- Coadministration with Strong CYP3A4 Inducers
Monitor patients for reduced efficacy if NUPLAZID is used concomitantly with strong CYP3A4 inducers; an increase in NUPLAZID dosage may be needed [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation of Treatment
A total of 8% (16/202) of NUPLAZID 34 mg-treated patients and 4% (10/231) of placebo-treated patients discontinued because of adverse reactions. The adverse reactions that occurred in more than one patient and with an incidence at least twice that of placebo were hallucination (2% NUPLAZID vs. <1% placebo), urinary tract infection (1% NUPLAZID vs. <1% placebo), and fatigue (1% NUPLAZID vs. 0% placebo).
Adverse reactions that occurred in 6-week, placebo-controlled studies and that were reported at an incidence of ≥2% and >placebo are presented in Table 1.
Table 1 Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Studies of 6-Week Treatment Duration and Reported in ≥2% and >Placebo
|Percentage of Patients Reporting Adverse Reaction|
|NUPLAZID 34 mg||Placebo|
| Peripheral edema||7%||2%|
| Gait disturbance||2%||<1%|
| Hallucination ||5%||3%|
| Confusional state||6%||3%|
Adverse Reactions in Demographic Subgroups
Examination of population subgroups in the 6-week, placebo-controlled studies did not reveal any differences in safety on the basis of age (≤75 vs. >75 years) or sex. Because the study population was predominantly Caucasian (91%; consistent with reported demographics for PD/PDP), racial or ethnic differences in the safety profile of NUPLAZID could not be assessed. In addition, in the 6-week, placebo-controlled studies, no clinically relevant differences in the incidence of adverse reactions were observed among those with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score at entry of <25 versus those with scores ≥25.
There are no data on NUPLAZID use in pregnant women that would allow assessment of the drug-associated risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were seen when pimavanserin was administered orally to rats or rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 10- or 12-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 34 mg/day, respectively. Administration of pimavanserin to pregnant rats during pregnancy and lactation resulted in maternal toxicity and lower pup survival and body weight at doses which are 2-times the MRHD of 34 mg/day [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Pimavanserin was not teratogenic in pregnant rats when administered during the period of organogenesis at oral doses of 0.9, 8.5, and 51 mg/kg/day, which are 0.2- and 10-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 34 mg/day based on AUC at mid and high doses, respectively. Maternal toxicity included reduction in body weight and food consumption at the highest dose.
Administration of pimavanserin to pregnant rats during pregnancy and lactation at oral doses of 8.5, 26, and 51 mg/kg/day, which are 0.14- to 14-times the MRHD of 34 mg/day based on AUC, caused maternal toxicity, including mortality, clinical signs including dehydration, hunched posture, and rales, and decreases in body weight, and/or food consumption at doses ≥26 mg/kg/day (2-times the MRHD based on AUC). At these maternally toxic doses there was a decrease in pup survival, reduced litter size, and reduced pup weights, and food consumption. Pimavanserin had no effect on sexual maturation, neurobehavioral function including learning and memory, or reproductive function in the first generation pups up to 14-times the MRHD of 34 mg/day based on AUC.
Pimavanserin was not teratogenic in pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis at oral doses of 4.3, 43, and 85 mg/kg/day, which are 0.2- to 12-times the MRHD of 34 mg/day based on AUC. Maternal toxicity, including mortality, clinical signs of dyspnea and rales, decreases in body weight and/or food consumption, and abortions occurred at doses 12-times the MRHD of 34 mg/day based on AUC.
There is no information regarding the presence of pimavanserin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for NUPLAZID and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from NUPLAZID or from the underlying maternal condition.
The effect of NUPLAZID on the QTc interval was evaluated in a randomized placebo- and positive-controlled double-blind, multiple-dose parallel thorough QTc study in 252 healthy subjects. A central tendency analysis of the QTc data at steady-state demonstrated that the maximum mean change from baseline (upper bound of the two-sided 90% CI) was 13.5 (16.6) msec at a dose of twice the therapeutic dose. A pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic analysis with NUPLAZID suggested a concentration-dependent QTc interval prolongation in the therapeutic range.
