NDC 68788-9925 Fluticasone Propionate

Fluticasone Propionate

NDC Product Code 68788-9925

NDC CODE: 68788-9925

Proprietary Name: Fluticasone Propionate What is the Proprietary Name?
The proprietary name also known as the trade name is the name of the product chosen by the medication labeler for marketing purposes.

Non-Proprietary Name: Fluticasone Propionate What is the Non-Proprietary Name?
The non-proprietary name is sometimes called the generic name. The generic name usually includes the active ingredient(s) of the product.

Drug Use Information

Drug Use Information
The drug use information is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of a health care professional. Always ask a health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

  • Fluticasone is used to relieve seasonal and year-round allergic and non-allergic nasal symptoms, such as stuffy/runny nose, itching, and sneezing. It can also help relieve allergy eye symptoms such as itchy, watery eyes. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. It works in your nose to block the effects of substances that cause allergies (such as pollen, pet dander, dust mites, mold) and to reduce swelling.

NDC Code Structure

  • 68788 - Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
    • 68788-9925 - Fluticasone Propionate

NDC Product Information

Fluticasone Propionate with NDC 68788-9925 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. The generic name of Fluticasone Propionate is fluticasone propionate. The product's dosage form is spray, metered and is administered via nasal form. The RxNorm Crosswalk for this NDC code indicates a single RxCUI concept is associated to this product: 1797907.

Dosage Form: Spray, Metered - A non-pressurized dosage form consisting of valves which allow the dispensing of a specified quantity of spray upon each activation.

Product Type: Human Prescription Drug What kind of product is this?
Indicates the type of product, such as Human Prescription Drug or Human Over the Counter Drug. This data element matches the “Document Type” field of the Structured Product Listing.

Fluticasone Propionate Active Ingredient(s)

What is the Active Ingredient(s) List?
This is the active ingredient list. Each ingredient name is the preferred term of the UNII code submitted.


Inactive Ingredient(s)

About the Inactive Ingredient(s)
The inactive ingredients are all the component of a medicinal product OTHER than the active ingredient(s). The acronym "UNII" stands for “Unique Ingredient Identifier” and is used to identify each inactive ingredient present in a product.

  • BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: F5UM2KM3W7)
  • CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUM, UNSPECIFIED FORM (UNII: K679OBS311)
  • DEXTROSE, UNSPECIFIED FORM (UNII: IY9XDZ35W2)
  • CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE (UNII: OP1R32D61U)
  • PHENYLETHYL ALCOHOL (UNII: ML9LGA7468)
  • POLYSORBATE 80 (UNII: 6OZP39ZG8H)
  • WATER (UNII: 059QF0KO0R)

Administration Route(s)

What are the Administration Route(s)?
The translation of the route code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration.

  • Nasal - Administration to the nose; administered by way of the nose.

Pharmacological Class(es)

What is a Pharmacological Class?
These are the reported pharmacological class categories corresponding to the SubstanceNames listed above.

  • Corticosteroid - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)
  • Corticosteroid Hormone Receptor Agonists - [MoA] (Mechanism of Action)

Product Labeler Information

What is the Labeler Name?
Name of Company corresponding to the labeler code segment of the Product NDC.

Labeler Name: Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Labeler Code: 68788
FDA Application Number: ANDA077570 What is the FDA Application Number?
This corresponds to the NDA, ANDA, or BLA number reported by the labeler for products which have the corresponding Marketing Category designated. If the designated Marketing Category is OTC Monograph Final or OTC Monograph Not Final, then the Application number will be the CFR citation corresponding to the appropriate Monograph (e.g. “part 341”). For unapproved drugs, this field will be null.

Marketing Category: ANDA - A product marketed under an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application. What is the Marketing Category?
Product types are broken down into several potential Marketing Categories, such as NDA/ANDA/BLA, OTC Monograph, or Unapproved Drug. One and only one Marketing Category may be chosen for a product, not all marketing categories are available to all product types. Currently, only final marketed product categories are included. The complete list of codes and translations can be found at www.fda.gov/edrls under Structured Product Labeling Resources.

Start Marketing Date: 01-18-2012 What is the Start Marketing Date?
This is the date that the labeler indicates was the start of its marketing of the drug product.

Listing Expiration Date: 12-31-2022 What is the Listing Expiration Date?
This is the date when the listing record will expire if not updated or certified by the product labeler.

Exclude Flag: N - NO What is the NDC Exclude Flag?
This field indicates whether the product has been removed/excluded from the NDC Directory for failure to respond to FDA"s requests for correction to deficient or non-compliant submissions ("Y"), or because the listing certification is expired ("E"), or because the listing data was inactivated by FDA ("I"). Values = "Y", "N", "E", or "I".

* Please review the disclaimer below.

Information for Patients

Fluticasone Nasal Spray

Fluticasone Nasal Spray is pronounced as (floo tik' a sone)

Why is fluticasone nasal spray medication prescribed?
Fluticasone nasal spray is used to relieve sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies (caused by an allergy to p...
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* Please review the disclaimer below.

