuscular Cramps2.42.4Muscle Stiffness2.23.3CutaneousSweating15.123.5Rash10.88.1OtherIncreased Appetite32.722.8Decreased Appetite27.824.1Weight Gain27.217.9Weight Loss22.616.5Micturition Difficulties12.28.6Menstrual Disorders10.48.7Sexual Dysfunction7.43.7Edema4.95.6Incontinence1.50.6Infection1.31.7In addition to the relatively common (ie, greater than 1%) untoward events enumerated in the table above, the following adverse events have been reported in association with the use of Alprazolam Tablets: seizures, hallucinations, depersonalization, taste alterations, diplopia, elevated bilirubin, elevated hepatic enzymes, and jaundice.Panic disorder has been associated with primary and secondary major depressive disorders and increased reports of suicide among untreated patients (see


PRECAUTIONS, General).

Adverse Events Reported As Reasons For Discontinuation In Treatment Of Panic Disorder In Placebo-Controlled Trials

In a larger database comprised of both controlled and uncontrolled studies in which 641 patients received alprazolam tablets, discontinuation-emergent symptoms which occurred at a rate of over 5% in patients treated with alprazolam tablets and at a greater rate than the placebo treated group were as follows:DISCONTINUATION - EMERGENT SYMPTOM INCIDENCE Percentage of 641 Alprazolam Tablets USP - Treated Panic Disorder Patients Reporting EventsBody System/EventNeurologicGastrointestinalInsomnia29.5Nausea/Vomiting16.5Light-headedness19.3Diarrhea13.6Abnormal involuntary movement17.3Decreased salivation10.6Headache17.0Metabolic-NutritionalMuscular twitching6.9Weight loss13.3Impaired coordination6.6Decreased appetite12.8Muscletone disorders5.9Weakness5.8DermatologicalPsychiatricSweating14.4Anxiety19.2Fatigue and Tiredness18.4CardiovascularIrritability10.5Tachycardia12.2Cognitive disorder10.3Memory impairment5.5Special SensesDepression5.1Blurred vision10.0Confusional state5.0From the studies cited, it has not been determined whether these symptoms are clearly related to the dose and duration of therapy with alprazolam tablets in patients with panic disorder. There have also been reports of withdrawal seizures upon rapid decrease or abrupt discontinuation of alprazolam tablets (see


WARNINGS).


To discontinue treatment in patients taking alprazolam tablets, the dosage should be reduced slowly in keeping with good medical practice. It is suggested that the daily dosage of alprazolam tablets be decreased by no more than 0.5 mg every three days (see


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Some patients may benefit from an even slower dosage reduction. In a controlled postmarketing discontinuation study of panic disorder patients which compared this recommended taper schedule with a slower taper schedule, no difference was observed between the groups in the proportion of patients who tapered to zero dose; however, the slower schedule was associated with a reduction in symptoms associated with a withdrawal syndrome.


As with all benzodiazepines, paradoxical reactions such as stimulation, increased muscle spasticity, sleep disturbances, hallucinations and other adverse behavioral effects such as agitation, rage, irritability, and aggressive or hostile behavior have been reported rarely. In many of the spontaneous case reports of adverse behavioral effects, patients were receiving other CNS drugs concomitantly and/or were described as having underlying psychiatric conditions. Should any of the above events occur, alprazolam should be discontinued. Isolated published reports involving small numbers of patients have suggested that patients who have borderline personality disorder, a prior history of violent or aggressive behavior, or alcohol or substance abuse may be at risk for such events. Instances of irritability, hostility, and intrusive thoughts have been reported during discontinuation of alprazolam in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Post Introduction Reports

Various adverse drug reactions have been reported in association with the use of alprazolam tablets since market introduction. The majority of these reactions were reported through the medical event voluntary reporting system. Because of the spontaneous nature of the reporting of medical events and the lack of controls, a causal relationship to the use of alprazolam tablets cannot be readily determined. Reported events include: gastrointestinal disorder, hypomania, mania, liver enzyme elevations, hepatitis, hepatic failure, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, angioedema, peripheral edema, hyperprolactinemia, gynecomastia, and galactorrhea (see


PRECAUTIONS).

