The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.
WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Ziprasidone mesylate for injection is not approved for the treatment of patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]).
1 Indications And Usage
- Ziprasidone mesylate for injection, intramuscular is indicated for acute agitation in schizophrenic patients. When deciding among the alternative treatments available for the condition needing treatment, the prescriber should consider the finding of ziprasidone’s greater capacity to prolong the QT/QTc interval compared to several other antipsychotic drugs
- Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
- Prolongation of the QTc interval is associated in some other drugs with the ability to cause torsade de pointes-type arrhythmia, a potentially fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death. In many cases this would lead to the conclusion that other drugs should be tried first. Whether ziprasidone will cause torsade de pointes or increase the rate of sudden death is not yet known
- Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Acute Treatment of Agitation in SchizophreniaZiprasidone mesylate for injection intramuscular is indicated for the treatment of acute agitation in schizophrenic adult patients for whom treatment with ziprasidone is appropriate and who need intramuscular antipsychotic medication for rapid control of agitation.
- [see Clinical Trials (14.1).Since there is no experience regarding the safety of administering ziprasidone intramuscular to schizophrenic patients already taking oral ziprasidone, the practice of co-administration is not recommended.
2.3 Acute Treatment Of Agitation In Schizophrenia
The recommended dose is 10 mg to 20 mg administered as required up to a maximum dose of 40 mg per day. Doses of 10 mg may be administered every two hours; doses of 20 mg may be administered every four hours up to a maximum of 40 mg/day. Intramuscular administration of ziprasidone for more than three consecutive days has not been studied.
If long-term therapy is indicated, oral ziprasidone hydrochloride capsules should replace the intramuscular administration as soon as possible.
Since there is no experience regarding the safety of administering ziprasidone intramuscular to schizophrenic patients already taking oral ziprasidone, the practice of co-administration is not recommended.
Ziprasidone intramuscular is intended for intramuscular use only and should not be administered intravenously.
Intramuscular Preparation for Administration
Ziprasidone mesylate for injection should only be administered by intramuscular injection and should not be administered intravenously. Single-dose vials require reconstitution prior to administration.
Add 1.2 mL of Sterile Water for Injection to the vial and shake vigorously until all the drug is dissolved. Each mL of reconstituted solution contains 20 mg ziprasidone. To administer a 10 mg dose, draw up 0.5 mL of the reconstituted solution. To administer a 20 mg dose, draw up 1.0 mL of the reconstituted solution. Any unused portion should be discarded. Since no preservative or bacteriostatic agent is present in this product, aseptic technique must be used in preparation of the final solution. This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products or solvents other than Sterile Water for Injection. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
3 Dosage Forms And Strengths
Ziprasidone mesylate for injection is available in a single-dose vial as ziprasidone mesylate (20 mg ziprasidone/mL when reconstituted according to label instructions)
[see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. Each mL of ziprasidone mesylate for injection (when reconstituted) affords a colorless to pale pink solution that contains 20 mg of ziprasidone and 4.7 mg of methanesulfonic acid solubilized by 294 mg of sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin sodium (SBECD).
4.1 Qt Prolongation
- Because of ziprasidone’s dose-related prolongation of the QT interval and the known association of fatal arrhythmias with QT prolongation by some other drugs, ziprasidone is contraindicated:in patients with a known history of QT prolongation (including congenital long QT syndrome) in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction in patients with uncompensated heart failurePharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies between ziprasidone and other drugs that prolong the QT interval have not been performed. An additive effect of ziprasidone and other drugs that prolong the QT interval cannot be excluded. Therefore, ziprasidone should not be given with:dofetilide, sotalol, quinidine, other Class Ia and III anti-arrhythmics, mesoridazine, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, droperidol, pimozide, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, halofantrine, mefloquine, pentamidine, arsenic trioxide, levomethadyl acetate, dolasetron mesylate, probucol or tacrolimus.other drugs that have demonstrated QT prolongation as one of their pharmacodynamic effects and have this effect described in the full prescribing information as a contraindication or a boxed or bolded warning
- Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Ziprasidone is contraindicated in individuals with a known hypersensitivity to the product.
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group.Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Ziprasidone mesylate for injection is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis.
Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
In placebo-controlled trials in elderly subjects with dementia, patients randomized to risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine had a higher incidence of stroke and transient ischemic attack, including fatal stroke. Ziprasidone mesylate for injection is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis
Boxed Warning and
Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
5.3 Qt Prolongation And Risk Of Sudden Death
Ziprasidone use should be avoided in combination with other drugs that are known to prolong the QTc interval
Drug Interactions (7.4)].
Additionally, clinicians should be alert to the identification of other drugs that have been consistently observed to prolong the QTc interval. Such drugs should not be prescribed with ziprasidone. Ziprasidone should also be avoided in patients with congenital long QT syndrome and in patients with a history of cardiac arrhythmias
A study directly comparing the QT/QTc prolonging effect of oral ziprasidone with several other drugs effective in the treatment of schizophrenia was conducted in patient volunteers. In the first phase of the trial, ECGs were obtained at the time of maximum plasma concentration when the drug was administered alone. In the second phase of the trial, ECGs were obtained at the time of maximum plasma concentration while the drug was co-administered with an inhibitor of the CYP4503A4 metabolism of the drug.In the first phase of the study, the mean change in QTc from baseline was calculated for each drug, using a sample-based correction that removes the effect of heart rate on the QT interval. The mean increase in QTc from baseline for ziprasidone ranged from approximately 9 to 14 msec greater than for four of the comparator drugs (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and haloperidol), but was approximately 14 msec less than the prolongation observed for thioridazine.
In the second phase of the study, the effect of ziprasidone on QTc length was not augmented by the presence of a metabolic inhibitor (ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily).
In placebo-controlled trials, oral ziprasidone increased the QTc interval compared to placebo by approximately 10 msec at the highest recommended daily dose of 160 mg. In clinical trials with oral ziprasidone, the electrocardiograms of 2/2988 (0.06%) patients who received ziprasidone mesylate for injection and 1/440 (0.23%) patients who received placebo revealed QTc intervals exceeding the potentially clinically relevant threshold of 500 msec. In the ziprasidone-treated patients, neither case suggested a role of ziprasidone. One patient had a history of prolonged QTc and a screening measurement of 489 msec; QTc was 503 msec during ziprasidone treatment. The other patient had a QTc of 391 msec at the end of treatment with ziprasidone and upon switching to thioridazine experienced QTc measurements of 518 and 593 msec.