Fluticasone Propionate Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

1 Indications And Usage

Fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP is indicated for the management of the nasal symptoms of perennial nonallergic rhinitis in adult and pediatric patients aged 4 years and older.

2 Dosage And Administration

Administer fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP by the intranasal route only. Prime fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP before using for the first time or after a period of non-use (1 week or more) by shaking the contents well and releasing 6 sprays into the air away from the face. Shake fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP gently before each use.Patients should use fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP at regular intervals since its effectiveness depends on its regular use. Maximum effect may take several days and individual patients will experience a variable time to onset and different degree of symptom relief.

2.1 Adults

The recommended starting dosage in adults is 2 sprays (50 mcg of fluticasone propionate each) in each nostril once daily (total daily dose, 200 mcg). The same total daily dose, 1 spray in each nostril administered twice daily (e.g., 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.) is also effective. After the first few days, patients may be able to reduce their dose to 1 spray in each nostril once daily for maintenance therapy.Maximum total daily doses should not exceed 2 sprays in each nostril (total dose, 200 mcg/day). There is no evidence that exceeding the recommended dose is more effective.

2.2 Adolescents And Children (Aged 4 Years And Older)

The recommended starting dosage in adolescents and children, aged 4 years and older is 1 spray in each nostril once daily (total daily dose, 100 mcg). Patients not adequately responding to 1 spray in each nostril may use 2 sprays in each nostril once daily (total daily dose, 200 mcg). Once adequate control is achieved, the dosage should be decreased to 1 spray in each nostril once daily.The maximum total daily dosage should not exceed 2 sprays in each nostril (200 mcg/day). There is no evidence that exceeding the recommended dose is more effective.

3 Dosage Forms And Strengths

Fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP is a nasal spray suspension. Each 100-mg spray delivers 50 mcg of fluticasone propionate.

4 Contraindications

Fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to any of its ingredients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Description (11)].

5.1 Local Nasal Effects

EpistaxisIn clinical trials of 2 to 26 weeks’ duration, epistaxis was observed more frequently in subjects treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP than those who received placebo [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].Nasal UlcerationPostmarketing cases of nasal ulceration have been reported in patients treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].Candida InfectionIn clinical trials with fluticasone propionate administered intranasally, the development of localized infections of the nose and pharynx with Candida albicans has occurred. When such an infection develops, it may require treatment with appropriate local therapy and discontinuation of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP. Patients using fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP over several months or longer should be examined periodically for evidence of Candida infection or other signs of adverse effects on the nasal mucosa.Nasal Septal PerforationPostmarketing cases of nasal septal perforation have been reported in patients treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].Impaired Wound HealingBecause of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing, patients who have experienced recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should avoid using fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP until healing has occurred.

5.2 Glaucoma And Cataracts

Use of intranasal and inhaled corticosteroids may result in the development of glaucoma and/or cataracts. Therefore, close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts.

5.3 Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis

Hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, contact dermatitis, and rash) have been reported after administration of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP. Discontinue fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP if such reactions occur [see Contraindications (4)]. Rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after the administration of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP.

5.4 Immunosuppression

Persons who are using drugs that suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In such children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If a patient is exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If a patient is exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the complete prescribing information for VZIG and IG.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.Intranasal corticosteroids should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculous infections of the respiratory tract; systemic fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex.

5.5 Hypercorticism And Adrenal Suppression

When intranasal corticosteroids are used at higher than recommended dosages or in susceptible individuals at recommended dosages, systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression may appear. If such changes occur, the dosage of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP should be discontinued slowly consistent with accepted procedures for discontinuing oral corticosteroid therapy.The replacement of a systemic corticosteroid with a topical corticosteroid can be accompanied by signs of adrenal insufficiency. In addition, some patients may experience symptoms of corticosteroid withdrawal (e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, depression). Patients previously treated for prolonged periods with systemic corticosteroids and transferred to topical corticosteroids should be carefully monitored for acute adrenal insufficiency in response to stress. In patients who have asthma or other clinical conditions requiring long-term systemic corticosteroid treatment, rapid decreases in systemic corticosteroid dosages may cause a severe exacerbation of their symptoms.

