NDC 71288-802 Doxercalciferol

Doxercalciferol

NDC Product Code 71288-802

NDC CODE: 71288-802

Proprietary Name: Doxercalciferol What is the Proprietary Name?
The proprietary name also known as the trade name is the name of the product chosen by the medication labeler for marketing purposes.

Non-Proprietary Name: Doxercalciferol What is the Non-Proprietary Name?
The non-proprietary name is sometimes called the generic name. The generic name usually includes the active ingredient(s) of the product.

Drug Use Information

Drug Use Information
The drug use information is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of a health care professional. Always ask a health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

  • This medication is used to treat people with serious kidney disease who have high levels of a certain natural substance (parathyroid hormone-PTH), which your body normally makes. High PTH levels affect the balance of other minerals in your body (calcium and phosphorus) and may result in weak bones. Doxercalciferol is a man-made form of vitamin D. It works by decreasing PTH levels and increasing calcium/phosphorus levels in the body.

NDC Code Structure

  • 71288 - Meitheal Pharmaceuticals Inc.

NDC 71288-802-03

Package Description: 50 VIAL, MULTI-DOSE in 1 CARTON > 2 mL in 1 VIAL, MULTI-DOSE (71288-802-02)

NDC Product Information

Doxercalciferol with NDC 71288-802 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Meitheal Pharmaceuticals Inc.. The generic name of Doxercalciferol is doxercalciferol. The product's dosage form is injection, solution and is administered via intravenous form.

Labeler Name: Meitheal Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Dosage Form: Injection, Solution - A liquid preparation containing one or more drug substances dissolved in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents that is suitable for injection.

Product Type: Human Prescription Drug What kind of product is this?
Indicates the type of product, such as Human Prescription Drug or Human Over the Counter Drug. This data element matches the “Document Type” field of the Structured Product Listing.

Doxercalciferol Active Ingredient(s)

What is the Active Ingredient(s) List?
This is the active ingredient list. Each ingredient name is the preferred term of the UNII code submitted.

  • DOXERCALCIFEROL 4 ug/2mL

Inactive Ingredient(s)

About the Inactive Ingredient(s)
The inactive ingredients are all the component of a medicinal product OTHER than the active ingredient(s). The acronym "UNII" stands for “Unique Ingredient Identifier” and is used to identify each inactive ingredient present in a product.

  • ALCOHOL (UNII: 3K9958V90M)
  • POLYSORBATE 20 (UNII: 7T1F30V5YH)
  • SODIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 451W47IQ8X)
  • BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENE (UNII: 1P9D0Z171K)
  • SODIUM PHOSPHATE, DIBASIC, ANHYDROUS (UNII: 22ADO53M6F)
  • SODIUM PHOSPHATE, MONOBASIC, MONOHYDRATE (UNII: 593YOG76RN)
  • EDETATE DISODIUM (UNII: 7FLD91C86K)

Administration Route(s)

What are the Administration Route(s)?
The translation of the route code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration.

  • Intravenous - Administration within or into a vein or veins.
  • Intravenous - Administration within or into a vein or veins.

Pharmacological Class(es)

What is a Pharmacological Class?
These are the reported pharmacological class categories corresponding to the SubstanceNames listed above.

  • Ergocalciferols - [CS]
  • Vitamin D2 Analog - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)

Product Labeler Information

What is the Labeler Name?
Name of Company corresponding to the labeler code segment of the Product NDC.

Labeler Name: Meitheal Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Labeler Code: 71288
FDA Application Number: ANDA211670 What is the FDA Application Number?
This corresponds to the NDA, ANDA, or BLA number reported by the labeler for products which have the corresponding Marketing Category designated. If the designated Marketing Category is OTC Monograph Final or OTC Monograph Not Final, then the Application number will be the CFR citation corresponding to the appropriate Monograph (e.g. “part 341”). For unapproved drugs, this field will be null.