Some drugs that prolong the QT/QTc interval have been associated with the occurrence of torsade de pointes and with sudden unexplained death. The relationship of QT prolongation to torsade de pointes is clearest for larger increases (20 msec and greater) but it is possible that smaller QT/QTc prolongations may also increase risk, or increase it in susceptible individuals. Although torsade de pointes has not been observed in association with the use of ziprasidone in premarketing studies and experience is too limited to rule out an increased risk, there have been rare post-marketing reports (in the presence of multiple confounding factors)
Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
A study evaluating the QT/QTc prolonging effect of intramuscular ziprasidone, with intramuscular haloperidol as a control, was conducted in patient volunteers. In the trial, ECGs were obtained at the time of maximum plasma concentration following two injections of ziprasidone (20 mg then 30 mg) or haloperidol (7.5 mg then 10 mg) given four hours apart. Note that a 30 mg dose of intramuscular ziprasidone is 50% higher than the recommended therapeutic dose. The mean change in QTc from baseline was calculated for each drug, using a sample-based correction that removes the effect of heart rate on the QT interval. The mean increase in QTc from baseline for ziprasidone was 4.6 msec following the first injection and 12.8 msec following the second injection. The mean increase in QTc from baseline for haloperidol was 6.0 msec following the first injection and 14.7 msec following the second injection. In this study, no patients had a QTc interval exceeding 500 msec.
As with other antipsychotic drugs and placebo, sudden unexplained deaths have been reported in patients taking ziprasidone at recommended doses. The premarketing experience for ziprasidone did not reveal an excess risk of mortality for ziprasidone compared to other antipsychotic drugs or placebo, but the extent of exposure was limited, especially for the drugs used as active controls and placebo. Nevertheless, ziprasidone's larger prolongation of QTc length compared to several other antipsychotic drugs raises the possibility that the risk of sudden death may be greater for ziprasidone than for other available drugs for treating schizophrenia. This possibility needs to be considered in deciding among alternative drug products
Indications and Usage (1)].
Certain circumstances may increase the risk of the occurrence of torsade de pointes and/or sudden death in association with the use of drugs that prolong the QTc interval, including (1) bradycardia; (2) hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia; (3) concomitant use of other drugs that prolong the QTc interval; and (4) presence of congenital prolongation of the QT interval.
It is recommended that patients being considered for ziprasidone treatment who are at risk for significant electrolyte disturbances, hypokalemia in particular, have baseline serum potassium and magnesium measurements. Hypokalemia (and/or hypomagnesemia) may increase the risk of QT prolongation and arrhythmia. Hypokalemia may result from diuretic therapy, diarrhea, and other causes. Patients with low serum potassium and/or magnesium should be repleted with those electrolytes before proceeding with treatment. It is essential to periodically monitor serum electrolytes in patients for whom diuretic therapy is introduced during ziprasidone treatment. Persistently prolonged QTc intervals may also increase the risk of further prolongation and arrhythmia, but it is not clear that routine screening ECG measures are effective in detecting such patients. Rather, ziprasidone should be avoided in patients with histories of significant cardiovascular illness, e.g., QT prolongation, recent acute myocardial infarction, uncompensated heart failure, or cardiac arrhythmia. Ziprasidone should be discontinued in patients who are found to have persistent QTc measurements >500 msec.For patients taking ziprasidone who experience symptoms that could indicate the occurrence of torsade de pointes, e.g., dizziness, palpitations, or syncope, the prescriber should initiate further evaluation, e.g., Holter monitoring may be useful.
5.4 Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (Nms)
A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.
The management of NMS should include: (1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; (2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and (3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS.
If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
5.5 Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has been reported with Ziprasidone exposure. DRESS consists of a combination of three or more of the following: cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, fever, lymphadenopathy and one or more systemic complications such as hepatitis, nephritis, pneumonitis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. DRESS is sometimes fatal. Discontinue ziprasidone if DRESS is suspected.
Other severe cutaneous adverse reactionsOther severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been reported with ziprasidone exposure. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions are sometimes fatal. Discontinue ziprasidone if severe cutaneous adverse reactions are suspected.
5.6 Tardive Dyskinesia
A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients undergoing treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses.
There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome, and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.
Given these considerations, ziprasidone should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that (1) is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs, and (2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.
If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on ziprasidone, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with ziprasidone despite the presence of the syndrome.
5.7 Metabolic Changes
Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. These metabolic changes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and body weight gain. While all of the drugs in the class have been shown to produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile.
Hyperglycemia and Diabetes MellitusHyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, have been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. There have been few reports of hyperglycemia or diabetes in patients treated with ziprasidone mesylate for injection. Although fewer patients have been treated with ziprasidone mesylate for injection, it is not known if this more limited experience is the sole reason for the paucity of such reports. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Given these confounders, the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions is not completely understood. Precise risk estimates for hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics are not available.
Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (e.g., obesity, family history of diabetes) who are starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of antidiabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug.
Pooled data from short-term, placebo-controlled studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are presented in Tables 1-4. Note that for the flexible dose studies in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, each subject is categorized as having received either low (20-40 mg BID) or high (60-80 mg BID) dose based on the subject’s modal daily dose. In the tables showing categorical changes, the percentages (% column) are calculated as 100x(n/N).
Table 1: Glucose* Mean Change from Baseline in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone, Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with SchizophreniaMean Random Glucose Change from Baseline mg/dL (N)Ziprasidone
Placebo5 mg BID20 mg BID40 mg BID60 mg BID80 mg BID100 mg BID-1.1 (N=45)
*”Random” glucose measurements—fasting/non-fasting status unknown
Table 2: Glucose* Categorical Changes in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone, Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Schizophrenia
Laboratory AnalyteCategory Change (at least once) from BaselineTreatment ArmNn (%)Random GlucoseNormal to High (<100 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL)Ziprasidone43877 (17.6%)Placebo16926 (15.4%)Borderline to High (≥100 mg/dL and <126 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL)Ziprasidone15954 (34.0%)Placebo6622 (33.3%*”Random” glucose measurements – fasting/non-fasting status unknown
In long-term (at least 1 year), placebo-controlled, flexible-dose studies in schizophrenia, the mean change from baseline in random glucose for ziprasidone 20-40 mg BID was -3.4 mg/dL (N=122); for ziprasidone 60-80 mg BID was +1.3 mg/dL (N=10); and for placebo was +0.3 mg/dL (N=71).
Table 3: Glucose* Mean Change from Baseline in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone, Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Bipolar DisorderMean Fasting Glucose Change from Baseline mg/dL (N)ZiprasidonePlacebo
Low Dose: 20-40 mg BID
High Dose: 60-80 mg BID
In premarketing trials with ziprasidone, about 5% of patients developed rash and/or urticaria, with discontinuation of treatment in about one-sixth of these cases. The occurrence of rash was related to dose of ziprasidone, although the finding might also be explained by the longer exposure time in the higher dose patients. Several patients with rash had signs and symptoms of associated systemic illness, e.g., elevated WBCs. Most patients improved promptly with adjunctive treatment with antihistamines or steroids and/or upon discontinuation of ziprasidone, and all patients experiencing these reactions were reported to recover completely. Upon appearance of rash for which an alternative etiology cannot be identified, ziprasidone should be discontinued.