Physical And Psychological Dependence

Withdrawal symptoms similar in character to those noted with sedative/hypnotics and alcohol have occurred following discontinuance of benzodiazepines, including alprazolam tablets. The symptoms can range from mild dysphoria and insomnia to a major syndrome that may include abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, tremors and convulsions. Distinguishing between withdrawal emergent signs and symptoms and the recurrence of illness is often difficult in patients undergoing dose reduction. The long term strategy for treatment of these phenomena will vary with their cause and the therapeutic goal. When necessary, immediate management of withdrawal symptoms requires re-institution of treatment at doses of alprazolam tablets sufficient to suppress symptoms. There have been reports of failure of other benzodiazepines to fully suppress these withdrawal symptoms. These failures have been attributed to incomplete cross- tolerance but may also reflect the use of an inadequate dosing regimen of the substituted benzodiazepine or the effects of concomitant medications.While it is difficult to distinguish withdrawal and recurrence for certain patients, the time course and the nature of the symptoms may be helpful. A withdrawal syndrome typically includes the occurrence of new symptoms, tends to appear toward the end of taper or shortly after discontinuation, and will decrease with time. In recurring panic disorder, symptoms similar to those observed before treatment may recur either early or late, and they will persist.While the severity and incidence of withdrawal phenomena appear to be related to dose and duration of treatment, withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, have been reported after only brief therapy with alprazolam tablets at doses within the recommended range for the treatment of anxiety (eg, 0.75 to 4 mg/day). Signs and symptoms of withdrawal are often more prominent after rapid decrease of dosage or abrupt discontinuance. The risk of withdrawal seizures may be increased at doses above 4 mg/day (see


WARNINGS).


Patients, especially individuals with a history of seizures or epilepsy, should not be abruptly discontinued from any CNS depressant agent, including alprazolam tablets. It is recommended that all patients on alprazolam tablets who require a dosage reduction be gradually tapered under close supervision (see


WARNINGS and


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).


Psychological dependence is a risk with all benzodiazepines, including alprazolam tablets. The risk of psychological dependence may also be increased at doses greater than 4 mg/day and with longer term use, and this risk is further increased in patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse. Some patients have experienced considerable difficulty in tapering and discontinuing from alprazolam tablets, especially those receiving higher doses for extended periods. Addiction-prone individuals should be under careful surveillance when receiving alprazolam tablets. As with all anxiolytics, repeat prescriptions should be limited to those who are under medical supervision.

Controlled Substance Class

Alprazolam is a controlled substance under the Controlled Substance Act by the Drug Enforcement Administration and alprazolam tablets have been assigned to Schedule IV.

Clinical Experience

Manifestations of alprazolam overdosage include somnolence, confusion, impaired coordination, diminished reflexes and coma. Death has been reported in association with overdoses of alprazolam by itself, as it has with other benzodiazepines. In addition, fatalities have been reported in patients who have overdosed with a combination of a single benzodiazepine, including alprazolam, and alcohol; alcohol levels seen in some of these patients have been lower than those usually associated with alcohol-induced fatality.The acute oral LD


50 in rats is 331–2171 mg/kg. Other experiments in animals have indicated that cardiopulmonary collapse can occur following massive intravenous doses of alprazolam (over 195 mg/kg; 975 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 10 mg/day). Animals could be resuscitated with positive mechanical ventilation and the intravenous infusion of norepinephrine bitartrate.


Animal experiments have suggested that forced diuresis or hemodialysis are probably of little value in treating overdosage.

General Treatment Of Overdose

Overdosage reports with alprazolam tablets are limited. As in all cases of drug overdosage, respiration, pulse rate, and blood pressure should be monitored. General supportive measures should be employed, along with immediate gastric lavage. Intravenous fluids should be administered and an adequate airway maintained. If hypotension occurs, it may be combated by the use of vasopressors. Dialysis is of limited value. As with the management of intentional overdosing with any drug, it should be borne in mind that multiple agents may have been ingested.Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected. Prior to the administration of flumazenil, necessary measures should be instituted to secure airway, ventilation and intravenous access. Flumazenil is intended as an adjunct to, not as a substitute for, proper management of benzodiazepine overdose. Patients treated with flumazenil should be monitored for re-sedation, respiratory depression, and other residual benzodiazepine effects for an appropriate period after treatment.


The prescriber should be aware of a risk of seizure in association with flumazenil treatment, particularly in long-term benzodiazepine users and in cyclic antidepressant overdose. The complete flumazenil package insert including


CONTRAINDICATIONS,


WARNINGS and


PRECAUTIONS should be consulted prior to use.

Dosage And Administration

Dosage should be individualized for maximum beneficial effect. While the usual daily dosages given below will meet the needs of most patients, there will be some who require doses greater than 4 mg/day. In such cases, dosage should be increased cautiously to avoid adverse effects.

Anxiety Disorders And Transient Symptoms Of Anxiety

Treatment for patients with anxiety should be initiated with a dose of 0.25 to 0.5 mg given three times daily. The dose may be increased to achieve a maximum therapeutic effect, at intervals of 3 to 4 days, to a maximum daily dose of 4 mg, given in divided doses. The lowest possible effective dose should be employed and the need for continued treatment reassessed frequently. The risk of dependence may increase with dose and duration of treatment.In all patients, dosage should be reduced gradually when discontinuing therapy or when decreasing the daily dosage. Although there are no systematically collected data to support a specific discontinuation schedule, it is suggested that the daily dosage be decreased by no more than 0.5 mg every 3 days. Some patients may require an even slower dosage reduction.

