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1 Indications And Usage
APIDRA is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults and children with diabetes mellitus.
2.1 Dosage Considerations
APIDRA is a recombinant insulin analog that is equipotent to human insulin (i.e. one unit of APIDRA has the same glucose-lowering effect as one unit of regular human insulin) when given intravenously. When given subcutaneously, APIDRA has a more rapid onset of action and a shorter duration of action than regular human insulin. The dosage of APIDRA must be individualized. Blood glucose monitoring is essential in all patients receiving insulin therapy.The total daily insulin requirement may vary and is usually between 0.5 to 1 Unit/kg/day. Insulin requirements may be altered during stress, major illness, or with changes in exercise, meal patterns, or coadministered drugs.
2.2 Subcutaneous Administration
APIDRA should be given within 15 minutes before a meal or within 20 minutes after starting a meal.APIDRA given by subcutaneous injection should generally be used in regimens with an intermediate or long-acting insulin.APIDRA should be administered by subcutaneous injection in the abdominal wall, thigh, or upper arm. Injection sites should be rotated within the same region (abdomen, thigh or upper arm) from one injection to the next to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy [See Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
2.3 Continuous Subcutaneous Infusion (Insulin Pump)
- APIDRA may be administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion in the abdominal wall. Do not use diluted or mixed insulins in external insulin pumps. Infusion sites should be rotated within the same region to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy [See Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. The initial programming of the external insulin infusion pump should be based on the total daily insulin dose of the previous regimen.The following insulin pumps have been used in APIDRA clinical trials conducted by sanofi-aventis, the manufacturer of APIDRA:Disetronic® H-Tron® plus V100 and D-Tron® with Disetronic catheters (Rapid™, Rapid C™, Rapid D™, and Tender™)MiniMed® Models 506, 507, 507c and 508 with MiniMed catheters (Sof-set Ultimate QR™, and Quick-set™).Before using a different insulin pump with APIDRA, read the pump label to make sure the pump has been evaluated with APIDRA.Physicians and patients should carefully evaluate information on pump use in the APIDRA prescribing information, Patient Information Leaflet, and the pump manufacturer's manual. APIDRA-specific information should be followed for in-use time, frequency of changing infusion sets, or other details specific to APIDRA usage, because APIDRA-specific information may differ from general pump manual instructions. Failure to follow APIDRA-specific instructions may lead to serious adverse events.Patients administering APIDRA by continuous subcutaneous infusion must have an alternative insulin delivery system in case of pump system failure.Based on in vitro studies which have shown loss of the preservative, metacresol and insulin degradation, APIDRA in the reservoir should be changed at least every 48 hours. APIDRA should not be exposed to temperatures greater than 98.6°F (37°C). In clinical use, the infusion sets and the APIDRA in the reservoir must be changed at least every 48 hours [See Warnings and Precautions (5.8) and How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16.2)].
2.4 Intravenous Administration
APIDRA can be administered intravenously under medical supervision for glycemic control with close monitoring of blood glucose and serum potassium to avoid hypoglycemia and hypokalemia. For intravenous use, APIDRA should be used at concentrations of 0.05 Units/mL to 1 Unit/mL insulin glulisine in infusion systems using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. APIDRA has been shown to be stable only in normal saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride). Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not administer insulin mixtures intravenously.
3 Dosage Forms And Strengths
- APIDRA 100 units per mL (U-100) is available as:10 mL vials3 mL SoloStar prefilled pen
- APIDRA is contraindicated: during episodes of hypoglycemiain patients who are hypersensitive to APIDRA or to any of its excipientsWhen used in patients with known hypersensitivity to APIDRA or its excipients, patients may develop localized or generalized hypersensitivity reactions [See Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
APIDRA SoloStar pens must never be shared between patients, even if the needle is changed. Patients using APIDRA vials must never reuse or share needles or syringes with another person. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.
5.2 Dosage Adjustment And Monitoring
Glucose monitoring is essential for patients receiving insulin therapy. Changes to an insulin regimen should be made cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may result in the need for a change in insulin dose. Concomitant oral antidiabetic treatment may need to be adjusted.As with all insulin preparations, the time course of action for APIDRA may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and is dependent on many conditions, including the site of injection, local blood supply, or local temperature. Patients who change their level of physical activity or meal plan may require adjustment of insulin dosages.
Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin therapy, including APIDRA. The risk of hypoglycemia increases with tighter glycemic control. Patients must be educated to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia may lead to unconsciousness and/or convulsions and may result in temporary or permanent impairment of brain function or death. Severe hypoglycemia requiring the assistance of another person and/or parenteral glucose infusion or glucagon administration has been observed in clinical trials with insulin, including trials with APIDRA. The timing of hypoglycemia usually reflects the time-action profile of the administered insulin formulations. Other factors such as changes in food intake (e.g., amount of food or timing of meals), injection site, exercise, and concomitant medications may also alter the risk of hypoglycemia [See Drug Interactions (7)]. As with all insulins, use caution in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness and in patients who may be predisposed to hypoglycemia (e.g., the pediatric population and patients who fast or have erratic food intake). The patient's ability to concentrate and react may be impaired as a result of hypoglycemia. This may present a risk in situations where these abilities are especially important, such as driving or operating other machinery.Rapid changes in serum glucose levels may induce symptoms similar to hypoglycemia in persons with diabetes, regardless of the glucose value. Early warning symptoms of hypoglycemia may be different or less pronounced under certain conditions, such as longstanding diabetes, diabetic nerve disease, use of medications such as beta-blockers [See Drug Interactions (7)], or intensified diabetes control. These situations may result in severe hypoglycemia (and, possibly, loss of consciousness) prior to the patient's awareness of hypoglycemia.Intravenously administered insulin has a more rapid onset of action than subcutaneously administered insulin, requiring closer monitoring for hypoglycemia.
