- Draw the dose of CAVERJECT into the syringe.
- Replace the needle used for reconstitution with a 29 or 30 gauge one-half inch needle prior to injection.
- The reconstituted solution should be used within 24 hours when stored at or below 25°C (77°F).
Refer to the Patient Information and Instructions for Use in the FDA-approved patient labeling for the complete detailed instructions on reconstitution and needle preparation steps.
Local Adverse Reactions: Local adverse reactions derived from 1861 patients in clinical studies of CAVERJECT, including an 18-month, open-label study, are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Local Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 1% of Patients Treated with CAVERJECT for up to 18 Months
|Injection site hematoma||3%|
Penis disorder includes: numbness, irritation, sensitivity, pruritus, erythema, skin tear, discoloration, itching.
|Injection site ecchymosis||2%|
The following local adverse reactions were reported in < 1% of patients: injection site hemorrhage, injection site inflammation, injection site itching, injection site swelling, injection site edema, urethral bleeding, penile warmth, numbness, irritation, sensitivity, pruritus, erythema, painful erection, and abnormal ejaculation.
In these studies, no local adverse reactions were reported in the 294 patients who received placebo, except for penile pain (2%).
Penile Pain: In the majority of the cases, penile pain was rated mild or moderate in intensity. Three percent of patients discontinued treatment because of penile pain
Prolonged Erection/Priapism: Prolonged erection was defined as an erection that lasted for 4 to 6 hours; priapism was defined as an erection that lasted 6 hours or longer. In clinical studies the frequency of prolonged erection after intracavernosal administration of CAVERJECT was 4%, while the frequency of priapism was 0.4% [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Penile Hematoma/Ecchymosis: In clinical studies the frequency of penile hematoma and ecchymosis was 3% and 2%, respectively.
Systemic Adverse Reactions: Systemic adverse reactions reported by ≥ 1% of subjects in clinical studies of CAVERJECT included: dizziness (1%).
The following systemic adverse reactions were reported in < 1% of patients: testicular pain, scrotal edema, hematuria, pelvic pain, hypotension, vasodilation, vasovagal reaction, diaphoresis, rash, and non-application site pruritus. Three patients (0.2%) discontinued due to symptomatic hypotension.
No systemic adverse reactions were reported in the 294 patients who received placebo.
In addition to the adverse reactions observed for CAVERJECT, the following adverse reactions have been reported in clinical studies of CAVERJECT IMPULSE:
CAVERJECT IMPULSE was evaluated in 87 patients in an open-label crossover study of 6 weeks treatment duration that compared the formulation of alprostadil for injection contained in CAVERJECT IMPULSE with the formulation contained in CAVERJECT. Doses used in this study ranged from 2.5 mcg to 20 mcg. Adverse reactions reported for the CAVERJECT IMPULSE formulation included: penis disorder (4.6%), prolonged erection (1.1%), injection site erythema (1.1%), rash (1.1%), dizziness (1.1%), and hematospermia (1.1%). Penis disorder included penile pain, post-injection pain, and pain with erection.
CAVERJECT IMPULSE was also evaluated in 63 patients in a single-dose, double-blind, crossover study that compared CAVERJECT IMPULSE with CAVERJECT. Doses used in this study ranged from 2.5 mcg to 20 mcg. Adverse reactions reported for the CAVERJECT IMPULSE formulation included: penile pain (1.6%) and pruritis (1.6%).
Absorption: For the treatment of erectile dysfunction, alprostadil is administered by injection into the corpora cavernosa. The absolute bioavailability of alprostadil has not been determined.
Distribution: Following intracavernosal injection of 20 mcg alprostadil, mean peripheral plasma concentrations of alprostadil at 30 and 60 minutes after injection (89 picograms/mL and 102 picograms/mL, respectively) were not significantly greater than baseline levels of endogenous alprostadil (96 picograms/mL). Plasma levels of alprostadil were measured using a radioimmunoassay method. Alprostadil is bound in plasma primarily to albumin (81% bound) and to a lesser extent α-globulin IV-4 fraction (55% bound). No significant binding to erythrocytes or white blood cells was observed.
Metabolism: Alprostadil is converted to compounds which are further metabolized prior to excretion. Following intravenous administration, approximately 80% of circulating alprostadil is metabolized in one pass through the lungs, primarily by beta- and omega-oxidation. Following intracavernosal injection of 20 mcg alprostadil, peripheral levels of the major circulating metabolite, 13, 14-dihydro-15-oxo-PGE1, increased to reach a peak 30 minutes after injection and returned to pre-dose levels by 60 minutes after injection.
Excretion: The metabolites of alprostadil are excreted primarily by the kidney, with almost 90% of an administered intravenous dose excreted in urine within 24 hours post-dose. The remainder of the dose is excreted in the feces. There is no evidence of tissue retention of alprostadil or its metabolites following intravenous administration.
Pharmacokinetics in Specific Populations
Geriatric: The potential effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of alprostadil has not been formally evaluated.
Race: The potential effect of race on the pharmacokinetics of alprostadil has not been formally evaluated.
Renal and Hepatic Insufficiency: The pharmacokinetics of alprostadil have not been formally studied in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency.
Long-term carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted.
Alprostadil was negative in bacterial mutation (Ames), alkaline elution, rat micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange, CHO/HGPRT mammalian cell forward gene mutation, and unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assays.
Impairment of Fertility
Rat reproductive studies indicate that alprostadil at doses of up to 0.2 mg/kg/day does not adversely affect or alter rat spermatogenesis. These doses are approximately 48-fold higher than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 40 µg based on body surface area.