Marketing Category: ANDA - A product marketed under an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application. What is the Marketing Category?
Product types are broken down into several potential Marketing Categories, such as NDA/ANDA/BLA, OTC Monograph, or Unapproved Drug. One and only one Marketing Category may be chosen for a product, not all marketing categories are available to all product types. Currently, only final marketed product categories are included. The complete list of codes and translations can be found at www.fda.gov/edrls under Structured Product Labeling Resources.

Start Marketing Date: 02-11-2020 What is the Start Marketing Date?
This is the date that the labeler indicates was the start of its marketing of the drug product.

Listing Expiration Date: 12-31-2021 What is the Listing Expiration Date?
This is the date when the listing record will expire if not updated or certified by the product labeler.

Exclude Flag: N What is the NDC Exclude Flag?
This field indicates whether the product has been removed/excluded from the NDC Directory for failure to respond to FDA’s requests for correction to deficient or non-compliant submissions. Values = ‘Y’ or ‘N’.

* Please review the disclaimer below.

Doxercalciferol Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

1 Indications And Usage

  • Doxercalciferol Injection is indicated for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in adult patients with CKD on dialysis.

2.1 Prior To Initiation Of Doxercalciferol Injection

  • Ensure serum calcium is not above the upper limit of normal before initiating treatment with doxercalciferol injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

2.4 Important Administration Instructions For Doxercalciferol Injection

  • Administer doxercalciferol injection intravenously as a bolus dose at the end of dialysis.
  • Inspect doxercalciferol injection visually prior to administration; the solution should appear clear and colorless. Do not use if the solution is not clear or particles are present.
  • After initial vial use, store opened multi-dose vial for up to 3 days at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). Discard unused portion of multi-dose vial after 3 days [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)].

2.5 Dosage Recommendations For Doxercalciferol Injection In Patients With Ckd On Dialysis

  • Initiate doxercalciferol injection at a dose of 4 mcg given by bolus intravenous administration three times weekly at the end of dialysis (no more frequently than every other day).
  • Target the maintenance dose of doxercalciferol to intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels within the desired therapeutic range and serum calcium within normal limits.
  • Monitor serum calcium, phosphorus, and intact PTH levels weekly after initiation of therapy or dose adjustment.
  • Titrate the dose of doxercalciferol injection based on intact PTH. The dose may be increased at 8-week intervals by 1 mcg to 2 mcg if intact PTH is not lowered by 50% and fails to reach the target range. The maximum dose is 18 mcg weekly. Prior to raising the dose, ensure serum calcium is within normal limits.
  • Suspend or decrease the dose if intact PTH is persistently and abnormally low to reduce the risk of adynamic bone disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] or if serum calcium is consistently above the normal range to reduce the risk of hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. If suspended, the drug should be restarted one week later at a dose that is at least 1 mcg lower.

2.6 Drug Interactions That May Require Dosage Adjustments Of Doxercalciferol Injection

  • Increased monitoring of serum calcium and dose adjustment of doxercalciferol may be necessary when given concomitantly with drugs that may increase the risk of hypercalcemia [see Drug Interactions (7)].Increased monitoring of both serum calcium and intact PTH as well as dose adjustment of doxercalciferol may be necessary when given concomitantly with cytochrome P450 inhibitors or enzyme inducers [see Drug Interactions (7)].

3 Dosage Forms And Strengths

  • Injection: clear and colorless solution available as follows:
  • 4 mcg per 2 mL (2 mcg per mL) multi-dose vial