In the 6-week, placebo-controlled effectiveness studies, mean increases in QTc interval of ~5-8 msec were observed in patients receiving once-daily doses of NUPLAZID 34 mg. These data are consistent with the profile observed in a thorough QT study in healthy subjects. Sporadic QTcF values ≥500 msec and change from baseline values ≥60 msec were observed in subjects treated with NUPLAZID 34 mg; although the incidence was generally similar for NUPLAZID and placebo groups. There were no reports of torsade de pointes or any differences from placebo in the incidence of other adverse reactions associated with delayed ventricular repolarization in studies of NUPLAZID, including those patients with hallucinations and delusions associated with PDP [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
The median Tmax of pimavanserin was 6 (range 4-24) hours and was generally unaffected by dose. The bioavailability of pimavanserin oral tablet and pimavanserin solution was essentially identical. The formation of the major circulating N-desmethylated metabolite AC-279 (active) from pimavanserin occurs with a median Tmax of 6 hours.
Ingestion of a high-fat meal had no significant effect on rate (Cmax) and extent (AUC) of pimavanserin exposure. Cmax decreased by about 9% while AUC increased by about 8% with a high-fat meal.
Pimavanserin is highly protein bound (~95%) in human plasma. Protein binding appeared to be dose-independent and did not change significantly over dosing time from Day 1 to Day 14. Following administration of a single dose of NUPLAZID (34 mg), the mean (SD) apparent volume of distribution was 2173 (307) L.
Pimavanserin is predominantly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and to a lesser extent by CYP2J2, CYP2D6, and various other CYP and FMO enzymes. CYP3A4 is the major enzyme responsible for the formation of its major active metabolite (AC-279). Pimavanserin does not cause clinically significant CYP inhibition or induction of CYP3A4. Based on in vitro data, pimavanserin is not an irreversible inhibitor of any of the major hepatic and intestinal human CYP enzymes involved in drug metabolism (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4).
Based on in vitro studies, transporters play no significant role in the disposition of pimavanserin.
AC-279 is neither a reversible or irreversible (metabolism-dependent) inhibitor of any of the major hepatic and intestinal human CYP enzymes involved in drug metabolism (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4). AC-279 does not cause clinically significant CYP3A induction and is not predicted to cause induction of any other CYP enzymes involved in drug metabolism.
Approximately 0.55% of the 34 mg oral dose of 14C-pimavanserin was eliminated as unchanged drug in urine and 1.53% was eliminated in feces after 10 days.
Less than 1% of the administered dose of pimavanserin and its active metabolite AC-279 were recovered in urine.
Population PK analysis indicated that age, sex, ethnicity, and weight do not have clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of pimavanserin. In addition, the analysis indicated that exposure of pimavanserin in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment was similar to exposure in patients with normal renal function.
The effects of other intrinsic factors on pimavanserin pharmacokinetics is shown in Figure 1 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)].
Figure 1 Effects of Intrinsic Factors on Pimavanserin Pharmacokinetics
*Less than 10% of the administered dose of NUPLAZID was recovered in the dialysate.
Drug Interaction Studies
CYP3A4 Inhibitor: ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, increased pimavanserin Cmax by 1.5-fold and AUC by 3-fold [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Drug Interactions (7.1)].
The effect of pimavanserin on other drugs is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Effects of Pimavanserin on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Drugs
Motor Function in Patients with Hallucinations and Delusions Associated with Parkinson's Disease Psychosis
NUPLAZID 34 mg did not show an effect compared to placebo on motor function, as measured using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Parts II and III (UPDRS Parts II+III) (Figure 5). A negative change in score indicates improvement. The UPDRS Parts II+III was used to assess the patient's Parkinson's disease state during the 6-week double-blind treatment period. The UPDRS score was calculated as the sum of the 40 items from activities of daily living and motor examination, with a range of 0 to 160.
|LSM: least-squares mean; SE: standard error. The error bars extend one SE below the LSM.|
|Figure 5 Motor Function Change from Baseline to Week 6 in UPDRS Parts II+III (LSM - SE)|
17 mg Tablet:
White to off-white, round, coated tablet debossed with "P" on one side and "17" on the reverse.
Bottle of 60: NDC 63090-170-60
Advise patients to inform their healthcare providers if there are any changes to their current prescription or over-the-counter medications, since there is a potential for drug interactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Drug Interactions (7)].
ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Inc.
San Diego, CA 92130 USA
NUPLAZID® is a trademark of ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Inc.
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