NDC 70518-1285 Pentoxifylline

Pentoxifylline

NDC Product Code 70518-1285

NDC CODE: 70518-1285

Proprietary Name: Pentoxifylline What is the Proprietary Name?
The proprietary name also known as the trade name is the name of the product chosen by the medication labeler for marketing purposes.

Non-Proprietary Name: Pentoxifylline What is the Non-Proprietary Name?
The non-proprietary name is sometimes called the generic name. The generic name usually includes the active ingredient(s) of the product.

Drug Use Information

Drug Use Information
The drug use information is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of a health care professional. Always ask a health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

  • This medication is used to improve the symptoms of a certain blood flow problem in the legs/arms (intermittent claudication due to occlusive artery disease). Pentoxifylline can decrease the muscle aching/pain/cramps during exercise, including walking, that occur with intermittent claudication. Pentoxifylline belongs to a class of drugs known as hemorrheologic agents. It works by helping blood flow more easily through narrowed arteries. This increases the amount of oxygen that can be delivered by the blood when the muscles need more (such as during exercise) thereby increasing walking distance and duration.

Product Characteristics

Color(s):
WHITE (C48325)
Shape: OVAL (C48345)
Size(s):
16 MM
Imprint(s):
APO;033
Score: 1

NDC Code Structure

  • 70518 - Remedyrepack Inc.

NDC 70518-1285-0

Package Description: 180 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC

NDC Product Information

Pentoxifylline with NDC 70518-1285 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Remedyrepack Inc.. The generic name of Pentoxifylline is pentoxifylline. The product's dosage form is tablet, extended release and is administered via oral form. The RxNorm Crosswalk for this NDC code indicates a single RxCUI concept is associated to this product: 312301.

Dosage Form: Tablet, Extended Release - A solid dosage form containing a drug which allows at least a reduction in dosing frequency as compared to that drug presented in conventional dosage form.

Product Type: Human Prescription Drug What kind of product is this?
Indicates the type of product, such as Human Prescription Drug or Human Over the Counter Drug. This data element matches the “Document Type” field of the Structured Product Listing.

Pentoxifylline Active Ingredient(s)

What is the Active Ingredient(s) List?
This is the active ingredient list. Each ingredient name is the preferred term of the UNII code submitted.


Inactive Ingredient(s)

About the Inactive Ingredient(s)
The inactive ingredients are all the component of a medicinal product OTHER than the active ingredient(s). The acronym "UNII" stands for “Unique Ingredient Identifier” and is used to identify each inactive ingredient present in a product.

  • SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)
  • HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE (1200000 MW) (UNII: RFW2ET671P)
  • HYPROMELLOSES (UNII: 3NXW29V3WO)
  • MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)
  • POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 8000 (UNII: Q662QK8M3B)
  • TITANIUM DIOXIDE (UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)

Administration Route(s)

What are the Administration Route(s)?
The translation of the route code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration.

  • Oral - Administration to or by way of the mouth.

Pharmacological Class(es)

What is a Pharmacological Class?
These are the reported pharmacological class categories corresponding to the SubstanceNames listed above.

  • Blood Viscosity Reducer - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)
  • Hematologic Activity Alteration - [PE] (Physiologic Effect)

Product Labeler Information

What is the Labeler Name?
Name of Company corresponding to the labeler code segment of the Product NDC.

Labeler Name: Remedyrepack Inc.
Labeler Code: 70518
FDA Application Number: ANDA075191 What is the FDA Application Number?
This corresponds to the NDA, ANDA, or BLA number reported by the labeler for products which have the corresponding Marketing Category designated. If the designated Marketing Category is OTC Monograph Final or OTC Monograph Not Final, then the Application number will be the CFR citation corresponding to the appropriate Monograph (e.g. “part 341”). For unapproved drugs, this field will be null.

Marketing Category: ANDA - A product marketed under an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application. What is the Marketing Category?
Product types are broken down into several potential Marketing Categories, such as NDA/ANDA/BLA, OTC Monograph, or Unapproved Drug. One and only one Marketing Category may be chosen for a product, not all marketing categories are available to all product types. Currently, only final marketed product categories are included. The complete list of codes and translations can be found at www.fda.gov/edrls under Structured Product Labeling Resources.

Start Marketing Date: 07-06-2018 What is the Start Marketing Date?
This is the date that the labeler indicates was the start of its marketing of the drug product.

Listing Expiration Date: 12-31-2022 What is the Listing Expiration Date?
This is the date when the listing record will expire if not updated or certified by the product labeler.

Exclude Flag: N - NO What is the NDC Exclude Flag?
This field indicates whether the product has been removed/excluded from the NDC Directory for failure to respond to FDA"s requests for correction to deficient or non-compliant submissions ("Y"), or because the listing certification is expired ("E"), or because the listing data was inactivated by FDA ("I"). Values = "Y", "N", "E", or "I".