4 Contraindications

  • Doxercalciferol is contraindicated in patients with:
  • Hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]Vitamin D toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]Known hypersensitivity to doxercalciferol or any of the inactive ingredients of doxercalciferol injection; serious hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis and angioedema have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.1 Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia may occur during doxercalciferol treatment. Acute hypercalcemia may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and seizures and may potentiate the effect of digitalis on the heart [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Chronic hypercalcemia can lead to generalized vascular calcification and other soft-tissue calcification. Severe hypercalcemia may require emergency attention.
Hypercalcemia may be exacerbated by concomitant administration of high doses of calcium-containing preparations, thiazide diuretics, or other vitamin D compounds [see Drug Interactions (7)]. In addition, high intake of calcium and phosphate concomitantly with vitamin D compounds may lead to hypercalciuria and hyperphosphatemia. Patients with a history of hypercalcemia prior to initiating therapy may be at increased risk for development of hypercalcemia with doxercalciferol. In these circumstances, frequent serum calcium monitoring and doxercalciferol dose adjustments may be required.
When initiating doxercalciferol or adjusting doxercalciferol dose, measure serum calcium frequently (weekly in patients with CKD on dialysis or every 2 weeks for patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD). Once a maintenance dose has been established, measure serum calcium monthly for 3 months and then every 3 months. If hypercalcemia occurs, reduce the dose or discontinue doxercalciferol until serum calcium is normal [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Inform patients about the symptoms of elevated calcium (feeling tired, difficulty thinking clearly, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, increased thirst, increased urination and weight loss) and instruct them to report new or worsening symptoms when they occur.

5.2 Digitalis Toxicity

Doxercalciferol can cause hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] which increases the risk of digitalis toxicity. In patients using doxercalciferol concomitantly with digitalis compounds, monitor both serum calcium and patients for signs and symptoms of digitalis toxicity. Increase the frequency of monitoring when initiating or adjusting the dose of doxercalciferol [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.3 Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal outcome, have been reported post marketing in patients on hemodialysis following administration of doxercalciferol injection. Hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis with symptoms of angioedema (involving face, lips, tongue and airways), hypotension, unresponsiveness, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, and cardiopulmonary arrest. These reactions may occur separately or together.
Monitor patients receiving doxercalciferol upon initiation of treatment for hypersensitivity reactions. Should a hypersensitivity reaction occur, discontinue doxercalciferol, monitor and treat if indicated [see Contraindications (4)].

5.4 Adynamic Bone Disease

Adynamic bone disease with subsequent increased risk of fractures may develop if intact PTH levels are suppressed by doxercalciferol to abnormally low levels. Monitor intact PTH levels to avoid oversuppression and adjust the doxercalciferol dose, if needed [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

6 Adverse Reactions

  • The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in another section of the label:
  • Hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]Adynamic Bone Disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Other

Doxercalciferol Capsules

Adverse reactions in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKDDoxercalciferol capsules have been evaluated in two placebo-controlled, double-blind 24 week studies in patients with Stage 3 or 4 CKD. Patients were treated with doxercalciferol capsules (n=27) or placebo (n=28) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Adverse reactions occurring in the doxercalciferol capsules group at a frequency of 5% or greater and more frequently than in the placebo group are presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% Doxercalciferol Capsule-Treated Patients with CKD on Predialysis and Greater than Placebo in Two Double-Blind Clinical Studies
* Pooled data on adverse reactions from clinical study reports (Studies BCI-CH-115 and BCI-CH-119).
Adverse Reaction*Doxercalciferol (n=27)%Placebo (n=28)%Infection/bacterial infection/viral infection
30
25
Constipation
26
11
Rhinitis
22
11
Anemia
19
4
Cough
19
4
Dyspnea
19
11
Paresthesia
15
11
Asthenia
15
11
Insomnia
15
4
Hypertonia
11
4
Angina pectoris
8
0
Dehydration
7
4
Depression
7
0
Dyspepsia
7
4
Edema
7
4
Urinary tract infection
7
4
Leukopenia
7
0
Chest pain
7
4
Pruritus
7
4
Sinusitis
7
4

