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Labetalol hydrochloride (HCl) is an adrenergic receptor blocking agent that has both selective alpha1-adrenergic and nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking actions in a single substance. Labetalol HCl is a racemate chemically designated as 2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl]benzamide monohydrochloride, and it has the following structure:Labetalol HCl has the empirical formula C19H24N2O3•HCl and a molecular weight of 364.9. It has two asymmetric centers and therefore exists as a molecular complex of two diastereoisomeric pairs. Dilevalol, the R,R’ stereoisomer, makes up 25% of racemic labetalol. Labetalol HCl is a white or off-white crystalline powder, soluble in water. Labetalol Hydrochloride Tablets, USP for oral administration contain 100 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg of labetalol HCl. Each tablet also contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch, purified water, and titanium dioxide. Labetalol HCl Tablets, USP 100 mg also contain synthetic red iron oxide and synthetic yellow iron oxide. Labetalol HCl Tablets, USP 300 mg also contain FD & C blue No. 2 aluminum lake.
Labetalol HCl combines both selective, competitive, alpha1-adrenergic blocking and nonselective, competitive, beta-adrenergic blocking activity in a single substance. In man, the ratios of alpha- to beta-blockade have been estimated to be approximately 1:3 and 1:7 following oral and intravenous (IV) administration, respectively. Beta2-agonist activity has been demonstrated in animals with minimal beta1-agonist (ISA) activity detected. In animals, at doses greater than those required for alpha-or beta-adrenergic blockade, a membrane stabilizing effect has been demonstrated.
Indications And Usage
Labetalol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated in the management of hypertension. Labetalol hydrochloride tablets, USP may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide and loop diuretics.
Labetalol HCl tablets are contraindicated in bronchial asthma, overt cardiac failure, greater-than-first-degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, severe bradycardia, other conditions associated with severe and prolonged hypotension, and in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of the product (see WARNINGS).Beta-blockers, even those with apparent cardioselectivity, should not be used in patients with a history of obstructive airway disease, including asthma.
Hepatic Injury: Severe hepatocellular injury, confirmed by rechallenge in at least one case, occurs rarely with labetalol therapy. The hepatic injury is usually reversible, but hepatic necrosis and death have been reported. Injury has occurred after both short- and long-term treatment and may be slowly progressive despite minimal symptomatology. Similar hepatic events have been reported with a related research compound, dilevalol HCl, including two deaths. Dilevalol HCl is one of the four isomers of labetalol HCl. Thus, for patients taking labetalol, periodic determination of suitable hepatic laboratory tests would be appropriate. Appropriate laboratory testing should be done at the first symptom/sign of liver dysfunction (e.g., pruritus, dark urine, persistent anorexia, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, or unexplained “flu-like” symptoms). If the patient has laboratory evidence of liver injury or jaundice, labetalol should be stopped and not restarted.Cardiac Failure: Sympathetic stimulation is a vital component supporting circulatory function in congestive heart failure. Beta-blockade carries a potential hazard of further depressing myocardial contractility and precipitating more severe failure. Although beta-blockers should be avoided in overt congestive heart failure, if necessary, labetalol HCl can be used with caution in patients with a history of heart failure who are well compensated. Congestive heart failure has been observed in patients receiving labetalol HCl. Labetalol HCl does not abolish the inotropic action of digitalis on heart muscle.In Patients Without a History of Cardiac Failure: In patients with latent cardiac insufficiency, continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blocking agents over a period of time can, in some cases, lead to cardiac failure. At the first sign or symptom of impending cardiac failure, patients should be fully digitalized and/or be given a diuretic, and the response should be observed closely. If cardiac failure continues despite adequate digitalization and diuretic, therapy with labetalol HCl tablets should be withdrawn (gradually, if possible).Exacerbation of Ischemic Heart Disease Following Abrupt Withdrawal: Angina pectoris has not been reported upon labetalol HCl discontinuation. However, hypersensitivity to catecholamines has been observed in patients withdrawn from beta-blocker therapy; exacerbation of angina and, in some cases, myocardial infarction have occurred after abrupt discontinuation of such therapy. When discontinuing chronically administered labetalol HCl tablets, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of 1 to 2 weeks and the patient should be carefully monitored. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, therapy with labetalol HCl tablets should be reinstituted promptly, at least temporarily, and other measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina should be taken. Patients should be warned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, it may be prudent not to discontinue therapy with labetalol HCl tablets abruptly in patients being treated for hypertension.Nonallergic Bronchospasm (e.g., Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema): Patients with bronchospastic disease should, in general, not receive beta-blockers. Labetalol HCl tablets may be used with caution, however, in patients who do not respond to, or cannot tolerate, other antihypertensive agents. It is prudent, if labetalol HCl tablets are used, to use the smallest effective dose, so that inhibition of endogenous or exogenous beta-agonists is minimized.Pheochromocytoma: Labetalol HCl has been shown to be effective in lowering blood pressure and relieving symptoms in patients with pheochromocytoma. However, paradoxical hypertensive responses have been reported in a few patients with this tumor; therefore, use caution when administering labetalol HCl to patients with pheochromocytoma.Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia: Beta-adrenergic blockade may prevent the appearance of premonitory signs and symptoms (e.g., tachycardia) of acute hypoglycemia. This is especially important with labile diabetics. Beta-blockade also reduces the release of insulin in response to hyperglycemia; it may therefore be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic drugs.Major Surgery: Do not routinely withdraw chronic beta blocker therapy prior to surgery. The effect of labetalol’s alpha adrenergic activity has not been evaluated in this setting.A synergism between labetalol HCl and halothane anesthesia has been shown (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Impaired Hepatic Function: Labetalol HCl tablets should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function since metabolism of the drug may be diminished.Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome (IFIS) has been observed during cataract surgery in some patients treated with alpha-1 blockers (labetalol is an alpha/beta blocker). This variant of small pupil syndrome is characterized by the combination of a flaccid iris that billows in response to intraoperative irrigation currents, progressive intraoperative miosis despite preoperative dilation with standard mydriatic drugs, and potential prolapse of the iris toward the phacoemulsification incisions. The patient’s ophthalmologist should be prepared for possible modifications to the surgical technique, such as the utilization of iris hooks, iris dilator rings, or viscoelastic substances. There does not appear to be a benefit of stopping alpha-1 blocker therapy prior to cataract surgery.Jaundice or Hepatic Dysfunction: (see WARNINGS).
Most adverse effects are mild and transient and occur early in the course of treatment. In controlled clinical trials of 3 to 4 months’ duration, discontinuation of labetalol HCl tablets due to one or more adverse effects was required in 7% of all patients. In these same trials, other agents with solely beta-blocking activity used in the control groups led to discontinuation in 8% to 10% of patients, and a centrally acting alpha-agonist led to discontinuation in 30% of patients.The incidence rates of adverse reactions listed in the following table were derived from multicenter, controlled clinical trials comparing labetalol HCl placebo, metoprolol, and propranolol over treatment periods of 3 and 4 months. Where the frequency of adverse effects for labetalol HCl and placebo is similar, causal relationship is uncertain. The rates are based on adverse reactions considered probably drug related by the investigator. If all reports are considered, the rates are somewhat higher (e.g., dizziness, 20%; nausea, 14%; fatigue, 11%), but the overall conclusions are unchanged. Labetalol HCl(N=227)% Placebo(N=98)% Propranolol(N=84)% Metoprolol(N=49)% Body as a whole Fatigue 5 0 12 12 Asthenia 1 1 1 0 Headache 2 1 1 2 Gastrointestinal Nausea 6 1 1 2 Vomiting <1 0 0 0 Dyspepsia 3 1 1 0 Abdominal pain 0 0 1 2 Diarrhea <1 0 2 0 Taste distortion 1 0 0 0 Central and peripheral nervous systems Dizziness 11 3 4 4 Paresthesia <1 0 0 0 Drowsiness <1 2 2 2 Autonomic nervous system Nasal stuffiness 3 0 0 0 Ejaculation failure 2 0 0 0 Impotence 1 0 1 3 Increased sweating <1 0 0 0 Cardiovascular Edema 1 0 0 0 Postural hypotension 1 0 0 0 Bradycardia 0 0 5 12 Respiratory Dyspnea 2 0 1 2 Skin Rash 1 0 0 0 Special senses Vision abnormality 1 0 0 0 Vertigo 2 1 0 0The adverse effects were reported spontaneously and are representative of the incidence of adverse effects that may be observed in a properly selected hypertensive patient population, i.e., a group excluding patients with bronchospastic disease, overt congestive heart failure, or other contraindications to beta-blocker therapy.Clinical trials also included studies utilizing daily doses up to 2,400 mg in more severely hypertensive patients. Certain of the side effects increased with increasing dose, as shown in the following table that depicts the entire U.S. therapeutic trials data base for adverse reactions that are clearly or possibly dose related. Labetalol HClDaily Dose (mg) 200 300 400 600 800 900 1,200 1,600 2,400 Number of patients 522 181 606 608 503 117 411 242 175 Dizziness (%) 2 3 3 3 5 1 9 13 16 Fatigue 2 1 4 4 5 3 7 6 10 Nausea <1 0 1 2 4 0 7 11 19 Vomiting 0 0 <1 <1 <1 0 1 2 3 Dyspepsia 1 0 2 1 1 0 2 2 4 Paresthesia 2 0 2 2 1 1 2 5 5 Nasal stuffiness 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 5 6 Ejaculation failure 0 2 1 2 3 0 4 3 5 Impotence 1 1 1 1 2 4 3 4 3 Edema 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 2In addition, a number of other less common adverse events have been reported:Body as a Whole: Fever.Cardiovascular: Hypotension, and rarely, syncope, bradycardia, heart block.Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems: Paresthesia, most frequently described as scalp tingling. In most cases, it was mild and transient and usually occurred at the beginning of treatment.Collagen Disorders: Systemic lupus erythematosus, positive antinuclear factor.Eyes: Dry eyes.Immunological System: Antimitochondrial antibodies.Liver and Biliary System: Hepatic necrosis, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, elevated liver function tests.Musculoskeletal System: Muscle cramps, toxic myopathy.Respiratory System: Bronchospasm.Skin and Appendages: Rashes of various types, such as generalized maculopapular, lichenoid, urticarial, bullous lichen planus, psoriasform, and facial erythema; Peyronie’s disease; reversible alopecia.Urinary System: Difficulty in micturition, including acute urinary bladder retention.Hypersensitivity: Rare reports of hypersensitivity (e.g., rash, urticaria, pruritus, angioedema, dyspnea) and anaphylactoid reactions.Following approval for marketing in the United Kingdom, a monitored release survey involving approximately 6,800 patients was conducted for further safety and efficacy evaluation of this product. Results of this survey indicate that the type, severity, and incidence of adverse effects were comparable to those cited above.