Study 1: A total of 153 men with ED with a mean age of 53 years (range 23–69 years) were enrolled. The study had three phases: a 2.5 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover phase in which each man received in-office injections of placebo or 2.5 mcg, 5 mcg, 7.5 mcg, or 10 mcg of CAVERJECT; a 2 week, open-label, in-office dose-titration phase to identify the optimum home-use dose (the latter dose was defined as a dose inducing an erection sufficient for intercourse and lasting ≤ 60 minutes); and a 4-week open-label, at-home phase. In the double-blind placebo-controlled, crossover phase, each dose of CAVERJECT was significantly more effective than placebo by clinical evaluation ("full penile rigidity") and by RigiScan criteria (≥ 70% rigidity for at least 10 minutes); there was no response to placebo. The percentage of responders increased with increasing doses of CAVERJECT. The overall response rates in the crossover and dose-titration phases were 76% (117/153) by clinical evaluation and 51% (78/152) by RigiScan criteria. Seventy-three percent of the injections in 102 men who used CAVERJECT in the at-home phase resulted in satisfactory intercourse. Seventy-five percent of the men who used CAVERJECT in the at-home phase remained on the dose identified as optimum for them during the dose-titration phase; 17% and 8% of the men decreased or increased their dose, respectively. The mean duration of erection per injection was 70.8 minutes.
Study 2: A total of 296 men with ED with a mean age of 54 years (range 21–74 years) were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-arm design study. The men were randomly assigned to one of five groups and received either a single dose of placebo, 2.5 mcg, 5 mcg, 10 mcg, or 20 mcg of CAVERJECT. No patient responded to placebo. The differences in the response rates in both the clinical and the RigiScan evaluations between each of the doses of CAVERJECT and placebo were statistically significant. There was also a statistically significant dose-response relationship with higher clinical response rates and higher RigiScan response rates with increasing doses of CAVERJECT (with exception of the 10-mcg dose). The mean duration of erection after injection ranged from 12 minutes after the 2.5-mcg dose to 44 minutes after the 20-mcg dose and the relationship was linear (p = .025, linear regression analysis).
Study 3: The efficacy of CAVERJECT was further evaluated in a 6-month, open-label, at-home study in 683 men with ED with a mean age of 58 years (range 20–79 years). The optimum dose of CAVERJECT was established by titration in 89% of men (606/683). A total of 471/683 men (69%) completed the 6-month study. Eighty-seven percent of the 13,762 injections of CAVERJECT administered resulted in satisfactory sexual activity. The mean duration of erection was 67.5 minutes.
The formulation of alprostadil contained in CAVERJECT IMPULSE was compared to CAVERJECT in 87 men with ED in a single-blind, crossover study. The doses used by the patients in the study ranged from 2.5 mcg to 20 mcg and were the same for both formulations. The efficacy of the two formulations was shown to be comparable, as assessed by the 30-point erectile function (EF) domain score from the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and by a physician-assessment score for erectile response. The mean EF domain scores for CAVERJECT and the formulation contained in CAVERJECT were 26.6 (SD=5.3) and 27.6 (SD=3.8), respectively. The mean physician's assessment scores for CAVERJECT and the formulation contained in CAVERJECT IMPULSE were 2.6 (SD=0.6) and 2.7 (SD=0.5), respectively, based on a scale of 0 (no tumescence) to 3 (full rigidity).
Dosing and Self-Administration
To ensure safe and effective use of CAVERJECT, instruct and train the patient in the self-injection technique before he begins intracavernosal treatment with CAVERJECT, at home. Inform the patient the initial dose administration and dose titration will take place in the physician's office [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Once the home dose of CAVERJECT has been established instruct the patient not to change the dose without consulting their physician.
The patient may expect an erection to occur within 5 minutes to 20 minutes and it should last no longer than 1 hour. CAVERJECT should be used no more than 3 times per week, with at least 24 hours between each use [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Inform the patient that they must visit the physician's office for regular check-ups for assessment of the therapeutic benefit and safety of treatment with CAVERJECT.
When self-administering the patient should be instructed to [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3)]:
- Discard any reconstituted solution with precipitates or discoloration
- Administer the injection along the dorso-lateral aspect of the proximal third of the penis
- Wipe the intended injection site with an alcohol swab prior to injection
- Avoid visible veins during injection
- Alternate the side of the penis that is injected and the site of injection
- Compress the site of injection with an alcohol swab or sterile gauze for 5 minutes
- Use each CAVERJECT vial only once and discard after use. Use a new vial of CAVERJECT for each dose.
- Not use a bent needle for reconstitution or injection. Do not attempt to straighten a bent needle. Remove the needle from the syringe, discard it, and attach a new, unused sterile needle to the syringe.
- Not re-use or share needles and to properly discard after use
Advise patients that needle breakage has occurred during self-injection of CAVERJECT. Advise patients to insert the needle perpendicular to the long access of the penis to avoid bending or breakage of the needle [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Advise patients that the most frequently occurring side-effect is penile pain after injection, and is usually mild to moderate in severity [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
A potentially serious adverse reaction with intracavernosal therapy of CAVERJECT is priapism. Instruct the patient to seek immediate medical assistance if an erection persists for longer than 4 hours [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Penile fibrosis has been reported in clinical studies with CAVERJECT. Advise the patient to report any penile pain that was not present before or that increased in intensity, as well as the occurrence of nodules or hard tissue in the penis or curvature of the erect penis to his physician as soon as possible. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Injection Site Reactions
Inform the patient that injection of CAVERJECT can induce a small amount of bleeding at the site of injection and that hematoma and ecchymosis may occur. Advise the patient to report any persistent redness, tenderness or swelling [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Sexually Transmitted Disease
Use of intracavernosal CAVERJECT offers no protection from the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Advise the patient about the protective measures that are necessary to guard against the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].