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Pentoxifylline Product Label Images

Pentoxifylline Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

Description

Pentoxifylline extended-release tablets, USP for oral administration contain 400 mg of the active drug and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, and titanium dioxide in an extended-release formulation. Pentoxifylline is a tri-substituted xanthine derivative designated chemically as 3,7-Dihydro-3,7-dimethyl-1-(5-oxohexyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione that, unlike theophylline, is a hemorrheologic agent, i.e., an agent that affects blood viscosity. Pentoxifylline is soluble in water and ethanol, and sparingly soluble in toluene. The molecular formula is C
13H
18N
4O
3 and its molecular weight is 278.31.
The chemical structure is:USP Dissolution Test 9

Mode Of Action

Pentoxifylline and its metabolites improve the flow properties of blood by decreasing its viscosity. In patients with chronic peripheral arterial disease, this increases blood flow to the affected microcirculation and enhances tissue oxygenation. The precise mode of action of pentoxifylline and the sequence of events leading to clinical improvement are still to be defined. Pentoxifylline administration has been shown to produce dose-related hemorrheologic effects, lowering blood viscosity, and improving erythrocyte flexibility. Leukocyte properties of hemorrheologic importance have been modified in animal and


in vitro human studies. Pentoxifylline has been shown to increase leukocyte deformability and to inhibit neutrophil adhesion and activation. Tissue oxygen levels have been shown to be significantly increased by therapeutic doses of pentoxifylline in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

Pharmacokinetics And Metabolism

After oral administration in aqueous solution pentoxifylline is almost completely absorbed. It undergoes a first-pass effect and the various metabolites appear in plasma very soon after dosing. Peak plasma levels of the parent compound and its metabolites are reached within 1 hour. The major metabolites are Metabolite I (1-[5-hydroxyhexyl]-3,7-dimethylxanthine) and Metabolite V (1-[3-carboxypropyl]-3,7-dimethylxanthine), and plasma levels of these metabolites are 5 and 8 times greater, respectively, than pentoxifylline.Following oral administration of aqueous solutions containing 100 to 400 mg of pentoxifylline, the pharmacokinetics of the parent compound and Metabolite I are dose-related and not proportional (non-linear), with half-life and area under the blood-level time curve (AUC) increasing with dose. The elimination kinetics of Metabolite V are not dose-dependent. The apparent plasma half-life of pentoxifylline varies from 0.4 to 0.8 hours and the apparent plasma half-lives of its metabolites vary from 1 to 1.6 hours. There is no evidence of accumulation or enzyme induction (Cytochrome P450) following multiple oral doses.Excretion is almost totally urinary; the main biotransformation product is Metabolite V. Essentially no parent drug is found in the urine. Despite large variations in plasma levels of parent compound and its metabolites, the urinary recovery of Metabolite V is consistent and shows dose proportionality. Less than 4% of the administered dose is recovered in feces. Food intake shortly before dosing delays absorption of an immediate-release dosage form but does not affect total absorption. The pentoxifylline  AUC was increased and elimination rate decreased in an older population (60 to 68 years, n=6) compared to younger individuals (22 to 30 years, n=6) (see


PRECAUTIONS,


Geriatric Use).


After administration of the 400 mg extended-release pentoxifylline tablet, plasma levels of the parent compound and its metabolites reach their maximum within 2 to 4 hours and remain constant over an extended period of time. Coadministration of pentoxifylline extended-release tablets with meals resulted in an increase in mean AUC and C


max of about 1.1 and 1.3 fold for pentoxifylline, respectively. C


max for Metabolite I also increased about 1.2 fold. The extended release of pentoxifylline from the tablet eliminates peaks and troughs in plasma levels for improved gastrointestinal tolerance.

Patients With Hepatic Impairment

In patients with mild to moderate liver impairment AUC and C


max of pentoxifylline increased 6.5 and 7.5 fold, respectively, after a single 400 mg dose of pentoxifylline extended-release tablet AUC and C


max of the active Metabolite I also increased 6.9 and 8.2 fold, respectively, in hepatic impaired subjects. Pentoxifylline extended-release tablet has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic failure.

Patients With Renal Impairment

In patients with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment the exposure to pentoxifylline and its active Metabolite I are not increased. In contrast, AUC


0-tss and C


max of the active Metabolite V in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment increased 2.4 and 2.1 fold, respectively, with a 400 mg TID regimen of pentoxifylline extended-release tablet. In severe renal impairment AUC


0 to tss and C


max of the active Metabolite V increased 12.9 and 10.6 fold, respectively, with a 400 mg pentoxifylline extended-release tablet TID regimen. The increase in exposure to Metabolite V is only slightly smaller in both renal impairment groups if pentoxifylline extended-release tablet is administered BID.