Overdosage with labetalol HCl causes excessive hypotension that is posture sensitive and, sometimes, excessive bradycardia. Patients should be placed supine and their legs raised if necessary to improve the blood supply to the brain. If overdosage with labetalol HCl follows oral ingestion, gastric lavage or pharmacologically induced emesis (using syrup of ipecac) may be useful for removal of the drug shortly after ingestion. The following additional measures should be employed if necessary: Excessive bradycardia—administer atropine or epinephrine. Cardiac failure—administer a digitalis glycoside and a diuretic. Dopamine or dobutamine may also be useful. Hypotension—administer vasopressors, e.g., norepinephrine. There is pharmacologic evidence that norepinephrine may be the drug of choice. Bronchospasm—administer epinephrine and/or an aerosolized beta2-agonist. Seizures—administer diazepam.In severe beta-blocker overdose resulting in hypotension and/or bradycardia, glucagon has been shown to be effective when administered in large doses (5 to 10 mg rapidly over 30 seconds, followed by continuous infusion of 5 mg per hour that can be reduced as the patient improves).Neither hemodialysis nor peritoneal dialysis removes a significant amount of labetalol HCl from the general circulation (less than 1%).The oral LD50 value of labetalol HCl in the mouse is approximately 600 mg/kg and in the rat greater than 2 g/kg. The IV LD50 in these species is 50 to 60 mg/kg.
Dosage And Administration
DOSAGE MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED. The recommended initial dosage is 100 mg twice daily whether used alone or added to a diuretic regimen. After 2 or 3 days, using standing blood pressure as an indicator, dosage may be titrated in increments of 100 mg b.i.d. every 2 or 3 days. The usual maintenance dosage of labetalol HCl is between 200 and 400 mg twice daily.Since the full antihypertensive effect of labetalol HCl is usually seen within the first 1 to 3 hours of the initial dose or dose increment, the assurance of a lack of an exaggerated hypotensive response can be clinically established in the office setting. The antihypertensive effects of continued dosing can be measured at subsequent visits, approximately 12 hours after a dose, to determine whether further titration is necessary.Patients with severe hypertension may require from 1,200 to 2,400 mg per day, with or without thiazide diuretics. Should side effects (principally nausea or dizziness) occur with these doses administered twice daily, the same total daily dose administered three times daily may improve tolerability and facilitate further titration. Titration increments should not exceed 200 mg twice daily.When a diuretic is added, an additive antihypertensive effect can be expected. In some cases this may necessitate a labetalol HCl dosage adjustment. As with most antihypertensive drugs, optimal dosages of labetalol HCl tablets are usually lower in patients also receiving a diuretic.When transferring patients from other antihypertensive drugs, labetalol HCl tablets should be introduced as recommended and the dosage of the existing therapy progressively decreased.Elderly Patients: As in the general patient population, labetalol therapy may be initiated at 100 mg twice daily and titrated upwards in increments of 100 mg b.i.d. as required for control of blood pressure. Since some elderly patients eliminate labetalol more slowly, however, adequate control of blood pressure may be achieved at a lower maintenance dosage compared to the general population. The majority of elderly patients will require between 100 and 200 mg b.i.d.
Product: 63629-5268NDC: 63629-5268-2 90 TABLET, FILM COATED in a BOTTLENDC: 63629-5268-1 30 TABLET, FILM COATED in a BOTTLENDC: 63629-5268-3 60 TABLET, FILM COATED in a BOTTLEProduct: 63629-7070
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