Adverse reactions in patients with CKD on dialysisDoxercalciferol capsules have been evaluated in two placebo-controlled, double-blind studies in patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Patients were treated with doxercalciferol capsules (n=61) or placebo (n=61) [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. After randomization to two groups, eligible patients underwent an 8-week washout period during which no vitamin D derivatives were administered to either group. Subsequently, all patients received doxercalciferol capsules in an open-label fashion for 16 weeks followed by a double-blind period of 8 weeks during which patients received either doxercalciferol capsules or placebo. Adverse reactions occurring in the doxercalciferol capsule groups at a frequency of 2% or greater, and more frequently than in the placebo group are presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥2% Doxercalciferol Capsule-Treated Patients with CKD on Dialysis and Greater than Placebo in Two Double-Blind Clinical Studies
* A patient who reported the same medical term more than once was counted only once for that medical term.
Adverse Reaction*Doxercalciferol (n=61)%Placebo (n=61)%Edema
34
21
Malaise
28
20
Headache
28
18
Nausea/Vomiting
21
20
Dizziness
12
10
Dyspnea
12
7
Pruritus
8
7
Bradycardia
7
5
Anorexia
5
3
Dyspepsia
5
2
Arthralgia
5
0
Weight increase
5
0
Abscess
3
0
Sleep disorder
3
0

Doxercalciferol Injection

Adverse reactions in patients with CKD on hemodialysisDoxercalciferol injection has been studied in 70 patients with CKD on hemodialysis in two 12-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter studies [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. The incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia increased during therapy with doxercalciferol injection. Patients with higher pretreatment serum levels of calcium (>10.5 mg/dL) or phosphorus (>6.9 mg/dL) were more likely to experience hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia.
There was no placebo group included in the studies of doxercalciferol injection. Adverse reactions in patients with CKD on hemodialysis receiving doxercalciferol injection are expected to be similar to those reported in placebo-controlled studies of doxercalciferol capsules presented in Table 2.

Risk SummaryThe limited available data with doxercalciferol in pregnant women are insufficient to identify a drug-associated risk for major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with chronic kidney disease in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations]. In reproduction studies in rats and rabbits administered doxercalciferol during organogenesis at up to 20 mcg/kg/day and 0.1 mcg/kg/day, respectively (approximately 25 times (rats) and less than (rabbits) the maximum recommended human oral dose of 60 mcg/week based on mcg/m2 body surface area), no adverse developmental effects were observed [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2%-4% and 15%-20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal riskChronic kidney disease in pregnancy increases the risk for maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, miscarriage, preterm delivery polyhydramnios, stillbirth, and low-birth-weight infants.

Data

Animal dataThere were no adverse effects on fetal development when doxercalciferol was administered at doses up to 20 mcg/kg/day in pregnant rats or doses up to 0.1 mcg/kg/day in pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis.

Risk SummaryThere is no information available on the presence of doxercalciferol in human milk, the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant, or the effects of the drug on milk production. Infants exposed to doxercalciferol through breast milk should be monitored for signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia [see Clinical Considerations].
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for doxercalciferol and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from doxercalciferol or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical ConsiderationsInfants exposed to Doxercalciferol Injection through breast milk should be monitored for signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia, including seizures, vomiting, constipation and weight loss. Monitoring of serum calcium in the infant should be considered.

AbsorptionIn healthy volunteers, peak blood levels of 1α,25-(OH)2D2, the major metabolite of doxercalciferol, are attained at 8 hours after a single intravenous dose of doxercalciferol and at 11 to 12 hours following capsule doses.

EliminationThe mean elimination half-life of 1α,25-(OH)2D2 after an oral dose is approximately 32 to 37 hours with a range of up to 96 hours.

MetabolismDoxercalciferol is activated by CYP 27 in the liver to form 1α,25-(OH)2D2 (major metabolite) and 1α,24-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (minor metabolite). Activation of doxercalciferol does not require the involvement of the kidneys.

Specific Populations

Patients with renal impairmentThe mean elimination half-life of 1α,25-(OH)2D2 in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in healthy volunteers appears to be similar following an oral dose. Hemodialysis causes a temporary increase in 1α,25-(OH)2D2 mean concentrations, presumably due to volume contraction. 1α,25-(OH)2D2 is not removed from blood during hemodialysis.