5.9 Orthostatic Hypotension
Ziprasidone may induce orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, and, in some patients, syncope, especially during the initial dose titration period, probably reflecting its α
1-adrenergic antagonist properties. Syncope was reported in 0.6% of the patients treated with ziprasidone.
Ziprasidone should be used with particular caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease, heart failure or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications).
Antipsychotic drugs (which include ziprasidone mesylate for injection) may cause somnolence, postural hypotension, and motor and sensory instability, which could lead to falls and, consequently, fractures or other injuries. For patients with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, complete fall risk assessments when initiating antipsychotic treatment and recurrently for patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy.
5.11 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, And Agranulocytosis
In clinical trial and postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents. Agranulocytosis (including fatal cases) has also been reported.
Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a pre-existing low WBC or a history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and should discontinue ziprasidone mesylate for injection at the first sign of decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.
Patients with neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm
3) should discontinue ziprasidone mesylate for injection and have their WBC followed until recovery.
During clinical trials, seizures occurred in 0.4% of patients treated with ziprasidone. There were confounding factors that may have contributed to the occurrence of seizures in many of these cases. As with other antipsychotic drugs, ziprasidone should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold, e.g., Alzheimer's dementia. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.
Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, in particular those with advanced Alzheimer’s dementia. Ziprasidone and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia
As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D
2 receptors, ziprasidone elevates prolactin levels in humans. Increased prolactin levels were also observed in animal studies with this compound, and were associated with an increase in mammary gland neoplasia in mice; a similar effect was not observed in rats
Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]
. Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin-dependent
in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with previously detected breast cancer. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date have shown an association between chronic administration of this class of drugs and tumorigenesis in humans; the available evidence is considered too limited to be conclusive at this time.
Although disturbances such as galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported with prolactin-elevating compounds, the clinical significance of elevated serum prolactin levels is unknown for most patients. Long-standing hyperprolactinemia when associated with hypogonadism may lead to decreased bone density.
5.15 Potential For Cognitive And Motor Impairment
Somnolence was a commonly reported adverse reaction in patients treated with ziprasidone. In the 4-and 6-week placebo-controlled trials, somnolence was reported in 14% of patients on ziprasidone compared to 7% of placebo patients. Somnolence led to discontinuation in 0.3% of patients in short-term clinical trials. Since ziprasidone has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about performing activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating a motor vehicle (including automobiles) or operating hazardous machinery until they are reasonably certain that ziprasidone therapy does not affect them adversely.
One case of priapism was reported in the premarketing database. While the relationship of the reaction to ziprasidone use has not been established, other drugs with alpha-adrenergic blocking effects have been reported to induce priapism, and it is possible that ziprasidone may share this capacity. Severe priapism may require surgical intervention.
5.17 Body Temperature Regulation
Although not reported with ziprasidone in premarketing trials, disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing ziprasidone for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration.
The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in psychotic illness or bipolar disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for ziprasidone should be written for the smallest quantity of capsules consistent with good patient management in order to reduce the risk of overdose.
5.19 Patients With Concomitant Illnesses
Clinical experience with ziprasidone in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited
Use in Specific Populations (8.6),
Ziprasidone has not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were excluded from premarketing clinical studies. Because of the risk of QTc prolongation and orthostatic hypotension with ziprasidone, caution should be observed in cardiac patients.
Warnings and Precautions (5.3), (
5.20 Laboratory Tests
Patients being considered for ziprasidone treatment that are at risk of significant electrolyte disturbances should have baseline serum potassium and magnesium measurements. Low serum potassium and magnesium should be replaced before proceeding with treatment. Patients who are started on diuretics during Ziprasidone therapy need periodic monitoring of serum potassium and magnesium. Ziprasidone should be discontinued in patients who are found to have persistent QTc measurements >500 msec
Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
- Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
- Clinical trials for oral ziprasidone included approximately 5700 patients and/or normal subjects exposed to one or more doses of ziprasidone. Of these 5700, over 4800 were patients who participated in multiple-dose effectiveness trials, and their experience corresponded to approximately 1831 patient-years. These patients include: (1) 4331 patients who participated in multiple-dose trials, predominantly in schizophrenia, representing approximately 1698 patient-years of exposure as of February 5, 2000; and (2) 472 patients who participated in bipolar mania trials representing approximately 133 patient-years of exposure. An additional 127 patients with bipolar disorder participated in a long-term maintenance treatment study representing approximately 74.7 patient-years of exposure to ziprasidone. The conditions and duration of treatment with ziprasidone included open-label and double-blind studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, and short-term and longer-term exposure.
- Clinical trials for intramuscular ziprasidone included 570 patients and/or normal subjects who received one or more injections of ziprasidone. Over 325 of these subjects participated in trials involving the administration of multiple doses.
- Adverse reactions during exposure were obtained by collecting voluntarily reported adverse experiences, as well as results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, ECGs, and results of ophthalmologic examinations.
- The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation.
- Adverse Findings Observed in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials with Oral Ziprasidone The following findings are based on the short-term placebo-controlled premarketing trials for schizophrenia (a pool of two 6-week, and two 4-week fixed-dose trials) and bipolar mania (a pool of two 3-week flexible-dose trials) in which ziprasidone was administered in doses ranging from 10 to 200 mg/day.
- Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Short Term Placebo-Controlled Trials The following adverse reactions were the most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of ziprasidone (incidence of 5% or greater) and not observed at an equivalent incidence among placebo-treated patients (ziprasidone incidence at least twice that for placebo):
- Schizophrenia trials
- (see Table 11) • Somnolence
- • Respiratory Tract Infection
- Bipolar trials
- (see Table 12)SomnolenceExtrapyramidal Symptoms which includes the following adverse reaction terms: extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching. None of these adverse reactions occurred individually at an incidence greater than 10% in bipolar mania trials.Dizziness which includes the adverse reaction terms dizziness and lightheadedness. Akathisia Abnormal Vision Asthenia Vomiting SCHIZOPHRENIAAdverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Oral ZiprasidoneApproximately 4.1% (29/702) of ziprasidone-treated patients in short-term, placebo-controlled studies discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with about 2.2% (6/273) on placebo. The most common reaction associated with dropout was rash, including 7 dropouts for rash among ziprasidone patients (1%) compared to no placebo patients
- Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
- Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Ziprasidone-Treated Patients in Short-Term, Oral, Placebo-Controlled Trials Table 11 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 6 weeks) in predominantly patients with schizophrenia, including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with ziprasidone and for which the incidence in patients treated with ziprasidone was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.