5.6 Drug Interactions With Strong Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors

The use of strong cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir, ketoconazole, telithromycin, conivaptan, lopinavir, nefazodone, voriconazole) with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP is not recommended because increased systemic corticosteroid adverse effects may occur [see Drug Interactions (7.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5.7 Effect On Growth

Intranasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Monitor the growth routinely of pediatric patients receiving fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP. To minimize the systemic effects of intranasal corticosteroids, including fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP, titrate each patient’s dose to the lowest dosage that effectively controls his/her symptoms [see Dosage and Administration (2), Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

6 Adverse Reactions

  • Systemic and local corticosteroid use may result in the following: •Epistaxis, nasal ulceration, Candida albicans infection, nasal septal perforation, and impaired wound healing [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] •Cataracts and glaucoma [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] •Immunosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] •Hypercorticism and adrenal suppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] •Effect on growth [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.In controlled U.S. clinical trials, more than 3,300 subjects with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis received treatment with intranasal fluticasone propionate. In general, adverse reactions in clinical trials have been primarily associated with irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, and the adverse reactions were reported with approximately the same frequency by subjects treated with placebo. Less than 2% of subjects in clinical trials discontinued because of adverse reactions; this rate was similar for vehicle placebo and active comparators.The safety data described below are based on 7 placebo-controlled clinical trials in subjects with allergic rhinitis. The 7 trials included 536 subjects (57 girls and 108 boys aged 4 to 11 years, 137 female and 234 male adolescents and adults) treated with fluticasone propionate 200 mcg once daily over 2 to 4 weeks and 2 placebo-controlled clinical trials which included 246 subjects (119 female and 127 male adolescents and adults) treated with fluticasone propionate 200 mcg once daily over 6 months (Table 1). Also included in Table 1 are adverse reactions from 2 trials in which 167 children (45 girls and 122 boys aged 4 to 11 years) were treated with fluticasone propionate 100 mcg once daily for 2 to 4 weeks.Table 1. Adverse Reactions with Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP with >3% Incidence and More Common than Placebo in Subjects ≥4 Years with Allergic RhinitisAdverse ReactionFluticasone Propionate 100 mcgOnce Daily(n = 167)%Fluticasone Propionate 200 mcgOnce Daily(n = 782)%Placebo(n = 758)%HeadachePharyngitisEpistaxisNasal burning/nasal irritationNausea/vomitingAsthma symptomsCough6.66.06.02.44.87.23.616.17.86.93.22.63.33.814.67.25.42.62.02.92.8Other adverse reactions with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP observed with an incidence less than or equal to 3% but greater than or equal to 1% and more common than with placebo included: blood in nasal mucus, runny nose, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, flu-like symptoms, aches and pains, dizziness, and bronchitis.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

In addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, the following adverse events have been identified during postapproval use of intranasal fluticasone propionate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or causal connection to fluticasone propionate or a combination of these factors.General Disorders and Administration Site ConditionsHypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema, skin rash, edema of the face and tongue, pruritus, urticaria, bronchospasm, wheezing, dyspnea, and anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions, which in rare instances were severe.Ear and Labyrinth DisordersAlteration or loss of sense of taste and/or smell and, rarely, nasal septal perforation, nasal ulcer, sore throat, throat irritation and dryness, cough, hoarseness, and voice changes.Eye DisordersDryness and irritation, conjunctivitis, blurred vision, glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and cataracts.Cases of growth suppression have been reported for intranasal corticosteroids, including fluticasone propionate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

7.1 Inhibitors Of Cytochrome P450 3A4

Fluticasone propionate is a substrate of CYP3A4. The use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir, ketoconazole, telithromycin, conivaptan, lopinavir, nefazodone, voriconazole) with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP is not recommended because increased systemic corticosteroid adverse effects may occur.RitonavirA drug interaction trial with fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray in healthy subjects has shown that ritonavir (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) can significantly increase plasma fluticasone propionate exposure, resulting in significantly reduced serum cortisol concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. During postmarketing use, there have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving fluticasone propionate products, including fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP, with ritonavir, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including Cushing’s syndrome and adrenal suppression.KetoconazoleCoadministration of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (1,000 mcg) and ketoconazole (200 mg once daily) resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in plasma fluticasone propionate exposure and a 45% decrease in plasma cortisol area under the curve (AUC), but had no effect on urinary excretion of cortisol.