5.4 Hypersensitivity And Allergic Reactions
Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, can occur with insulin products, including APIDRA [See Adverse reactions (6.1)].
All insulin products, including APIDRA, cause a shift in potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space, possibly leading to hypokalemia. Untreated hypokalemia may cause respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and death. Use caution in patients who may be at risk for hypokalemia (e.g., patients using potassium-lowering medications, patients taking medications sensitive to serum potassium concentrations). Monitor glucose and potassium frequently when APIDRA is administered intravenously.
5.6 Renal Or Hepatic Impairment
Frequent glucose monitoring and insulin dose reduction may be required in patients with renal or hepatic impairment [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].
5.7 Mixing Of Insulins
APIDRA for subcutaneous injection should not be mixed with insulin preparations other than NPH insulin. If APIDRA is mixed with NPH insulin, APIDRA should be drawn into the syringe first. Injection should occur immediately after mixing.Do not mix APIDRA with other insulins for intravenous administration or for use in a continuous subcutaneous infusion pump.APIDRA for intravenous administration should not be diluted with solutions other than 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline). The efficacy and safety of mixing APIDRA with diluents or other insulins for use in external subcutaneous infusion pumps have not been established.
5.8 Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pumps
When used in an external insulin pump for subcutaneous infusion, APIDRA should not be diluted or mixed with any other insulin. APIDRA in the reservoir must be changed at least every 48 hours. APIDRA should not be exposed to temperatures greater than 98.6°F (37°C).Malfunction of the insulin pump or infusion set or handling errors or insulin degradation can rapidly lead to hyperglycemia, ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis. Prompt identification and correction of the cause of hyperglycemia or ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis is necessary. Interim subcutaneous injections with APIDRA may be required. Patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump therapy must be trained to administer insulin by injection and have alternate insulin therapy available. [See Dosage and Administration (2.3), How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16), and Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].
5.9 Intravenous Administration
When APIDRA is administered intravenously, glucose and potassium levels must be closely monitored to avoid potentially fatal hypoglycemia and hypokalemia.Do not mix APIDRA with other insulins for intravenous administration. APIDRA may be diluted only in normal saline solution.
5.10 Drug Interactions
Some medications may alter insulin requirements and the risk for hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia [See Drug Interactions (7)].
5.11 Fluid Retention And Heart Failure With Concomitant Use Of Ppar-Gamma Agonists
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonists, can cause dose-related fluid retention, particularly when used in combination with insulin. Fluid retention may lead to or exacerbate heart failure. Patients treated with insulin, including APIDRA and a PPAR-gamma agonist should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care, and discontinuation or dose reduction of the PPAR-gamma agonist must be considered.
6 Adverse Reactions
- The following adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere:Hypoglycemia [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]Hypokalemia [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
6.1 Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying designs, the adverse reaction rates reported in one clinical trial may not be easily compared to those rates reported in another clinical trial, and may not reflect the rates actually observed in clinical practice.The frequencies of adverse drug reactions during APIDRA clinical trials in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus are listed in the tables below.Table 1: Treatment –emergent adverse events in pooled studies of adults with type 1 diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥ 5%) APIDRA, %(n=950)All comparatorsInsulin lispro, regular human insulin, insulin aspart, %(n=641)Nasopharyngitis10.612.9HypoglycemiaOnly severe symptomatic hypoglycemia6.86.7Upper respiratory tract infection6.65.6Influenza4.05.0Table 2: Treatment –emergent adverse events in pooled studies of adults with type 2 diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥ 5%)APIDRA, %(n=883)Regular human insulin, %(n=883)Upper respiratory tract infection10.57.7Nasopharyngitis7.68.2Edema peripheral7.57.8Influenza6.24.2Arthralgia5.96.3Hypertension3.95.3
- PediatricsTable 3 summarizes the adverse reactions occurring with frequency higher than 5% in a clinical study in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with APIDRA (n=277) or insulin lispro (n=295). Table 3: Treatment –emergent adverse events in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (adverse reactions with frequency ≥ 5%)APIDRA, %(n=277)Lispro, % (n=295)Nasopharyngitis9.09.5Upper respiratory tract infection8.310.8Headache6.911.2Hypoglycemic seizure6.14.7