- Table 11: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reaction Incidence In Short-Term Oral Placebo-Controlled Trials – Schizophrenia Percentage of Patients Reporting ReactionBody System/Adverse ReactionZiprasidone (N=702)Placebo (N=273)Body as a WholeAsthenia 53Accidental Injury 42Chest Pain 32CardiovascularTachycardia 21DigestiveNausea 107Constipation 98Dyspepsia 87Diarrhea 54Dry Mouth 42Anorexia 21NervousExtrapyramidal Symptoms* 148Somnolence 147Akathisia 87Dizziness** 86RespiratoryRespiratory Tract Infection 83Rhinitis 42Cough Increased 31Skin and AppendagesRash 43Fungal Dermatitis 21Special SensesAbnormal Vision32* Extrapyramidal Symptoms includes the following adverse reaction terms: extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching. None of these adverse reactions occurred individually at an incidence greater than 5% in schizophrenia trials.
- ** Dizziness includes the adverse reaction terms dizziness and lightheadedness.
- Dose Dependency of Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Fixed-Dose, Placebo-Controlled TrialsAn analysis for dose response in the schizophrenia 4-study pool revealed an apparent relation of adverse reaction to dose for the following reactions: asthenia, postural hypotension, anorexia, dry mouth, increased salivation, arthralgia, anxiety, dizziness, dystonia, hypertonia, somnolence, tremor, rhinitis, rash, and abnormal vision.
- Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) -The incidence of reported EPS (which included the adverse reaction terms extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching) for ziprasidone-treated patients in the short-term, placebo-controlled schizophrenia trials was 14% vs. 8% for placebo. Objectively collected data from those trials on the Simpson-Angus Rating Scale (for EPS) and the Barnes Akathisia Scale (for akathisia) did not generally show a difference between ziprasidone and placebo.
- Dystonia -
- Class Effect: Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups.
- Vital Sign Changes -Ziprasidone is associated with orthostatic hypotension
- Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
- ECG Changes -Ziprasidone is associated with an increase in the QTc interval
- Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
- In the schizophrenia trials, ziprasidone was associated with a mean increase in heart rate of 1.4 beats per minute compared to a 0.2 beats per minute decrease among placebo patients.
- Other Adverse Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Oral ZiprasidoneFollowing is a list of COSTART terms that reflect treatment-emergent adverse reactions as defined in the introduction to the
- ADVERSE REACTIONS section reported by patients treated with ziprasidone in schizophrenia trials at multiple doses >4 mg/day within the database of 3834 patients. All reported reactions are included except those already listed in Table 11 or elsewhere in labeling, those reaction terms that were so general as to be uninformative, reactions reported only once and that did not have a substantial probability of being acutely life-threatening, reactions that are part of the illness being treated or are otherwise common as background reactions, and reactions considered unlikely to be drug-related. It is important to emphasize that, although the reactions reported occurred during treatment with ziprasidone, they were not necessarily caused by it.
- Adverse reactions are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions:
- Frequent adverse reactions occurring in at least 1/100 patients (≥1.0% of patients) (only those not already listed in the tabulated results from placebo-controlled trials appear in this listing);
- Infrequent adverse reactions occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients (in 0.1-1.0% of patients)
- Rare adverse reactions occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients (<0.1% of patients).
- Body as a WholeFrequent abdominal pain, flu syndrome, fever, accidental fall, face edema, chills, photosensitivity reaction, flank pain, hypothermia, motor vehicle accident
- Cardiovascular System Frequent tachycardia, hypertension, postural hypotension
- Infrequent bradycardia, angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation
- Rare first degree AV block, bundle branch block, phlebitis, pulmonary embolus, cardiomegaly, cerebral infarct, cerebrovascular accident, deep thrombophlebitis, myocarditis, thrombophlebitis
- Digestive SystemFrequent anorexia, vomiting
- Infrequent rectal hemorrhage, dysphagia, tongue edema
- Rare gum hemorrhage, jaundice, fecal impaction, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase increased, hematemesis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, leukoplakia of mouth, fatty liver deposit, melena
- Endocrine Rare hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis
- Hemic and Lymphatic System Infrequent anemia, ecchymosis, leukocytosis, leukopenia, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy
- Rare thrombocytopenia, hypochromic anemia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, basophilia, lymphedema, polycythemia, thrombocythemia
- Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Infrequent thirst, transaminase increased, peripheral edema, hyperglycemia, creatin, phosphokinase increased, alkaline phosphatase increased, hypercholesteremia, dehydration, lactic dehydrogenase increased, albuminuria, hypokalemia
- Rare BUN increased, creatinine increased, hyperlipemia, hypocholesteremia, hyperkalemia, hypochloremia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, glucose tolerance decreased, gout, hyperchloremia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemicreaction, hypomagnesemia, ketosis, respiratory alkalosis
- Musculoskeletal SystemFrequent myalgia
- Infrequent tenosynovitis
- Rare myopathy
- Nervous System Frequent agitation, extrapyramidal syndrome, tremor, dystonia, hypertonia, dyskinesia, hostility, twitching, paresthesia, confusion, vertigo, hypokinesia, hyperkinesia, abnormal gait, oculogyric crisis, hypesthesia, ataxia, amnesia, cogwheel rigidity, delirium, hypotonia, akinesia, dysarthria, withdrawal syndrome, buccoglossal syndrome, choreoathetosis, diplopia, incoordination, neuropathy
- Infrequent paralysis
- Rare myoclonus, nystagmus, torticollis, circumoral paresthesia, opisthotonos, reflexes increased, trismus
- Respiratory SystemFrequent dyspnea
- Infrequent pneumonia, epistaxis
- Rare hemoptysis, laryngismus
- Skin and Appendages Infrequent maculopapular rash, urticaria, alopecia, eczema, exfoliative dermatitis, contact dermatitis, vesiculobullous rash
- Special Senses Frequent fungal dermatitis
- Infrequent conjunctivitis, dry eyes, tinnitus, blepharitis, cataract, photophobia
- Rare eye hemorrhage, visual field defect, keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis
- Urogenital System Infrequent impotence, abnormal ejaculation, amenorrhea, hematuria, menorrhagia, female lactation, polyuria, urinary retention metrorrhagia, male sexual dysfunction, anorgasmia, glycosuria
- Rare gynecomastia, vaginal hemorrhage, nocturia, oliguria, female sexual dysfunction, uterine hemorrhage
- BIPOLAR DISORDERAcute Treatment of Manic or Mixed EpisodesAdverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in Short Term, Placebo-Controlled TrialsApproximately 6.5% (18/279) of ziprasidone-treated patients in short-term, placebo-controlled studies discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with about 3.7% (5/136) on placebo. The most common reactions associated with dropout in the ziprasidone-treated patients were akathisia, anxiety, depression, dizziness, dystonia, rash and vomiting, with 2 dropouts for each of these reactions among ziprasidone patients (1%) compared to one placebo patient each for dystonia and rash (1%) and no placebo patients for the remaining adverse reactions.
- Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Ziprasidone-Treated Patients in Short-Term, Oral, Placebo-Controlled TrialsTable 12 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 3 weeks) in patients with bipolar mania, including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with ziprasidone and for which the incidence in patients treated with ziprasidone was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.
- Table 12: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Incidence In Short-Term Oral Placebo-Controlled Trials –Manic and Mixed Episodes Associated with Bipolar Disorder
- Percentage of Patients Reporting ReactionBody System/Adverse ReactionZiprasidone (N=279)Placebo (N=136)Body as a WholeHeadache1817Asthenia 62Accidental Injury 41CardiovascularHypertension32DigestiveNausea 107Diarrhea54Dry mouth54Vomiting52Increased Salivation40Tongue Edema31Dysphagia20MucoskeletalMyalgia20NervousSomnolence3112Extrapyramidal Symptoms*3112Dizziness** 167Akathisia 105Anxiety54Hypesthesia21Speech Disorder 20RespiratoryPharyngitis 31Dyspnea 21Skin and AppendagesFungal Dermatitis21Special SensesAbnormal Vision 63* Extrapyramidal Symptoms includes the following adverse reaction terms: extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching. None of these adverse reactions occurred individually at an incidence greater than 10% in bipolar mania trials.
- **Dizziness includes the adverse reaction terms dizziness and lightheadedness.
- Explorations for interactions on the basis of gender did not reveal any clinically meaningful differences in the adverse reaction occurrence on the basis of this demographic factor.
- INTRAMUSCULAR ZIPRASIDONE Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 1% or More Among Ziprasidone-Treated Patients in Short-Term Trials of Intramuscular ZiprasidoneTable 13 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy with intramuscular ziprasidone in 1% or more of patients.
- In these studies, the most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of intramuscular ziprasidone (incidence of 5% or greater) and observed at a rate on intramuscular ziprasidone (in the higher dose groups) at least twice that of the lowest intramuscular ziprasidone group were headache (13%), nausea (12%), and somnolence (20%).
- Table 13: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reaction Incidence In Short-TermFixed-Dose Intramuscular Trials
Percentage of Patients Reporting ReactionBody System/Adverse ReactionZiprasidone 2 mg (N=92)Ziprasidone 10 mg (N=63)Ziprasidone 20 mg (N=41)Body as a WholeHeadache
Injection Site Pain
Skin and AppendagesFurunculosis
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of ziprasidone mesylate for injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse reaction reports not listed above that have been received since market introduction include rare occurrences of the following :
Cardiac Disorders: Tachycardia, torsade de pointes (in the presence of multiple confounding factors),
Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]; Digestive System Disorders
: Swollen Tongue;
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Galactorrhea, priapism;
Nervous System Disorders: Facial Droop, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome (alone or in combination with serotonergic medicinal products), tardive dyskinesia;
Psychiatric Disorders: Insomnia, mania/hypomania;
Skin and subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Allergic reaction (such as allergic dermatitis, angioedema, orofacial edema, urticaria), rash, Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS);
Urogenital System Disorders: Enuresis, urinary incontinence;
Vascular Disorders: Postural hypotension, syncope.
7 Drug Interactions
Drug-drug interactions can be pharmacodynamic (combined pharmacologic effects) or pharmacokinetic (alteration of plasma levels). The risks of using ziprasidone in combination with other drugs have been evaluated as described below. All interactions studies have been conducted with oral ziprasidone. Based upon the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of ziprasidone, possible interactions could be anticipated:
7.1 Metabolic Pathway
Approximately two-thirds of ziprasidone is metabolized via a combination of chemical reduction by glutathione and enzymatic reduction by aldehyde oxidase. There are no known clinically relevant inhibitors or inducers of aldehyde oxidase. Less than one-third of ziprasidone metabolic clearance is mediated by cytochrome P450 catalyzed oxidation.
7.2 In Vitro Studies
in vitro enzyme inhibition study utilizing human liver microsomes showed that ziprasidone had little inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, and thus would not likely interfere with the metabolism of drugs primarily metabolized by these enzymes. There is little potential for drug interactions with ziprasidone due to displacement
Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
7.3 Pharmacodynamic Interactions
Ziprasidone should not be used with any drug that prolongs the QT interval
Given the primary CNS effects of ziprasidone, caution should be used when it is taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs.
Because of its potential for inducing hypotension, ziprasidone may enhance the effects of certain antihypertensive agents.
Ziprasidone may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists.
7.4 Pharmacokinetic Interactions
Carbamazepine Carbamazepine is an inducer of CYP3A4; administration of 200 mg twice daily for 21 days resulted in a decrease of approximately 35% in the AUC of ziprasidone. This effect may be greater when higher doses of carbamazepine are administered.
KetoconazoleKetoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, at a dose of 400 mg QD for 5 days, increased the AUC and C
max of ziprasidone by about 35-40%. Other inhibitors of CYP3A4 would be expected to have similar effects.
CimetidineCimetidine at a dose of 800 mg QD for 2 days did not affect ziprasidone pharmacokinetics.
Antacid The co-administration of 30 mL of Maalox
® with ziprasidone did not affect the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone.
Ziprasidone at a dose of 40 mg twice daily administered concomitantly with lithium at a dose of 450 mg twice daily for 7 days did not affect the steady-state level or renal clearance of lithium. Ziprasidone dosed adjunctively to lithium in a maintenance trial of bipolar patients did not affect mean therapeutic lithium levels.
7.6 Oral Contraceptives
In vivo studies have revealed no effect of ziprasidone on the pharmacokinetics of estrogen or progesterone components. Ziprasidone at a dose of 20 mg twice daily did not affect the pharmacokinetics of concomitantly administered oral contraceptives, ethinyl estradiol (0.03 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.15 mg).
in vitro results, a study in normal healthy volunteers showed that ziprasidone did not alter the metabolism of dextromethorphan, a CYP2D6 model substrate, to its major metabolite, dextrorphan. There was no statistically significant change in the urinary dextromethorphan/dextrorphan ratio.
A pharmacokinetic interaction of ziprasidone with valproate is unlikely due to the lack of common metabolic pathways for the two drugs. Ziprasidone dosed adjunctively to valproate in a maintenance trial of bipolar patients did not affect mean therapeutic valproate levels.
7.9 Other Concomitant Drug Therapy
Population pharmacokinetic analysis of schizophrenic patients enrolled in controlled clinical trials has not revealed evidence of any clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with benztropine, propranolol, or lorazepam.