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic EffectsPregnancy Category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled trials with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP in pregnant women. Corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered systemically at relatively low dosage levels. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Women should be advised to contact their physicians if they become pregnant while taking fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP.Mice and rats at fluticasone propionate doses approximately 1 and 4 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) for adults (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal subcutaneous doses of 45 and 100 mcg/kg/day, respectively) showed fetal toxicity characteristic of potent corticosteroid compounds, including embryonic growth retardation, omphalocele, cleft palate, and retarded cranial ossification. No teratogenicity was seen in rats at doses up to 3 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal inhalation doses up to 68.7 mcg/kg/day).In rabbits, fetal weight reduction and cleft palate were observed at a fluticasone propionate dose approximately 0.3 times the MRHDID for adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 4 mcg/kg/day). However, no teratogenic effects were reported at fluticasone propionate doses up to approximately 20 times the MRHDID for adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose up to 300 mcg/kg/day). No fluticasone propionate was detected in the plasma in this study, consistent with the established low bioavailability following oral administration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].Fluticasone propionate crossed the placenta following subcutaneous administration to mice and rats and oral administration to rabbits.Experience with oral corticosteroids since their introduction in pharmacologic, as opposed to physiologic, doses suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans. In addition, because there is a natural increase in corticosteroid production during pregnancy, most women will require a lower exogenous corticosteroid dose and many will not need corticosteroid treatment during pregnancy.Nonteratogenic EffectsHypoadrenalism may occur in infants born of mothers receiving corticosteroids during pregnancy. Such infants should be carefully monitored.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether fluticasone propionate is excreted in human breast milk. However, other corticosteroids have been detected in human milk. Subcutaneous administration to lactating rats of tritiated fluticasone propionate at a dose approximately 0.4 times the MRHDID for adults on a mg/m2 basis resulted in measurable radioactivity in milk.Since there are no data from controlled trials on the use of intranasal fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP by nursing mothers, caution should be exercised when fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP is administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP in children aged 4 years and older have been established [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].Six hundred fifty (650) subjects aged 4 to 11 years and 440 subjects aged 12 to 17 years were studied in US clinical trials with fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The safety and effectiveness of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP in children younger than 4 years have not been established.Effects on GrowthControlled clinical trials have shown that intranasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. This effect was observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with intranasal corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for “catch-up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of pediatric patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids, including fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained and the risks associated with alternative therapies. To minimize the systemic effects of intranasal corticosteroids, including fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP, each patient’s dosage should be titrated to the lowest dosage that effectively controls his/her symptoms.A 1-year placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 150 pediatric subjects (aged 3 to 9 years) to assess the effect of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP (single daily dose of 200 mcg) on growth velocity. From the primary population receiving fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP (n = 56) and placebo (n = 52), the point estimate for growth velocity with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP was 0.14 cm/year lower than placebo (95% CI: -0.54, 0.27 cm/year). Thus, no statistically significant effect on growth was noted compared with placebo. No evidence of clinically relevant changes in HPA axis function or bone mineral density was observed as assessed by 12-hour urinary cortisol excretion and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively.The potential for fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP to cause growth suppression in susceptible patients or when given at higher than recommended dosages cannot be ruled out.

8.5 Geriatric Use

A limited number of subjects aged 65 years and older (n = 129) or 75 years and older (n = 11) have been treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP in clinical trials. While the number of subjects is too small to permit separate analysis of efficacy and safety, the adverse reactions reported in this population were similar to those reported by younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

A limited number of subjects aged 65 years and older (n = 129) or 75 years and older (n = 11) have been treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP in clinical trials. While the number of subjects is too small to permit separate analysis of efficacy and safety, the adverse reactions reported in this population were similar to those reported by younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8.7 Renal Impairment

Formal pharmacokinetic trials using fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP have not been conducted in subjects with renal impairment.

10 Overdosage

Chronic overdosage may result in signs/symptoms of hypercorticism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Intranasal administration of 2 mg (10 times the recommended dose) of fluticasone propionate twice daily for 7 days was administered to healthy human volunteers. Adverse events reported with fluticasone propionate were similar to placebo, and no clinically significant abnormalities in laboratory safety tests were observed. Single oral doses up to 16 mg have been studied in human volunteers with no acute toxic effects reported. Repeat oral doses up to 80 mg daily for 10 days in volunteers and repeat oral doses up to 10 mg daily for 14 days in patients were well tolerated. Adverse reactions were of mild or moderate severity, and incidences were similar in active and placebo treatment groups. Acute overdosage with this dosage form is unlikely since 1 bottle of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP contains approximately 8 mg of fluticasone propionate.

11 Description

The active component of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP is fluticasone propionate, a corticosteroid having the chemical name S- (fluoromethyl) 6α,9-difluoro-11β,17-dihydroxy-16α-methyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-17β-carbothioate, 17-propionate and the following chemical structure:Fluticasone propionate is a white powder with a molecular weight of 500.6, and the empirical formula is C25H31F3O5S. It is practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide, and slightly soluble in methanol and 95% ethanol.Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, 50 mcg is an aqueous suspension of microfine fluticasone propionate for topical administration to the nasal mucosa by means of a metering, atomizing spray pump. Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP also contains benzalkoniumchloride (0.02% w/w), carboxymethylcellulose sodium, dextrose, microcrystalline cellulose, phenylethyl alcohol (0.25% w/w), polysorbate 80, and purified water and has a pH between 5.8 and 6.8.After initial priming, each actuation delivers 50 mcg of fluticasone propionate in 100 mg of formulation through the nasal adapter.