How SuppliedDoxercalciferol Injection is a clear, colorless solution supplied in 2 mL amber glass multi-dose vials. Each vial includes an aluminum seal and an orange plastic flip-off cap, and is supplied as follows:
NDCDoxercalciferol Injection (2 mcg per mL)Package Factor71288-802-03
4 mcg per 2 mL Multi-Dose Vial
50 vials per carton

HypercalcemiaAdvise patients to contact a health care provider if they develop symptoms of elevated calcium (e.g. feeling tired, difficulty thinking clearly, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, increased thirst, increased urination and weight loss) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

HypersensitivityInform patients that hypersensitivity reactions can occur with doxercalciferol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

MonitoringInform patients that they will need routine monitoring of laboratory parameters such as calcium and intact PTH while receiving doxercalciferol. Inform patients that more frequent monitoring is necessary during the initiation of therapy, following dose changes or when potentially interacting medications are started or discontinued [see Dosage and Administration (2), Drug Interactions (7)].

Drug InteractionsAdvise patients to inform their physician of all medications, including prescription and nonprescription drugs, and supplements they are taking. Advise patients to also inform their physician that they are receiving doxercalciferol if a new medication is prescribed [see Drug Interactions (7)].
meitheal®Mfd. for Meitheal PharmaceuticalsChicago, IL 60631 (USA)©2019 Meitheal Pharmaceuticals Inc.
April 2019810032

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of doxercalciferol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal outcome, have been reported in patients on hemodialysis following administration of doxercalciferol injection. Hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis with symptoms of angioedema (involving face, lips, tongue and airways), hypotension, unresponsiveness, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, cardiopulmonary arrest, pruritus, and skin burning sensation.

7 Drug Interactions

Tables 3 and 4 include clinically significant drug interactions with doxercalciferol.
Table 3: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Doxercalciferol Injection and Doxercalciferol Capsules
Drugs that May Increase the Risk of HypercalcemiaClinical ImpactConcomitant administration of high doses of calcium-containing preparations or other vitamin D compounds may increase the risk of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics are known to induce hypercalcemia by reducing excretion of calcium in the urine.
ExamplesCalcium-containing products, other vitamin D compounds or thiazide diuretics
InterventionMonitor serum calcium concentrations more frequently and adjust doxercalciferol dose as needed [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].Digitalis CompoundsClinical ImpactDoxercalciferol can cause hypercalcemia which can potentiate the risk of digitalis toxicity.
InterventionMonitor patients for signs and symptoms of digitalis toxicity and increase frequency of serum calcium monitoring when initiating or adjusting the dose of doxercalciferol in patients receiving digitalis compounds [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].Cytochrome P450 InhibitorsClinical ImpactDoxercalciferol is activated by CYP 27 in the liver. Cytochrome P450 inhibitors may inhibit the 25-hydroxylation of doxercalciferol and thus reduce the formation of active doxercalciferol moiety [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].ExamplesKetoconazole and erythromycin
InterventionIf a patient initiates or discontinues therapy with a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, dose adjustment of doxercalciferol may be necessary. Monitor intact PTH and serum calcium concentrations closely.
Enzyme InducersClinical ImpactDoxercalciferol is activated by CYP 27 in the liver. Enzyme inducers may affect the 25-hydroxylation of doxercalciferol [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].ExamplesGlutethimide and phenobarbital
InterventionIf a patient initiates or discontinues therapy with an enzyme inducer, dose adjustment of doxercalciferol may be necessary. Monitor intact PTH and serum calcium concentrations closely.
Magnesium-containing ProductsClinical ImpactConcomitant administration of doxercalciferol and high doses of magnesium-containing products may increase the risk of hypermagnesemia.
ExamplesMagnesium-containing products such as antacids
InterventionAvoid use of magnesium-containing products and doxercalciferol in patients on chronic renal dialysis.
Table 4: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Doxercalciferol Capsules
CholestyramineClinical ImpactCholestyramine has been reported to reduce intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Therefore, it may impair intestinal absorption of doxercalciferol capsules.
InterventionAdminister doxercalciferol capsules at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after taking cholestyramine.
Mineral Oil or other Substances that May Affect Absorption of FatClinical ImpactThe use of mineral oil or other substances that may affect absorption of fat may influence the absorption and availability of doxercalciferol.
InterventionAdminister doxercalciferol capsules at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after taking mineral oil or other substances that may affect absorption of fat.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy of doxercalciferol in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of doxercalciferol did not include sufficient numbers of patients 65 years or over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

Patients with hepatic impairment may not metabolize doxercalciferol appropriately. More frequent monitoring of intact PTH, calcium, and phosphorus levels should be done in patients with hepatic impairment.