Dose Titration

Treatment may be initiated with a dose of 0.5 mg three times daily. Depending on the response, the dose may be increased at intervals of 3 to 4 days in increments of no more than 1 mg per day. Slower titration to the dose levels greater than 4 mg/day may be advisable to allow full expression of the pharmacodynamic effect of alprazolam tablets. To lessen the possibility of interdose symptoms, the times of administration should be distributed as evenly as possible throughout the waking hours, that is, on a three or four times per day schedule.Generally, therapy should be initiated at a low dose to minimize the risk of adverse responses in patients especially sensitive to the drug. Dose should be advanced until an acceptable therapeutic response (ie, a substantial reduction in or total elimination of panic attacks) is achieved, intolerance occurs, or the maximum recommended dose is attained.

Dose Maintenance

For patients receiving doses greater than 4 mg/day, periodic reassessment and consideration of dosage reduction is advised. In a controlled postmarketing dose-response study, patients treated with doses of alprazolam tablets greater than 4 mg/day for 3 months were able to taper to 50% of their total maintenance dose without apparent loss of clinical benefit. Because of the danger of withdrawal, abrupt discontinuation of treatment should be avoided. (See


WARNINGS,


PRECAUTIONS,


DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE.)


The necessary duration of treatment for panic disorder patients responding to alprazolam tablets is unknown. After a period of extended freedom from attacks, a carefully supervised tapered discontinuation may be attempted, but there is evidence that this may often be difficult to accomplish without recurrence of symptoms and/or the manifestation of withdrawal phenomena.

Dose Reduction

Because of the danger of withdrawal, abrupt discontinuation of treatment should be avoided (see


WARNINGS,


PRECAUTIONS,


DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).


In all patients, dosage should be reduced gradually when discontinuing therapy or when decreasing the daily dosage. Although there are no systematically collected data to support a specific discontinuation schedule, it is suggested that the daily dosage be decreased by no more than 0.5 mg every three days. Some patients may require an even slower dosage reduction.In any case, reduction of dose must be undertaken under close supervision and must be gradual. If significant withdrawal symptoms develop, the previous dosing schedule should be reinstituted and, only after stabilization, should a less rapid schedule of discontinuation be attempted. In a controlled postmarketing discontinuation study of panic disorder patients which compared this recommended taper schedule with a slower taper schedule, no difference was observed between the groups in the proportion of patients who tapered to zero dose; however, the slower schedule was associated with a reduction in symptoms associated with a withdrawal syndrome. It is suggested that the dose be reduced by no more than 0.5 mg every 3 days, with the understanding that some patients may benefit from an even more gradual discontinuation. Some patients may prove resistant to all discontinuation regimens.

Dosing In Special Populations

In elderly patients, in patients with advanced liver disease or in patients with debilitating disease, the usual starting dose is 0.25 mg, given two or three times daily. This may be gradually increased if needed and tolerated. The elderly may be especially sensitive to the effects of benzodiazepines. If side effects occur at the recommended starting dose, the dose may be lowered.

How Supplied

Alprazolam Tablets,USP are available as follows:1 mg (Light blue to blue, oval, biconvex tablets with break line on one side and debossed "B706" on the other side.)
NDC's60760-550-30 BOTTLES OF 30

Storage And Handling

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]Protect from light. Dispense in tight (USP), light-resistant, child-resistant containers.Rx only

Animal Studies

When rats were treated with alprazolam at 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day (15 to 150 times the maximum recommended human dose) orally for 2 years, a tendency for a dose related increase in the number of cataracts was observed in females and a tendency for a dose related increase in corneal vascularization was observed in males. These lesions did not appear until after 11 months of treatment.