Indications And Usage

Pentoxifylline extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of patients with intermittent claudication on the basis of chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs. Pentoxifylline can improve function and symptoms but is not intended to replace more definitive therapy, such as surgical bypass, or removal of arterial obstructions when treating peripheral vascular disease.

Contraindications

Pentoxifylline should not be used in patients with recent cerebral and/or retinal hemorrhage or in patients who have previously exhibited intolerance to this product or methylxanthines such as caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine.

General

At the first sign of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction, pentoxifylline must be discontinued.


Patients with chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs frequently show other manifestations of arteriosclerotic disease. Pentoxifylline has been used safely for treatment of peripheral arterial disease in patients with concurrent coronary artery and cerebrovascular diseases, but there have been occasional reports of angina, hypotension, and arrhythmia. Controlled trials do not show that pentoxifylline causes such adverse effects more often than placebo, but, as it is a methylxanthine derivative, it is possible some individuals will experience such responses. Patients on warfarin should have more frequent monitoring of prothrombin times, while patients with other risk factors complicated by hemorrhage (e.g., recent surgery, peptic ulceration, cerebral and/or retinal bleeding) should have periodic examinations for bleeding including, hematocrit and/or hemoglobin.


In patients with hepatic or renal impairment, the exposure to pentoxifylline and/or active metabolites is increased. The consequences of the increase in drug exposure are not known (see


Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism and


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Drug Interactions

Bleeding has been reported in patients treated with pentoxifylline with or without concomitant NSAIDs, anticoagulants, or platelet aggregation inhibitors. Increased prothrombin time has been reported in patients concomitantly treated with pentoxifylline and vitamin K antagonists. Monitoring of anticoagulant activity in these patients is recommended when pentoxifylline is introduced or the dose is changed.Concomitant administration of pentoxifylline and theophylline-containing drugs leads to increased theophylline levels and theophylline toxicity in some individuals. Monitor theophylline levels when starting pentoxifylline or changing dose. Concomitant administration of strong CYP1A2 inhibitors (including e.g. ciprofloxacin or fluvoxamine) may increase the exposure to pentoxifylline (see


ADVERSE REACTIONS).


Pentoxifylline has been used concurrently with antihypertensive drugs, beta blockers, digitalis, diuretics, and antiarrhythmics, without observed problems. Small decreases in blood pressure have been observed in some patients treated with pentoxifylline plus nifedipine or captopril; periodic systemic blood pressure monitoring is recommended for patients receiving concomitant antihypertensive therapy. If indicated, dosage of the antihypertensive agents should be reduced.Postmarketing cases of increased anticoagulant activity have been reported in patients concomitantly treated with pentoxifylline and vitamin K antagonists. Monitoring of anticoagulant activity in these patients is recommended when pentoxifylline is introduced or the dose is changed.Concomitant administration with cimetidine is reported to increase the average steady state plasma concentration of pentoxifylline (~25%) and the Metabolite I (~30%).

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

Long-term studies of the carcinogenic potential of pentoxifylline were conducted in mice and rats by dietary administration of the drug at doses up to 450 mg/kg (approximately 19 times the maximum recommended human daily dose (MRHD) in both species when based on body weight; 1.5 times the MRHD in the mouse and 3.3 times the MRHD in the rat when based on body surface area). In mice, the drug was administered for 18 months, whereas in rats, the drug was administered for 18 months followed by an additional 6 months without drug exposure. In the rat study, there was a statistically significant increase in benign mammary fibroadenomas in females of the 450 mg/kg group. The relevance of this finding to human use is uncertain. Pentoxifylline was devoid of mutagenic activity in various strains of Salmonella (Ames test) and in cultured mammalian cells (unscheduled DNA synthesis test) when tested in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. It was also negative in the


in vivo mouse micronucleus test.

Category C.

Teratogenicity studies have been performed in rats and rabbits using oral doses up to 576 and 264 mg/kg, respectively. On a weight basis, these doses are 24 and 11 times the maximum recommended human daily dose (MRHD); on a body-surface-area basis, they are 4.2 and 3.5 times the MRHD. No evidence of fetal malformation was observed. Increased resorption was seen in rats of the 576 mg/kg group. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Pentoxifylline should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