10 Overdosage

Overdosage of doxercalciferol may lead to hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and hyperphosphatemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. The treatment of acute overdosage should consist of supportive measures and discontinuation of doxercalciferol administration. Serum calcium levels should be measured until normal.
Based on similarities between doxercalciferol and its active metabolite, 1α,25-(OH)2D2, it is expected that doxercalciferol is not removed from the blood by dialysis.

11 Description

Doxercalciferol Injection contains doxercalciferol, which is a synthetic vitamin D2 analog. Doxercalciferol undergoes metabolic activation in vivo to form 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1α,25-(OH)2D2), a naturally occurring, biologically active form of vitamin D2.
Doxercalciferol is a colorless crystalline compound with a calculated molecular weight of 412.65 and a molecular formula of C28H44O2. It is soluble in oils and organic solvents, but is relatively insoluble in water. Chemically, doxercalciferol is (1α,3β,5Z,7E,22E)-9,10-secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-1,3-diol. The structural formula is:
Doxercalciferol Injection 2 mL multi-dose vials contain 4 mcg per 2 mL (2 mcg per mL) of doxercalciferol. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 2 mcg doxercalciferol and the following inactive ingredients: butylated hydroxytoluene, 20 mcg; edetate disodium, 1.1 mg; dehydrated alcohol, 59.25 mg; polysorbate 20, 10 mg; sodium chloride, 1.5 mg; disodium hydrogen phosphate, anhydrous, 7.63 mg; and monosodium phosphate monohydrate, 1.8 mg.

12.1 Mechanism Of Action

Doxercalciferol is a synthetic vitamin D2 analog that requires metabolic activation to form the active 1α,25-(OH)2D2 metabolite, which binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to result in the selective activation of vitamin D responsive pathways. Vitamin D and doxercalciferol have been shown to reduce PTH levels by inhibiting PTH synthesis and secretion.

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in rats, there was an increased incidence of benign and malignant adrenal pheochromocytomas in both males and females at oral doses of 0.04, 0.13, and 0.39 mcg/kg/day (less than the maximum recommended human oral dose of 60 mcg/week based on mcg/m2 body surface area). This increased incidence of pheochromocytomas in rats may be due to altered calcium homeostasis by doxercalciferol. No evidence of genetic toxicity was observed in an in vitro bacterial mutagenicity assay (Ames test) or a mouse lymphoma gene mutation assay. Doxercalciferol caused structural chromatid and chromosome aberrations in an in vitro human lymphocyte clastogenicity assay with metabolic activation. However, doxercalciferol was negative in an in vivo mouse micronucleus clastogenicity assay.
Doxercalciferol had no effect on male or female fertility in rats at oral doses up to 2.5 mcg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the maximum recommended human oral dose of 60 mcg/week based on mcg/m2 body surface area).

