The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.
Clonazepam, a benzodiazepine, is available as scored tablets debossed with “1” and “2” containing 0.5 mg of clonazepam and unscored tablets debossed with “C 1” on 1 mg tablets and “C 2” on 2 mg tablets containing 1 mg or 2 mg of clonazepam. Each tablet contains anhydrous lactose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and starch (corn), with the following colorants: 0.5 mg-FD&C Yellow No. 6 Lake and 1 mg- FD&C Blue No.2 Lake.Chemically, clonazepam is 5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2
H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has a molecular weight of 315.72 and the following structural formula:
The precise mechanism by which clonazepam exerts its antiseizure and antipanic effects is unknown, although it is believed to be related to its ability to enhance the activity of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Convulsions produced in rodents by pentylenetetrazol or, to a lesser extent, electrical stimulation are antagonized, as are convulsions produced by photic stimulation in susceptible baboons. A taming effect in aggressive primates, muscle weakness and hypnosis are also produced. In humans, clonazepam is capable of suppressing the spike and wave discharge in absence seizures (petit mal) and decreasing the frequency, amplitude, duration and spread of discharge in minor motor seizures.
Clonazepam is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability of clonazepam is about 90%. Maximum plasma concentrations of clonazepam are reached within 1 to 4 hours after oral administration. Clonazepam is approximately 85% bound to plasma proteins. Clonazepam is highly metabolized, with less than 2% unchanged clonazepam being excreted in the urine. Biotransformation occurs mainly by reduction of the 7-nitro group to the 4-amino derivative. This derivative can be acetylated, hydroxylated and glucuronidated. Cytochrome P-450 including CYP3A, may play an important role in clonazepam reduction and oxidation. The elimination half-life of clonazepam is typically 30 to 40 hours. Clonazepam pharmacokinetics are dose-independent throughout the dosing range. There is no evidence that clonazepam induces its own metabolism or that of other drugs in humans.
Clonazepam is useful alone or as an adjunct in the treatment of the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (petit mal variant), akinetic and myoclonic seizures. In patients with absence seizures (petit mal) who have failed to respond to succinimides, clonazepam may be useful.In some studies, up to 30% of patients have shown a loss of anticonvulsant activity, often within 3 months of administration. In some cases, dosage adjustment may reestablish efficacy.
Clonazepam is indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in DSM-V. Panic disorder is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks and associated concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications or consequences of the attacks, and/or a significant change in behavior related to the attacks.The efficacy of clonazepam was established in two 6- to 9-week trials in panic disorder patients whose diagnoses corresponded to the DSM-IIIR category of panic disorder (see
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Trials).
Panic disorder (DSM-V) is characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks, ie, a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which four (or more) of the following symptoms develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes: (1) palpitations, pounding heart or accelerated heart rate; (2) sweating; (3) trembling or shaking; (4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering; (5) feeling of choking; (6) chest pain or discomfort; (7) nausea or abdominal distress; (8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded or faint; (9) derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself); (10) fear of losing control; (11) fear of dying; (12) paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations); (13) chills or hot flushes.The effectiveness of clonazepam in long-term use, that is, for more than 9 weeks, has not been systematically studied in controlled clinical trials. The physician who elects to use clonazepam for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
- Clonazepam is contraindicated in patients with the following conditions:
- History of sensitivity to benzodiazepines
- Clinical or biochemical evidence of significant liver disease
- Acute narrow angle glaucoma (it may be used in patients with open angle glaucoma who are receiving appropriate therapy).
Interference With Cognitive And Motor Performance:
Since clonazepam produces CNS depression, patients receiving this drug should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring mental alertness, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle. They should also be warned about the concomitant use of alcohol or other CNS-depressant drugs during clonazepam therapy (see
PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions and
Information for Patients).
Suicidal Behavior And Ideation:
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including clonazepam, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43% compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5 to 100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed.Table 1 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.Table 1 Risk by Indication for Antiepileptic Drugs in the Pooled AnalysisIndicationPlacebo Patients
Per 1000 Patients
Per 1000 Patients
Incidence of Events
in Drug Patients/Incidence
in Placebo Patients
Additional Drug Patients
per 1000 Patients
Epilepsy1.03.43.52.4Psychiatric184.108.40.206.9Other1.01.81.90.9Total220.127.116.11.9The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.Anyone considering prescribing clonazepam or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.
Data from several sources raise concerns about the use of clonazepam during pregnancy.
Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of benzodiazepines (see
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).
The adverse experiences for clonazepam are provided separately for patients with seizure disorders and with panic disorder.
Dosage And Administration
Clonazepam is available as a tablet. The tablets should be administered with water by swallowing the tablet whole.
Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg are orange, round, flat faced, beveled edge, scored,
debossed with “1” and “2” on one side and plain on other. They are supplied as follows:Bottles of 100 NDC 16729-136-00 Bottles of 500 NDC 16729-136-16 Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg are blue, round, flat faced, beveled edge, debossed with
“C 1” on one side and plain on the other. They are supplied as follows:Bottles of 100 NDC 16729-137-00 Bottles of 500 NDC 16729-137-16 Clonazepam tablets USP 2 mg are white to off white, round, flat faced, beveled edge tablets
debossed with “C 2” on one side and plain on the other. They are supplied as follows:Bottles of 100 NDC 16729-138-00 Bottles of 500 NDC 16729-138-16 Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). [See USP
Controlled Room Temperature]. Manufactured For:Accord Healthcare, Inc.,
1009, Slater Road,
Durham, NC 27703,
Manufactured By:Intas Pharmaceuticals Limited,
Ahmedabad -380 009, India.
10 0533 1 672637Issued January 2017
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