Pregnancy Exposure RegistryThere is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to atypical antipsychotics, including ziprasidone mesylate for injection, during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by contacting the National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics at 1-866-961-2388 or online at http://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/
Risk SummaryNeonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs, including ziprasidone mesylate for injection, during the third trimester are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery (see Clinical Considerations). Overall available data from published epidemiologic studies of pregnant women exposed to ziprasidone have not established a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data). There are risks to the mother associated with untreated schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder and with exposure to antipsychotics, including ziprasidone mesylate for injection, during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).
In animal studies, ziprasidone administration to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis caused developmental toxicity at doses similar to recommended human doses, and was teratogenic in rabbits at 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). Rats exposed to ziprasidone during gestation and lactation exhibited increased perinatal pup mortality and delayed neurobehavioral and functional
development of offspring at doses less than or similar to human therapeutic doses. (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.Clinical ConsiderationsDisease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal riskThere is risk to the mother from untreated schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder, including increased risk of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are associated with increased adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth. It is not known if this is a direct result of the illness or other comorbid factors.
Fetal/neonatal adverse reactionsExtrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms, including agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder have been reported in neonates who were exposed to antipsychotic drugs, including ziprasidone mesylate for injection, during the third trimester of pregnancy.
These symptoms have varied in severity. Monitor neonates for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms and manage symptoms appropriately. Some neonates recovered within hours or days without specific treatment; others required prolonged hospitalization.
DataHuman DataPublished data from observational studies, birth registries, and case reports on the use of atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy do not report a clear association with antipsychotics and major birth defects. A retrospective cohort study from a Medicaid database of 9258 women exposed to antipsychotics during pregnancy did not indicate an overall increased risk for major birth defects.
Animal DataWhen ziprasidone was administered to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis, an increased incidence of fetal structural abnormalities (ventricular septal defects and other cardiovascular malformations, and kidney alterations) was observed at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day (3 times the MRHD of 200 mg/day based on mg/m2 body surface area). There was no evidence to suggest that these developmental effects were secondary to maternal toxicity. The developmental no effect dose was 10 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the MRHD based on a mg/m2 body surface area). In rats, embryofetal toxicity (decreased fetal weights, delayed skeletal ossification) was observed following administration of 10 to 160 mg/kg/day (0.5 to 8 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area) during organogenesis or throughout gestation, but there was no evidence of teratogenicity. Doses of 40 and 160 mg/kg/day (2 and 8 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area) were associated with maternal toxicity. The developmental no-effect dose is 5 mg/kg/day (0.2 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area).
There was an increase in the number of pups born dead and a decrease in postnatal survival through the first
4 days of lactation among the offspring of female rats treated during gestation and lactation with doses of 10 mg/kg/day (0.5 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area) or greater. Offspring developmental delays (decreased pup weights) and neurobehavioral functional impairment (eye opening air righting) were observed at doses of 5 mg/kg/day (0.2 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area) or greater. A no-effect level was not established for these effects.
Risk SummaryLimited data from a published case report indicate the presence of ziprasidone in human milk. Although there are no reports of adverse effects on a breastfed infant exposed to ziprasidone via breast milk, there are reports of excess sedation, irritability, poor feeding, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements) in infants exposed to other atypical antipsychotics through breast milk (see Clinical
Considerations). There is no information on the effects of ziprasidone on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ziprasidone mesylate for injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from ziprasidone mesylate for injection or from the mother’s underlying condition.
Clinical ConsiderationsInfants exposed to ziprasidone mesylate for injection should be monitored for excess sedation, irritability, poor feeding, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements).
8.3 Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
InfertilityFemalesBased on the pharmacologic action of ziprasidone (D2 antagonism), treatment with ziprasidone mesylate for injection may result in an increase in serum prolactin levels, which may lead to a reversible reduction in fertility in females of reproductive potential
[see Warnings and Precautions (5.15) and Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of ziprasidone in pediatric patients have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of ziprasidone, 2.4 percent were 65 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, the presence of multiple factors that might increase the pharmacodynamic response to ziprasidone, or cause poorer tolerance or orthostasis, should lead to consideration of a lower starting dose, slower titration, and careful monitoring during the initial dosing period for some elderly patients.
Ziprasidone intramuscular has not been systematically evaluated in elderly patients (65 years and over).
8.6 Renal Impairment
Because ziprasidone is highly metabolized, with less than 1% of the drug excreted unchanged, renal impairment alone is unlikely to have a major impact on the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone. The pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone following 8 days of 20 mg twice daily dosing were similar among subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment (n=27), and subjects with normal renal function, indicating that dosage adjustment based upon the degree of renal impairment is not required. Ziprasidone is not removed by hemodialysis.
Intramuscular ziprasidone has not been systematically evaluated in elderly patients or in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. As the cyclodextrin excipient is cleared by renal filtration, ziprasidone intramuscular should be administered with caution to patients with impaired renal function
Clinical Pharmacology (12)].
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
As ziprasidone is cleared substantially by the liver, the presence of hepatic impairment would be expected to increase the AUC of ziprasidone; a multiple-dose study at 20 mg twice daily for 5 days in subjects (n=13) with clinically significant (Childs-Pugh Class A and B) cirrhosis revealed an increase in AUC
0-12 of 13% and 34% in Childs-Pugh Class A and B, respectively, compared to a matched control group (n=14). A half-life of 7.1 hours was observed in subjects with cirrhosis compared to 4.8 hours in the control group.
8.8 Age And Gender Effects
In a multiple-dose (8 days of treatment) study involving 32 subjects, there was no difference in the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone between men and women or between elderly (>65 years) and young (18 to 45 years) subjects. Additionally, population pharmacokinetic evaluation of patients in controlled trials has revealed no evidence of clinically significant age or gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone. Dosage modifications for age or gender are, therefore, not recommended.
in vitro studies utilizing human liver enzymes, ziprasidone is not a substrate for CYP1A2; smoking should therefore not have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone. Consistent with these
in vitro results, population pharmacokinetic evaluation has not revealed any significant pharmacokinetic differences between smokers and nonsmokers.
Ziprasidone has not been systematically studied, in animals or humans, for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. While the clinical trials did not reveal any tendency for drug-seeking behavior, these observations were not systematic and it is not possible to predict on the basis of this limited experience the extent to which ziprasidone will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, patients should be evaluated carefully for a history of drug abuse, and such patients should be observed closely for signs of ziprasidone misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, increases in dose, drug-seeking behavior).
10.1 Human Experience
In premarketing trials involving more than 5400 patients and/or normal subjects, accidental or intentional overdosage of oral ziprasidone was documented in 10 patients. All of these patients survived without sequelae. In the patient taking the largest confirmed amount, 3,240 mg, the only symptoms reported were minimal sedation, slurring of speech, and transitory hypertension (200/95).
Adverse reactions reported with ziprasidone overdose included extrapyramidal symptoms, somnolence, tremor, and anxiety.