14.1 Clinical Studies Of Doxercalciferol Capsules In Patients With Stage 3 Or 4 Ckd

The safety and effectiveness of doxercalciferol capsules were evaluated in two clinical studies in 55 patients with Stage 3 or 4 CKD. Eighty-two percent of the patients were male, the average age was 65 years, 51% were Caucasian, 40% African-American, and the average serum intact PTH level at baseline was 195 pg/mL. While levels of 25-(OH) vitamin D were not evaluated at baseline, retrospective assessments of stored serum revealed that the mean ± SD serum 25-(OH) vitamin D was 19 ± 8 ng/mL (range: <5 to 54 ng/mL) in the study population.
After randomization to two groups, eligible patients underwent an 8-week washout period during which no vitamin D derivatives were administered to either group. Subsequently, one group received doxercalciferol capsules and the other placebo during the double-blind period of 24 weeks. The initial dose of doxercalciferol capsules was 1 mcg per day. The dosage of doxercalciferol capsules was adjusted as necessary by the investigator to reduce intact PTH levels to a target of ≥30% below postwashout baseline. The maximum dosage was limited to 3.5 mcg per day. If at any time during the trial intact PTH fell below 15 pg/mL, doxercalciferol capsules were immediately suspended and restarted at a lower dosage the following week.
Decreases in the mean plasma intact PTH from baseline values were calculated using as baseline the average of the last 2 values obtained during the 8-week washout phase. In analyses of pooled data from the two studies, intact PTH levels decreased from baseline by an average of 101 pg/mL in the doxercalciferol capsules group and by 4 pg/mL in the placebo group (p<0.001). Twenty (74%) of 27 subjects in the doxercalciferol capsules group achieved mean plasma intact PTH suppression of ≥30% from baseline for the last four weeks of treatment, whereas two (7%) of the 28 subjects treated with placebo achieved this level of intact PTH suppression.

14.2 Clinical Studies Of Doxercalciferol Capsules In Patients With Ckd On Dialysis

The safety and effectiveness of doxercalciferol capsules were evaluated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical studies (Study A and Study B) in a total of 138 patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Patients in Study A were an average age of 52 years (range: 22 to 75), were 55% male, and were 58% African-American, 31% Caucasian, and 11% Hispanic, and had been on hemodialysis for an average of 53 months. Patients in Study B were an average of 52 years (range: 27 to 75), were 45% male, and 99% African-American, and 1% Caucasian, and had been on hemodialysis for an average of 56 months. After randomization to two groups, eligible patients underwent an 8-week washout period during which no vitamin D derivatives were administered to either group. Subsequently, all patients received doxercalciferol capsules in an open-label fashion for 16 weeks followed by a double-blind period of 8 weeks during which patients received either doxercalciferol capsules or placebo. The initial dose of doxercalciferol capsules during the open-label phase was 10 mcg after each dialysis session (3 times weekly) for a total of 30 mcg per week. The dosage of doxercalciferol was adjusted as necessary by the investigator to achieve intact PTH levels within 150 pg/mL to 300 pg/mL. The maximum dosage was limited to 20 mcg after each dialysis session (60 mcg/week). If at any time during the trial intact PTH fell below 150 pg/mL, doxercalciferol was immediately suspended and restarted at a lower dosage the following week. Mean weekly doses during the 16-week open-label period ranged from 15 mcg to 29 mcg in Study A and from 19 mcg to 28 mcg in Study B.
One hundred and six (77%) of the 138 patients who were treated with doxercalciferol capsules during the 16-week open-label phase achieved intact PTH levels ≤300 pg/mL. Ninety-four (68%) of these patients exhibited plasma intact PTH levels ≤300 pg/mL on at least 3 occasions. Eighty-seven (63%) patients had plasma intact PTH levels <150 pg/mL on at least one occasion during the open-label phase of study participation.
Decreases in plasma intact PTH from baseline values were calculated using as baseline the average of the last 3 values obtained during the 8-week washout phase and are displayed in Table 5.
Table 5: Intact PTH Summary Data for Patients with CKD on Dialysis Receiving Doxercalciferol Capsules in Studies A and B
* All subjects; last value carried to discontinuation.
NA = not applicable
Intact PTH (pg/mL)means ± SD (n)*p-value vs Baseline p-value vs PlaceboDoxercalciferol CapsulesPlaceboStudy A
Baseline
797.2 ± 443.8 (30)
847.1 ± 765.5 (32)
NA