Spl Medguide

  • MEDICATION GUIDE
  • Alprazolam Tablets USP C-IV
  • (al pra' zoe lam)
  • What is the most important information I should know about alprazolam tablets?Alprazolam Tablets is a benzodiazepine medicine. Taking benzodiazepines with opioid medicines, alcohol, or other central nervous system depressants (including street drugs) can cause severe drowsiness, breathing problems (respiratory depression), coma and death.Alprazolam Tablets can make you sleepy or dizzy, and can slow your thinking and motor skills.Do not drive, operate heavy machinery, or do other dangerous activities until you know how alprazolam tablets affects you.Do not drink alcohol or take other drugs that may make you sleepy or dizzy while taking alprazolam tablets without first talking to your healthcare provider. When taken with alcohol or drugs that cause sleepiness or dizziness, alprazolam tablets may make your sleepiness or dizziness much worseDo not take more alprazolam tablets than prescribed.What are alprazolam Tablets?Alprazolam Tablets are a prescription medicine used:
  • To treat anxiety disordersfor the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxietyto treat panic disorder with or without a fear of places and situations that might cause panic, helplessness, or embarrassment (agoraphobia)Alprazolam is a federal controlled substance (C-IV) because it can be abused or lead to dependence. Keep alprazolam tablets in a safe place to prevent misuse and abuse. Selling or giving away alprazolam tablets may harm others, and is against the law. Tell your healthcare provider if you have abused or been dependent on alcohol, prescription medicines or street drugs.
  • It is not known if alprazolam tablets are safe and effective in children.Elderly patients are especially susceptible to dose related adverse effects when taking alprazolam tablets.It is not known if alprazolam tablets are safe and effective when used to treat anxiety disorder for longer than 4 months.It is not known if alprazolam tablets are safe and effective when used to treat panic disorder for longer than 10 weeks.Do not take alprazolam tablets if:you are allergic to alprazolam, other benzodiazepines, or any of the ingredients in alprazolam tablets. See the end of this Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in alprazolam tabletsyou are taking antifungal medicines including ketoconazole and itraconazoleBefore you take alprazolam tablets, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:have or have had depression, mood problems, or suicidal thoughts or behaviourhave liver or kidney problemshave lung disease or breathing problemsare pregnant or plan to become pregnant.Alprazolam tablets may harm your unborn baby. You and your healthcare provider should decide if you should take alprazolam tablets while you are pregnant.are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. Alprazolam passes into your breast milk and may harm your baby. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best way to feed your baby if you take alprazolam tablets. You should not breastfeed while taking alprazolam tablets.Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.
  • Taking alprazolam tablets with certain other medicines can cause side effects or affect how well alprazolam tablets or the other medicines work. Do not start or stop other medicines without talking to your healthcare provider.
  • How should I take alprazolam tablets?See "
  • What is the most important information I should know about alprazolam tablets?"
  • Take alprazolam tablets exactly as your healthcare provider tells you to take it. Your healthcare provider will tell you how much alprazolam tablets to take and when to take it.If you take too much alprazolam tablets, call your healthcare provider or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away.What should I avoid while taking alprazolam tablets?Alprazolam Tablets can cause you to be drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate heavy machinery until you know how alprazolam tablets affect you.You should not drink alcohol while taking alprazolam tablets. Drinking alcohol can increase your chances of having serious side effects.What are the possible side effects of alprazolam tablets?
  • Alprazolam Tablets may cause serious side effects, including:
  • See "
  • What is the most important information I should know about alprazolam tablets?"
  • Abuse and dependence. Taking alprazolam tablets can cause physical and psychological dependence. Physical and psychological dependence is not the same as drug addiction. Your healthcare provider can tell you more about the differences between physical and psychological dependence and drug addiction.
  • Withdrawal symptoms. You may have withdrawal symptoms if you stop taking alprazolam tablets suddenly. Withdrawal symptoms can be serious and include seizures. Mild withdrawal symptoms include a depressed mood and trouble sleeping. Talk to your healthcare provider about slowly stopping alprazolam tablets to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
  • Seizures. Stopping alprazolam tablets can cause seizures and seizures that will not stop (status epilepticus).
  • Mania. Alprazolam Tablets may cause an increase in activity and talking (hypomania and mania) in people who have depression.
  • The most common side effects of alprazolam tablets include drowsiness and light-headedness. These are not all the possible side effects of alprazolam tablets. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effect to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
  • How should I store alprazolam tablets?Store alprazolam tablets between 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from light.
  • Dispense in tight (USP), light-resistant, child-resistant containers.
  • Keep alprazolam tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children.General information about the safe and effective use of alprazolam tablets.Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide.Do not use alprazolam tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed.Do not give alprazolam tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about alprazolam tablets that is written for health professionals.For more information, contact Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc. at 1-800-367-3395, or go to www.bpirx.com.
  • What are the ingredients in alprazolam tablets?
  • Active ingredient:
  • Alprazolam
  • Inactive ingredients: Lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, hydroxy propyl cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate. In addition, the 0.5 mg tablet contains FD & C Yellow 6 lake and the 1 mg and 2 mg tablet contains FD & C Blue 2 lake.
  • This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.Revised: 06/2018
  • Manufactured By:
  • Centaur Pharmaceuticals Private Limited
  • Plot no. 4, International Biotech Park, Phase-II,
  • Hinjewadi, Pune, Maharashtra 411057, India.
  • Distributed by:
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.
  • Boca Raton, FL 33487

* Please review the disclaimer below.

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