Pentoxifylline and its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for pentoxifylline in rats, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of pentoxifylline did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.The active metabolite V is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical trials were conducted using either extended-release pentoxifylline tablets for up to 60 weeks or immediate-release pentoxifylline capsules for up to 24 weeks. Dosage ranges in the tablet studies were 400 mg bid to tid and in the capsule studies, 200 to 400 mg tid. The table summarizes the incidence (in percent) of adverse reactions considered drug related, as well as the numbers of patients who received extended-release pentoxifylline tablets, immediate-release pentoxifylline capsules, or the corresponding placebos. The incidence of adverse reactions was higher in the capsule studies (where dose related increases were seen in digestive and nervous system side effects) than in the tablet studies. Studies with the capsule include domestic experience, whereas studies with the extended-release tablets were conducted outside the U.S.The table indicates that in the tablet studies few patients discontinued because of adverse effects.INCIDENCE (%) OF SIDE EFFECTSExtended-Release Tables Immediate-Release CapsulesCommercially AvailableUsed Only For Controlled Clinical TrialsPentoxifylline PlaceboPentoxifylline Placebo(Number of Patients at Risk)(321)(128)(177)(138)Discontinued for Side Effect3.109.67.2CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMAngina/Chest Pain0.3-1.12.2Arrhythmia/Palpitation--1.70.7Flushing--2.30.7DIGESTIVE SYSTEMAbdominal Discomfort--4.01.4Belching/Flatus/Bloating0.6-9.03.6Diarrhea--3.42.9Dyspepsia2.84.79.62.9Nausea2.20.828.88.7Vomiting1.2-4.50.7NERVOUS SYSTEMAgitation/Nervousness--1.70.7Dizziness1.93.111.94.3Drowsiness--1.15.8Headache1.21.66.25.8Insomnia--2.32.2Tremor0.30.8--Blurred Vision--2.31.4Pentoxifylline has been marketed in Europe and elsewhere since 1972. In addition to the above symptoms, the following have been reported spontaneously since marketing or occurred in other clinical trials with an incidence of less than 1%; the causal relationship was uncertain: Cardiovascular - dyspnea, edema, hypotension.


Digestive - anorexia, cholecystitis, constipation, dry mouth/thirst.


Nervous - anxiety, confusion, depression, seizures, aseptic meningitis.


Respiratory - epistaxis, flu-like symptoms, laryngitis, nasal congestion.


Skin and Appendages - brittle fingernails, pruritus, rash, urticaria, angioedema.


Special Senses - blurred vision, conjunctivitis, earache, scotoma.


Miscellaneous - bad taste, excessive salivation, leukopenia, malaise, sore throat/swollen neck glands, weight change.


A few rare events have been reported spontaneously worldwide since marketing in 1972. Although they occurred under circumstances in which a causal relationship with pentoxifylline could not be established, they are listed to serve as information for physicians. Cardiovascular - angina, arrhythmia, tachycardia. Digestive - hepatitis, jaundice, cholestasis, increased liver enzymes; and Hemic and Lymphatic - decreased serum fibrinogen, pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, leukemia, purpura, thrombocytopenia. Immune system disorders - anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactoid reaction, anaphylactic shock.

Overdosage

Overdosage with pentoxifylline has been reported in pediatric patients and adults. Symptoms appear to be dose related. A report from a poison control center on 44 patients taking overdoses of enteric-coated pentoxifylline extended-release  tablets noted that symptoms usually occurred 4 to 5 hours after ingestion and lasted about 12 hours. The highest amount ingested was 80 mg/kg; flushing, hypotension, convulsions, somnolence, loss of consciousness, fever, and agitation occurred. All patients recovered. In addition to symptomatic treatment and gastric lavage, special attention must be given to supporting respiration, maintaining systemic blood pressure, and controlling convulsions. Activated charcoal has been used to absorb pentoxifylline in patients who have overdosed.

Dosage And Administration

The usual dosage of pentoxifylline in extended-release tablet form is one tablet (400 mg) three times a day with meals.While the effect of pentoxifylline may be seen within 2 to 4 weeks, it is recommended that treatment be continued for at least 8 weeks. Efficacy has been demonstrated in double-blind clinical studies of 6 months duration.Digestive and central nervous system side effects are dose related. If patients develop these effects it is recommended that the dosage be lowered to one tablet twice a day (800 mg/day). If side effects persist at this lower dosage, the administration of pentoxifylline should be discontinued.In patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min) reduce dose to 400 mg once a day. Dosing information cannot be provided for patients with hepatic impairment.

How Supplied

Pentoxifylline extended-release tablets, USP are available for oral administration as 400 mg white, oval, unscored, film coated tablets, imprinted “APO 033” on one side and plain on the other side; supplied in bottles of 100 (NDC 60505-0033-6), bottles of 500 (NDC 60505-0033-7), bottles of 1,000 (NDC 60505-0033-9) and bottles of 5,500 (NDC 60505-0033-8).Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container [see USP]. APOTEX INC.PENTOXIFYLLINE EXTENDED-RELEASE TABLETS, USP 400mgManufactured by                Manufactured forApotex Inc.                          Apotex Corp.


Toronto, Ontario                   Weston, Florida


Canada M9L 1T9                  33326


Revised: May 2016


 Rev. 7

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