Adverse Reactions (6.2)]
10.2 Management Of Overdosage
In case of acute overdosage, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Intravenous access should be established, and gastric lavage (after intubation, if patient is unconscious) and administration of activated charcoal together with a laxative should be considered. The possibility of obtundation, seizure, or dystonic reaction of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk of aspiration with induced emesis.
Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias. If antiarrhythmic therapy is administered, disopyramide, procainamide, and quinidine carry a theoretical hazard of additive QT-prolonging effects that might be additive to those of ziprasidone.
Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids. If sympathomimetic agents are used for vascular support, epinephrine and dopamine should not be used, since beta stimulation combined with α
1 antagonism associated with ziprasidone may worsen hypotension. Similarly, it is reasonable to expect that the alpha-adrenergic-blocking properties of bretylium might be additive to those of ziprasidone, resulting in problematic hypotension.
In cases of severe extrapyramidal symptoms, anticholinergic medication should be administered. There is no specific antidote to ziprasidone, and it is not dialyzable. The possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.
Ziprasidone mesylate for injection is available as an injection (ziprasidone mesylate) for intramuscular use only. Ziprasidone is a psychotropic agent that is chemically unrelated to phenothiazine or butyrophenone antipsychotic agents. It has a molecular weight of 412.94 (free base), with the following chemical name: 5-[2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-6-chloro-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one. The empirical formula of C
4OS (free base of ziprasidone) represents the following structural formula:
Structure.jpgZiprasidone mesylate for injection contains a lyophilized form of ziprasidone mesylate trihydrate. Chemically, ziprasidone mesylate trihydrate is 5-[2-[4-(1,2 benzisothiazol-3-yl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-6-chloro-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, methanesulfonate, trihydrate. The empirical formula is C
4OS • CH
3H • 3H
2O and its molecular weight is 563.09.
Ziprasidone mesylate for injection is available in a single-dose vial as ziprasidone mesylate (20 mg ziprasidone/mL when reconstituted according to label instructions)
Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Each mL of ziprasidone mesylate for injection (when reconstituted) contains 20 mg of ziprasidone and 4.7 mg of methanesulfonic acid solubilized by 294 mg of sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin sodium (SBECD).
12.1 Mechanism Of Action
The mechanism of action of ziprasidone, as with other drugs having efficacy in schizophrenia, is unknown. However, it has been proposed that this drug’s efficacy in schizophrenia is mediated through a combination of dopamine type 2 (D
2) and serotonin type 2 (5HT
2) antagonism. As with other drugs having efficacy in bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action of ziprasidone in bipolar disorder is unknown.
Ziprasidone exhibited high
in vitro binding affinity for the dopamine D
2 and D3, the serotonin 5HT
1D, and α
1-adrenergic receptors (K
i s of 4.8, 7.2, 0.4, 1.3, 3.4, 2, and 10 nM, respectively), and moderate affinity for the histamine H
1 receptor (K
i=47 nM). Ziprasidone functioned as an antagonist at the D
2A, and 5HT
1D receptors, and as an agonist at the 5HT
1A receptor. Ziprasidone inhibited synaptic reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. No appreciable affinity was exhibited for other receptor/binding sites tested, including the cholinergic muscarinic receptor (IC
50 >1 μM). Antagonism at receptors other than dopamine and 5HT
2 with similar receptor affinities may explain some of the other therapeutic and side effects of ziprasidone. Ziprasidone’s antagonism of histamine H
1 receptors may explain the somnolence observed with this drug. Ziprasidone’s antagonism of α
1-adrenergic receptors may explain the orthostatic hypotension observed with this drug.
Ziprasidone's activity is primarily due to the parent drug. The multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone are dose-proportional within the proposed clinical dose range, and ziprasidone accumulation is predictable with multiple dosing. Elimination of ziprasidone is mainly via hepatic metabolism with a mean terminal half-life of about 7 hours within the proposed clinical dose range. Steady-state concentrations are achieved within one to three days of dosing. The mean apparent systemic clearance is 7.5 mL/min/kg. Ziprasidone is unlikely to interfere with the metabolism of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes.
Ziprasidone is well absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak plasma concentrations in 6 to 8 hours. The absolute bioavailability of a 20 mg dose under fed conditions is approximately 60%. The absorption of ziprasidone is increased up to two-fold in the presence of food.
Ziprasidone has a mean apparent volume of distribution of 1.5 L/kg. It is greater than 99% bound to plasma proteins, binding primarily to albumin and α
1-acid glycoprotein. The
in vitro plasma protein binding of ziprasidone was not altered by warfarin or propranolol, two highly protein-bound drugs, nor did ziprasidone alter the binding of these drugs in human plasma. Thus, the potential for drug interactions with ziprasidone due to displacement is minimal.
Metabolism and Elimination: Ziprasidone is extensively metabolized after oral administration with only a small amount excreted in the urine (<1%) or feces (<4%) as unchanged drug. Ziprasidone is primarily cleared via three metabolic routes to yield four major circulating metabolites, benzisothiazole (BITP) sulphoxide, BITP-sulphone, ziprasidone sulphoxide, and S-methyldihydroziprasidone. Approximately 20% of the dose is excreted in the urine, with approximately 66% being eliminated in the feces. Unchanged ziprasidone represents about 44% of total drug-related material in serum.
In vitro studies using human liver subcellular fractions indicate that S-methyldihydroziprasidone is generated in two steps. These studies indicate that the reduction reaction is mediated primarily by chemical reduction by glutathione as well as by enzymatic reduction by aldehyde oxidase and the subsequent methylation is mediated by thiol methyltransferase. In vitro studies using human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes indicate that CYP3A4 is the major CYP contributing to the oxidative metabolism of ziprasidone. CYP1A2 may contribute to a much lesser extent. Based on
in vivo abundance of excretory metabolites, less than one-third of ziprasidone metabolic clearance is mediated by cytochrome P450 catalyzed oxidation and approximately two-thirds via reduction. There are no known clinically relevant inhibitors or inducers of aldehyde oxidase.
Intramuscular Pharmacokinetics Systemic Bioavailability:
The bioavailability of ziprasidone administered intramuscularly is 100%. After intramuscular administration of single doses, peak serum concentrations typically occur at approximately 60 minutes post-dose or earlier and the mean half-life (T
½) ranges from two to five hours. Exposure increases in a dose-related manner and following three days of intramuscular dosing, little accumulation is observed.
Metabolism and Elimination:
Although the metabolism and elimination of IM ziprasidone have not been systematically evaluated, the intramuscular route of administration would not be expected to alter the metabolic pathways.