0.97

Week 16 (open-label)
384.3 ± 397.8 (24)<0.001
526.5 ± 872.2 (29)<0.001
0.72

Week 24 (double-blind)
404.4 ± 262.9 (21)<0.001
672.6 ± 356.9 (24)0.70
0.008

Study B
Baseline
973.9 ± 567.0 (41)
990.4 ± 488.3 (35)
NA

0.81

Week 16 (open-label)
476.1 ± 444.5 (37)<0.001
485.9 ± 443.4 (32)<0.001
0.91

Week 24 (double-blind)
459.8 ± 443.0 (35)<0.001
871.9 ± 623.6 (30)<0.065
<0.001

Doxercalciferol capsules treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction from baseline in mean intact PTH levels during the 16-week open-label treatment period in more than 94% of the 138 treated patients. During the double-blind period (weeks 17 to 24), the reduction in mean intact PTH levels was maintained in the doxercalciferol capsules treatment group compared to a return to near baseline in the placebo group.

14.3 Clinical Studies Of Doxercalciferol Injection In Patients With Ckd On Dialysis

The safety and effectiveness of doxercalciferol injection were evaluated in two open-label, single-arm, multicenter clinical studies (Study C and Study D) in a total of 70 patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Patients in Study C were an average age of 54 years (range: 23 to 73), were 50% male, and were 61% African-American, 25% Caucasian, and 14% Hispanic, and had been on hemodialysis for an average of 65 months. Patients in Study D were an average age of 51 years (range: 28 to 76), were 48% male, and 100% African-American and had been on hemodialysis for an average of 61 months. This group of 70 of the 138 patients who had been treated with doxercalciferol capsules in prior clinical studies (Study A and Study B) received doxercalciferol injection in an open-label fashion for 12 weeks following an 8-week washout (control) period. Dosing of doxercalciferol injection was initiated at the rate of 4 mcg administered at the end of each dialysis session (3 times weekly) for a total of 12 mcg per week. The dosage of doxercalciferol was adjusted to achieve intact PTH levels (measured weekly) within a targeted range of 150 pg/mL to 300 pg/mL. The dosage was increased by 2 mcg per dialysis session after 8 weeks of treatment if the intact PTH levels remained above 300 pg/mL and were greater than 50% of baseline levels. The maximum dosage was limited to 18 mcg per week. If at any time during the study intact PTH fell below 150 pg/mL, doxercalciferol injection was immediately suspended and restarted at a lower dosage the following week. Mean weekly doses ranged from ranged from 9 mcg to 13 mcg in Study C and ranged from 9 mcg to 12 mcg in Study D.
Fifty-two (74%) of the 70 patients who were treated with doxercalciferol injection achieved intact PTH levels ≤300 pg/mL. Forty-one (59%) of these patients exhibited plasma intact PTH levels ≤300 pg/mL on at least 3 occasions. Thirty-six (51%) patients had plasma intact PTH levels <150 pg/mL on at least one occasion during study participation. Decreases in plasma intact PTH from baseline values were calculated using as baseline the average of the last 3 values obtained during the 8-week washout period and are displayed in Table 6.
Table 6: Intact PTH Summary Data for Patients with CKD on Dialysis Receiving Doxercalciferol Injection in Studies C and D
* Values were carried forward for the two patients on study for 10 weeks
† Treatment intact PTH minus baseline intact PTH
‡ Wilcoxon one-sample test
Intact PTH LevelStudy C (n=28)Study D (n=42)Combined Protocols (n=70)Baseline (Mean of Weeks -2, -1, and 0)
Mean (SE)
698 (60)
762 (65)
736 (46)
Median
562
648
634
On-treatment (Week 12*)
Mean (SE)
406 (63)
426 (60)
418 (43)
Median
311
292
292
Change from Baseline†Mean (SE)
-292 (55)
-336 (41)
-318 (33)
Median
-274
-315
-304
P-value‡0.004
0.001
<0.001
Doxercalciferol treatment resulted in at least 30% reduction from baseline in mean intact PTH levels during the 12-week open-label treatment period in more than 92% of the 70 treated patients.

Storage And Handling

Storage and HandlingStore at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Store unopened vial in original carton.
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