12.1 Mechanism Of Action

Fluticasone propionate is a synthetic trifluorinated corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory activity. Fluticasone propionate has been shown in vitro to exhibit a binding affinity for the human glucocorticoid receptor that is 18 times that of dexamethasone, almost twice that of beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (BMP), the active metabolite of beclomethasone dipropionate, and over 3 times that of budesonide. Data from the McKenzie vasoconstrictor assay in man are consistent with these results. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.The precise mechanism through which fluticasone propionate affects rhinitis symptoms is not known. Corticosteroids have been shown to have a wide range of effects on multiple cell types (e.g., mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes) and mediators (e.g., histamine, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, cytokines) involved in inflammation. In 7 trials in adults, fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP has decreased nasal mucosal eosinophils in 66% of patients (35% for placebo) and basophils in 39% of patients (28% for placebo). The direct relationship of these findings to long-term symptom relief is not known.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

HPA Axis EffectThe potential systemic effects of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP on the HPA axis were evaluated. fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP given as 200 mcg once daily or 400 mcg twice daily was compared with placebo or oral prednisone 7.5 or 15 mg given in the morning. Fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP at either dosage for 4 weeks did not affect the adrenal response to 6-hour cosyntropin stimulation, while both dosages of oral prednisone significantly reduced the response to cosyntropin.Cardiac ElectrophysiologyA study specifically designed to evaluate the effect of fluticasone propionate on the QT interval has not been conducted.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

The activity of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP is due to the parent drug, fluticasone propionate. Due to the low bioavailability by the intranasal route, the majority of the pharmacokinetic data was obtained via other routes of administration.AbsorptionIndirect calculations indicate that fluticasone propionate delivered by the intranasal route has an absolute bioavailability averaging less than 2%. Trials using oral dosing of labeled and unlabeled drug have demonstrated that the oral systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate is negligible (<1%), primarily due to incomplete absorption and presystemic metabolism in the gut and liver. After intranasal treatment of patients with rhinitis for 3 weeks, fluticasone propionate plasma concentrations were above the level of detection (50 pg/mL) only when recommended doses were exceeded and then only in occasional samples at low plasma levels.DistributionFollowing intravenous administration, the initial disposition phase for fluticasone propionate was rapid and consistent with its high lipid solubility and tissue binding. The volume of distribution averaged 4.2 L/kg.The percentage of fluticasone propionate bound to human plasma proteins averaged 99%. Fluticasone propionate is weakly and reversibly bound to erythrocytes and is not significantly bound to human transcortin.EliminationFollowing intravenous dosing, fluticasone propionate showed polyexponential kinetics and had a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 7.8 hours. The total blood clearance of fluticasone propionate is high (average: 1,093 mL/min), with renal clearance accounting for less than 0.02% of the total.Metabolism: The only circulating metabolite detected in man is the 17β-carboxylic acid derivative of fluticasone propionate, which is formed through the CYP3A4 pathway. This metabolite had less affinity (approximately 1/2,000) than the parent drug for the glucocorticoid receptor of human lung cytosol in vitro and negligible pharmacological activity in animal studies. Other metabolites detected in vitro using cultured human hepatoma cells have not been detected in man.Excretion: Less than 5% of a radiolabeled oral dose was excreted in the urine as metabolites, with the remainder excreted in the feces as parent drug and metabolites.Special PopulationsFluticasone propionate nasal spray was not studied in any special populations, and no gender-specific pharmacokinetic data have been obtained.Drug InteractionsInhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4: Ritonavir: Fluticasone propionate is a substrate of CYP3A4. Coadministration of fluticasone propionate and the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, ritonavir, is not recommended based upon a multiple-dose, crossover drug interaction trial in 18 healthy subjects. Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray (200 mcg once daily) was coadministered for 7 days with ritonavir (100 mg twice daily). Plasma fluticasone propionate concentrations following fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray alone were undetectable (<10 pg/mL) in most subjects, and when concentrations were detectable, peak levels (Cmax) averaged 11.9 pg/mL (range: 10.8 to 14.1 pg/mL) and AUC(0-τ) averaged 8.43 pg•h/mL (range: 4.2 to 18.8 pg•h/mL). Fluticasone propionate Cmax and AUC(0-τ) increased to 318 pg/mL (range: 110 to 648 pg/mL) and 3,102.6 pg•h/mL (range: 1,207.1 to 5,662.0 pg•h/mL), respectively, after coadministration of ritonavir with fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray. This significant increase in plasma fluticasone propionate exposure resulted in a significant decrease (86%) in serum cortisol AUC.Ketoconazole: Coadministration of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (1,000 mcg) and ketoconazole (200 mg once daily) resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in plasma fluticasone propionate exposure and a 45% decrease in plasma cortisol AUC, but had no effect on urinary excretion of cortisol.Erythromycin: In a multiple-dose drug interaction study, coadministration of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (500 mcg twice daily) and erythromycin (333 mg 3 times daily) did not affect fluticasone propionate pharmacokinetics.

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Fluticasone propionate demonstrated no tumorigenic potential in mice at oral doses up to 1,000 mcg/kg (approximately 20 times the MRHDID in adults and approximately 10 times the MRHDID in children on a mcg/m2 basis) for 78 weeks or in rats at inhalation doses up to 57 mcg/kg (approximately 2 times the MRHDID in adults and approximately equivalent to the MRHDID in children on a mcg/m2 basis) for 104 weeks.Fluticasone propionate did not induce gene mutation in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells in vitro. No significant clastogenic effect was seen in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro or in the mouse micronucleus test.No evidence of impairment of fertility was observed in male and female rats at subcutaneous doses up to 50 mcg/kg (approximately 2 times the MRHDID in adults on a mcg/m2 basis). Prostate weight was significantly reduced at a subcutaneous dose of 50 mcg/kg.