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenesis Lifetime carcinogenicity studies were conducted with ziprasidone in Long Evans rats and CD-1 mice. Ziprasidone was administered for 24 months in the diet at doses of 2, 6, or 12 mg/kg/day to rats, and 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day to mice (0.1 to 0.6 and 1 to 5 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 200 mg/day on a mg/m
2 basis, respectively). In the rat study, there was no evidence of an increased incidence of tumors compared to controls. In male mice, there was no increase in incidence of tumors relative to controls. In female mice, there were dose-related increases in the incidences of pituitary gland adenoma and carcinoma, and mammary gland adenocarcinoma at all doses tested (50 to 200 mg/kg/day or 1 to 5 times the MRHD on a mg/m
2 basis). Proliferative changes in the pituitary and mammary glands of rodents have been observed following chronic administration of other antipsychotic agents and are considered to be prolactin-mediated. Increases in serum prolactin were observed in a 1-month dietary study in female, but not male, mice at 100 and 200 mg/kg/day (or 2.5 and 5 times the MRHD on a mg/m
2 basis). Ziprasidone had no effect on serum prolactin in rats in a 5-week dietary study at the doses that were used in the carcinogenicity study. The relevance for human risk of the findings of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is unknown
Warnings and Precautions (5.14)].
Mutagenesis Ziprasidone was tested in the Ames bacterial mutation assay, the
in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation mouse lymphoma assay, the
in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, and the
in vivo chromosomal aberration assay in mouse bone marrow. There was a reproducible mutagenic response in the Ames assay in one strain of S.
typhimurium in the absence of metabolic activation. Positive results were obtained in both the
in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation assay and the
in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes.
Impairment of Fertility Ziprasidone was shown to increase time to copulation in Sprague-Dawley rats in two fertility and early embryonic development studies at doses of 10 to 160 mg/kg/day (0.5 to 8 times the MRHD of 200 mg/day on a mg/m
2 basis). Fertility rate was reduced at 160 mg/kg/day (8 times the MRHD on a mg/m
2 basis). There was no effect on fertility at 40 mg/kg/day (2 times the MRHD on a mg/m
2 basis). The effect on fertility appeared to be in the female since fertility was not impaired when males given 160 mg/kg/day (8 times the MRHD on a mg/m
2 basis) were mated with untreated females. In a 6-month study in male rats given 200 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD on a mg/m
2 basis) there were no treatment-related findings observed in the testes.
14.3 Acute Treatment Of Agitation In Schizophrenia
The efficacy of intramuscular ziprasidone in the management of agitated schizophrenic patients was established in two short-term, double-blind trials of schizophrenic subjects who were considered by the investigators to be “acutely agitated” and in need of IM antipsychotic medication. In addition, patients were required to have a score of 3 or more on at least 3 of the following items of the PANSS: anxiety, tension, hostility and excitement. Efficacy was evaluated by analysis of the area under the curve (AUC) of the Behavioural Activity Rating Scale (BARS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) severity rating. The BARS is a seven point scale with scores ranging from 1 (difficult or unable to rouse) to 7 (violent, requires restraint). Patients' scores on the BARS at baseline were mostly 5 (signs of overt activity [physical or verbal], calms down with instructions) and as determined by investigators, exhibited a degree of agitation that warranted intramuscular therapy. There were few patients with a rating higher than 5 on the BARS, as the most severely agitated patients were generally unable to provide informed consent for participation in premarketing clinical trials.
Both studies compared higher doses of ziprasidone intramuscular with a 2 mg control dose. In one study, the higher dose was 20 mg, which could be given up to 4 times in the 24 hours of the study, at interdose intervals of no less than 4 hours. In the other study, the higher dose was 10 mg, which could be given up to 4 times in the 24 hours of the study, at interdose intervals of no less than 2 hours.
The results of the intramuscular ziprasidone trials follow: (1) In a one-day, double-blind, randomized trial (n=79) involving doses of ziprasidone intramuscular of 20 mg or 2 mg, up to QID, ziprasidone intramuscular 20 mg was statistically superior to ziprasidone intramuscular 2 mg, as assessed by AUC of the BARS at 0 to 4 hours, and by CGI severity at 4 hours and study endpoint.
(2) In another one-day, double-blind, randomized trial (n=117) involving doses of ziprasidone intramuscular of 10 mg or 2 mg, up to QID, ziprasidone intramuscular 10 mg was statistically superior to ziprasidone intramuscular 2 mg, as assessed by AUC of the BARS at 0 to 2 hours, but not by CGI severity.
16 How Supplied/Storage And Handling
Ziprasidone mesylate for injection is available in a single-dose vial as ziprasidone mesylate (20 mg ziprasidone/mL when reconstituted according to label instructions)
Dosage and Administration (2.3)]
. Each mL of ziprasidone mesylate for injection (when reconstituted) affords a colorless to pale pink solution that contains 20 mg of ziprasidone and 4.7 mg of methanesulfonic acid solubilized by 294 mg of sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin sodium (SBECD).
Ziprasidone mesylate for injectionPackageConcentrationNDC CodeSingle-Dose Vials (carton of 10 vials)20 mg/mLNDC-72266-160-10Ziprasidone mesylate for injection should be stored at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature] in dry form. Protect from light. Following reconstitution, Ziprasidone mesylate for injection can be stored, when protected from light, for up to 24 hours at 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) or up to 7 days refrigerated, 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F).
17 Patient Counseling Information
QTc Prolongation Advise patients to inform their health care providers of the following: History of QT prolongation; recent acute myocardial infarction; uncompensated heart failure; prescription of other drugs that have demonstrated QT prolongation; risk for significant electrolyte abnormalities; and history of cardiac arrhythmia
Contraindications (4.1) and
Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Instruct patients to report the onset of any conditions that put them at risk for significant electrolyte disturbances, hypokalemia in particular, including but not limited to the initiation of diuretic therapy or prolonged diarrhea. In addition, patients should be instructed to report symptoms such as dizziness, palpitations, or syncope to the prescriber
Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Severe Cutaneous Adverse ReactionsInstruct patients to report to their health care provider at the earliest onset any signs or symptoms that may be associated with Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) or with severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome
[see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. PregnancyAdvise pregnant women to notify their healthcare provider if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during treatment with ziprasidone mesylate for injection. Advise patients that ziprasidone mesylate for injection may cause extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms (agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder) in a neonate. Advise patients that there is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to ziprasidone mesylate for injection during pregnancy
[see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
LactationAdvise breastfeeding women using ziprasidone mesylate for injection to monitor infants for excess sedation, irritability, poor feeding, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors, and abnormal muscle movements) and t seek medical care if they notice these signs
[see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].InfertilityAdvise females of reproductive potential that ziprasidone mesylate for injection may impair fertility due to an increase in serum prolactin levels. The effects on fertility are reversible [see Warnings and Precautions
(5.15) and Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].Distributed by:Fosun Pharma USA Inc.
Princeton, NJ 08540
Made in India.
Revised: February 2020
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