14 Clinical Studies

Perennial Nonallergic Rhinitis: Three randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle placebo-controlled trials were conducted in 1,191 subjects to investigate regular use of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP in subjects with perennial nonallergic rhinitis. These trials evaluated subject-rated total nasal symptom scores (TNSS) that included nasal obstruction, postnasal drip, rhinorrhea in subjects treated for 28 days of double-blind therapy and in 1 of the 3 trials for 6 months of open-label treatment. Two of these trials demonstrated that subjects treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP (100 mcg twice daily) exhibited statistically significant decreases in TNSS compared with subjects treated with vehicle.

16 How Supplied/Storage And Handling

Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP 50 mcg is supplied in an amber glass bottle fitted with a white metering atomizing pump, white nasal adapter, in a box of 1 with FDA-approved Patient Labeling (see Patient Instructions for Use for proper actuation of the device). Each bottle contains a net fill weight of 16 g and will provide 120 actuations. Each actuation delivers 50 mcg of fluticasone propionate in 100 mg of formulation through the nasal adapter. The correct amount of medication in each spray cannot be assured after 120 sprays even though the bottle is not completely empty. The bottle should be discarded when the labeled number of actuations has been used.50mcg - 68788-9925-1Store between 4° and 30°C (39° and 86°F).

17 Patient Counseling Information

  • Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information and Instructions for Use).Local Nasal EffectsInform patients that treatment with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP may lead to adverse reactions, which include epistaxis and nasal ulceration. Candida infection may also occur with treatment with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP. In addition, fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP has been associated with nasal septal perforation and impaired wound healing. Patients who have experienced recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP until healing has occurred [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].Glaucoma and CataractsInform patients that glaucoma and cataracts are associated with nasal and inhaled corticosteroid use. Advise patients to notify their healthcare providers if a change in vision is noted while using fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].Hypersensitivity Reactions, including AnaphylaxisInform patients that hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, contact dermatitis, and rash, may occur after administration of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP. If such reactions occur, patients should discontinue use of fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].ImmunosuppressionWarn patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and if they are exposed to consult their healthcare provider without delay. Inform patients of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis; fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].Reduced Growth VelocityAdvise parents that fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Physicians should closely follow the growth of children and adolescents taking corticosteroids by any route [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7), Pediatric Use (8.4)].Use Daily for Best EffectInform patients that they should use fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP on a regular basis. Fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP, like other corticosteroids, does not have an immediate effect on rhinitis symptoms. Maximum benefit may not be reached for several days. Patients should not increase the prescribed dosage but should contact their healthcare providers if symptoms do not improve or if the condition worsens.Keep Spray Out of Eyes and MouthInform patients to avoid spraying fluticasone propionate nasal spray, USP in their eyes and mouth.Manufactured by: Hi-Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc. Amityville, NY 11701Made in USARev. 700:04 08/15Relabeled By Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Patient InformationFluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, 50 mcg(floo-TIK-a-sone)Read the Patient Information that comes with fluticasone propionate nasal spray before you start using it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Patient Information does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment.What is fluticasone propionate nasal spray?Fluticasone propionate nasal spray is a prescription medicine used to treat non-allergy nasal symptoms such as runny nose, stuffy nose, sneezing, and nasal itching in adults and children aged 4 years and older.It is not known if fluticasone propionate nasal spray is safe and effective in children younger than 4 years of age.Who should not use fluticasone propionate nasal spray?Do not use fluticasone propionate nasal spray if you are allergic to fluticasone propionate or any of the ingredients in fluticasone propionate nasal spray. See “What are the ingredients in fluticasone propionate nasal spray?” below for a complete list of ingredients.What should I tell my healthcare provider before using fluticasone propionate nasal sp Tell your healthcare provider about all of your health conditions, including if you: •have or have had nasal sores, nasal surgery, or nasal injury. •have eye problems, such as cataracts or glaucoma. •have an immune system problem. •are allergic to any of the ingredients in fluticasone propionate nasal spray, any other medicines, or food products. See “What are the ingredients in fluticasone propionate nasal spray?” below for a complete list of ingredients. •have any type of viral, bacterial, or fungal infection. •are exposed to chickenpox or measles. •have any other medical conditions. •are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. It is not known if fluticasone propionate nasal spray may harm your unborn baby. •are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if fluticasone propionate nasal spray passes into your breast milk and if it can harm your baby.Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Fluticasone propionate nasal spray and certain other medicines may interact with each other. This may cause serious side effects. Especially, tell your healthcare provider if you take antifungal or anti-HIV medicines.Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.How should I use fluticasone propionate nasal spray?Read the step-by-step instructions for using fluticasone propionate nasal spray at the end of this Patient Information. •Fluticasone propionate nasal spray is for use in your nose only. Do not spray it in your eyes or mouth. •Children should use fluticasone propionate nasal spray with an adult’s help, as instructed by the child’s healthcare provider. •Use fluticasone propionate nasal spray exactly as your healthcare provider tells you. Do not use fluticasone propionate nasal spray more often than prescribed. •Fluticasone propionate nasal spray may take several days of regular use for your rhinitis symptoms to get better. If your symptoms do not improve or get worse, call your healthcare provider. •You will get the best results if you keep using fluticasone propionate nasal spray regularly each day without missing a dose. After you begin to feel better, your healthcare provider may decrease your dose. Do not stop using fluticasone propionate nasal spray unless your healthcare provider tells you to do so.What are the possible side effects of fluticasone propionate nasal spray?Fluticasone propionate nasal spray may cause serious side effects, including: •nose problems. Nose problems may include: •nose bleeds. •sores (ulcers) in your nose. •a certain fungal infection in your nose, mouth, and/or throat (thrush). •hole in the cartilage of your nose (nasal septal perforation). Symptoms of nasal septal perforation may include: • crusting in the nose • nose bleeds  • runny nose • whistling sound when you breathe •slow wound healing. You should not use fluticasone propionate nasal spray until your nose has healed if you have a sore in your nose, have had surgery on your nose, or if your nose has been injured. •eye problems including glaucoma and cataracts. You should have regular eye exams while you use fluticasone propionate nasal spray. •serious allergic reactions. Call your healthcare provider or get emergency medical care if you get any of the following signs of a serious allergic reaction: o rash  o hives  o swelling of your face, mouth, and tongue  o breathing problems •weakened immune system and increased chance of getting infections (immunosuppression). Taking medicines that weaken your immune system makes you more likely to get infections and can make certain infections worse. These infections may include tuberculosis (TB), ocular herpes simplex infections, and infections caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Avoid contact with people who have a contagious disease such as chickenpox or measles while using fluticasone propionate nasal spray. If you come in contact with someone who has chickenpox or measles call your healthcare provider right away. Symptoms of an infection may include: • o fever   o pain  o aches  o chills  o feeling tired o nausea o vomiting •lowered steroid hormone levels (adrenal insufficiency). Adrenal insufficiency happens when your adrenal glands do not make enough steroid hormones. This can happen when you stop taking oral corticosteroid medicines (such as prednisone) and start taking medicine containing an inhaled steroid (such as fluticasone propionate nasal spray). Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include:  o feeling tired  o lack of energy  o weakness  o nausea and vomiting  o low blood pressureThe most common side effects of fluticasone propionate nasal spray include: •headache •sore throat •nose bleeds •nose burning or itching •nausea and vomiting •trouble breathing •coughTell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or does not go away.These are not all the side effects with fluticasone propionate nasal spray. Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information.Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Hi-Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc. at 1-800-262-9010 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.How do I store fluticasone propionate nasal spray? •Store fluticasone propionate nasal spray between 39°F and 86°F (4°C and 30°C).Keep fluticasone propionate nasal spray and all medicines out of the reach of children.General information about the safe and effective use of fluticasone propionate nasal spray.Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes not mentioned in a Patient Information leaflet. Do not use fluticasone propionate nasal spray for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give your fluticasone propionate nasal spray to other people, even if they have the same condition that you have. It may harm them.This Patient Information leaflet summarizes the most important information about fluticasone propionate nasal spray. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about fluticasone propionate nasal spray that was written for healthcare professionals.What are the ingredients in fluticasone propionate nasal spray?Active ingredient: fluticasone propionate.Inactive ingredients: benzalkonium chloride (0.02% w/w), carboxymethylcellulose sodium, dextrose, microcrystalline cellulose, phenylethyl alcohol (0.25% w/w), polysorbate 80, and purified water.Manufactured by: Hi-Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc. Amityville, NY 11701Made in USARev. 700:04 08/15Relabeled By Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.FLUTICASONE PROPIONATENASAL SPRAY, USP, 50 mcgRx OnlyRev. 700:00 5/14Please read this leaflet carefully before you start to take your medicine. It provides a summary of information on your medicine.For further information ask your doctor or pharmacist.WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT RHINITISRhinitis is a word that means inflammation of the lining of the nose. If you suffer from rhinitis, your nose becomes stuffy and runny. Rhinitis can also make your nose itchy, and you may sneeze a lot. Rhinitis can be caused by allergies to pollen, animals, molds, or other materials-or it may have a nonallergic cause.WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE NASAL SPRAY, USPYour doctor has prescribed Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, a medicine that can help treat your rhinitis. Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, contains fluticasone propionate, which is a synthetic corticosteroid. Corticosteroids are natural substances found in the body that help fight inflammation. When you spray Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, into your nose, it helps to reduce the symptoms of allergic reactions and the stuffiness, runniness, itching, and sneezing that can bother you.THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE NASAL SPRAY, USP 1. Shake gently before using. 2. Use your nasal spray as directed by your doctor. The directions are on the pharmacy label. 3. Keep your nasal spray out of the reach of children.BEFORE USING YOUR NASAL SPRAY •If you are pregnant (or intending to become pregnant), •If you are breastfeeding a baby, •If you are allergic to Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, or any other nasal corticosteroid, •If you are taking a medicine containing ritonavir (commonly used to treat HIV infection or AIDS).TELL YOUR DOCTOR BEFORE STARTING TO TAKE THIS MEDICINE. In some circumstances, this medicine may not be suitable and your doctor may wish to give you a different medicine. Make sure that your doctor knows what other medicines you are taking.USING YOUR NASAL SPRAY •Follow the instructions shown in the rest of this leaflet. If you have any problems, tell your doctor or pharmacist. •It is important that you use it as directed by your doctor. The pharmacist’s label will usually tell you what dose to take and how often. If it doesn’t, or you are not sure, ask your doctor or pharmacist.DOSAGE •For ADULTS, the usual starting dose is 2 sprays in each nostril once daily. Sometimes your doctor may recommend using 1 spray in each nostril twice a day (morning and evening). You should not use more than a total of 2 sprays in each nostril daily. After you have begun to feel better, 1 spray in each nostril daily may be adequate for you.For ADOLESCENTS and CHILDREN (4 years of age and older), the usual starting dosage is 1 spray in each nostril once daily. Sometimes your doctor may recommend using 2 sprays in each nostril daily. Then, after you have begun to feel better, 1 spray in each nostril daily may be adequate for you. •DO NOT use more of your medicine or take it more often than your doctor advises. •Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, may begin to work within 12 hours of the first dose, but it takes several days of regular use to reach its greatest effect. It is important that you use Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, as prescribed by your doctor. Best results will be obtained by using the spray on a regular basis. If symptoms disappear, contact your doctor for further instructions. •If you also have itchy, watery eyes, you should tell your doctor. You may be given an additional medicine to treat your eyes. Be careful not to confuse them, particularly if the second medicine is an eye drop. •If you miss a dose, just take your regularly scheduled next dose when it is due. DO NOT DOUBLE the dose.HOW TO USE YOUR NASAL SPRAYRead the complete instructions carefully and use only as directed.BEFORE USING1.Shake the bottle gently and then remove the cap (Figure 1).Figure 11. It is necessary to prime the pump into the air the first time it is used, or when you have not used it for a week or more. To prime the pump, hold the bottle as shown with the nasal applicator pointing away from you and with your forefinger and middle finger on either side of the nasal applicator and your thumb underneath the bottle. When you prime the pump for the first time, press down and release the pump 6 times (Figure 2). The pump is now ready for use. If the pump is not used for 7 days, prime until a fine spray appears.Figure 2USING THE SPRAY 3. Blow your nose to clear your nostrils4. Close one nostril. Tilt your head forward slightly and, keeping the bottle upright, carefully insert the nasal applicator into the other nostril (Figure 3).5. Start to breathe in through your nose, and WHILE BREATHING IN press firmly and quickly down once on the applicator to release the spray. To get a full actuation, use your forefinger and middle finger to spray while supporting the base of the bottle with your thumb. Avoid spraying in eyes. Breathe gently inwards through the nostril (Figure 4).Figure 46. Breathe out through your mouth.7. If a second spray is required in that nostril, repeat steps 4 through 6.8. Repeat steps 4 through 7 in the other nostril.9. Wipe the nasal applicator with a clean tissue and replace the cap (Figure 5).Figure 510. Do not use this bottle for more than the labeled number of sprays even though the bottle is not completely empty. Before you throw the bottle away, you should consult your doctor to see if a refill is needed. Do not take extra doses or stop taking Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, without consulting your doctor.CLEANINGYour nasal spray should be cleaned at least once a week. To do this:1. Remove the cap and then gently pull upwards to free the nasal applicator.2. Wash the applicator and cap under warm tap water. Allow to dry at room temperature, then place the applicator and cap back on the bottle.3. If the nasal applicator becomes blocked, it can be removed as above and left to soak in warm water. Rinse with cold tap water, dry, and refit. Do not try to unblock the nasal applicator by inserting a pin or other sharp object.STORING YOUR NASAL SPRAY •Keep your Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, out of the reach of children. •Avoid spraying in eyes. •Store between 4° and 30°C (39° and 86° F). •Do not use your Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, USP, after the expiration date shown on the label and box.REMEMBER: This medicine has been prescribed for you by your doctor. DO NOT give this medicine to anyone else.FURTHER INFORMATIONThe leaflet does not contain the complete information about your medicine. If you have any questions, or are not sure about something, then you should ask your doctor or pharmacist.You may want to read this leaflet again. Please DO NOT THROW IT AWAY until you have finished your medicine.To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hi-Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc. at 1-800-262-9010 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.Manufactured by:Hi-Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.Amityville, N.Y. 11701Made in U.S.A.Relabeled By Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

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