- Severe symptomatic hypoglycemiaHypoglycemia is the most commonly observed adverse reaction in patients using insulin, including APIDRA [See Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. The rates and incidence of severe symptomatic hypoglycemia, defined as hypoglycemia requiring intervention from a third party, were comparable for all treatment regimens (see Table 4). In the phase 3 clinical trial, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a higher incidence of severe symptomatic hypoglycemia in the two treatment groups compared to adults with type 1 diabetes. (see Table 4) [See Clinical Studies (14)].Table 4: Severe Symptomatic HypoglycemiaSevere symptomatic hypoglycemia defined as a hypoglycemic event requiring the assistance of another person that met one of the following criteria: the event was associated with a whole blood referenced blood glucose <36mg/dL or the event was associated with prompt recovery after oral carbohydrate, intravenous glucose or glucagon administration.Type 1 DiabetesAdults12 weekswith insulin glargineType 1 Diabetes Adults26 weekswith insulin glargineType 2 DiabetesAdults 26 weekswith NPH human insulinType 1 Diabetes Pediatrics26 weeksAPIDRA Pre-mealAPIDRA Post-mealRegular Human InsulinAPIDRAInsulin LisproAPIDRARegular Human InsulinAPIDRAInsulin LisproEvents per month per patient 0.050.050.130.020.020.000.000.090.08Percent of patients (n/total N) 8.4% (24/286)8.4% (25/296)10.1% (28/278)4.8%(16/339)4.0%(13/333)1.4%(6/416)1.2%(5/420)16.2%(45/277)19.3%(57/295)
- Insulin initiation and intensification of glucose controlIntensification or rapid improvement in glucose control has been associated with a transitory, reversible ophthalmologic refraction disorder, worsening of diabetic retinopathy, and acute painful peripheral neuropathy. However, long-term glycemic control decreases the risk of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.
- LipodystrophyLong-term use of insulin, including APIDRA, can cause lipodystrophy at the site of repeated insulin injections or infusion. Lipodystrophy includes lipohypertrophy (thickening of adipose tissue) and lipoatrophy (thinning of adipose tissue), and may affect insulin absorption. Rotate insulin injection or infusion sites within the same region to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy. [See Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3)].
- Weight gainWeight gain can occur with insulin therapy, including APIDRA, and has been attributed to the anabolic effects of insulin and the decrease in glucosuria.
- Peripheral EdemaInsulin, including APIDRA, may cause sodium retention and edema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.
- Adverse Reactions with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII)In a 12-week randomized study in patients with type 1 diabetes (n=59), the rates of catheter occlusions and infusion site reactions were similar for APIDRA and insulin aspart treated patients (Table 5).Table 5: Catheter Occlusions and Infusion Site Reactions.APIDRA (n=29)insulin aspart (n=30)Catheter occlusions/month0.080.15Infusion site reactions10.3% (3/29)13.3% (4/30)
Local AllergyAs with any insulin therapy, patients taking APIDRA may experience redness, swelling, or itching at the site of injection. These minor reactions usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks, but in some occasions may require discontinuation of APIDRA. In some instances, these reactions may be related to factors other than insulin, such as irritants in a skin cleansing agent or poor injection technique.
Systemic Allergy Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, may occur with any insulin, including APIDRA. Generalized allergy to insulin may cause whole body rash (including pruritus), dyspnea, wheezing, hypotension, tachycardia, or diaphoresis. In controlled clinical trials up to 12 months duration, potential systemic allergic reactions were reported in 79 of 1833 patients (4.3%) who received APIDRA and 58 of 1524 patients (3.8%) who received the comparator short-acting insulins. During these trials treatment with APIDRA was permanently discontinued in 1 of 1833 patients due to a potential systemic allergic reaction.Localized reactions and generalized myalgias have been reported with the use of metacresol, which is an excipient of APIDRA.
Antibody ProductionIn a study in patients with type 1 diabetes (n=333), the concentrations of insulin antibodies that react with both human insulin and insulin glulisine (cross-reactive insulin antibodies) remained near baseline during the first 6 months of the study in the patients treated with APIDRA. A decrease in antibody concentration was observed during the following 6 months of the study. In a study in patients with type 2 diabetes (n=411), a similar increase in cross-reactive insulin antibody concentration was observed in the patients treated with APIDRA and in the patients treated with human insulin during the first 9 months of the study. Thereafter the concentration of antibodies decreased in the APIDRA patients and remained stable in the human insulin patients. There was no correlation between cross-reactive insulin antibody concentration and changes in HbA1c, insulin doses, or incidence of hypoglycemia. The clinical significance of these antibodies is not known.APIDRA did not elicit a significant antibody response in a study of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Absorption and bioavailabilityPharmacokinetic profiles in healthy volunteers and patients with diabetes (type 1 or type 2) demonstrated that absorption of insulin glulisine was faster than that of regular human insulin.In a study in patients with type 1 diabetes (n=20) after subcutaneous administration of 0.15 Units/kg, the median time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was 60 minutes (range 40 to 120 minutes) and the peak concentration (Cmax) was 83 microUnits/mL (range 40 to 131 microUnits/mL) for insulin glulisine compared to a median Tmax of 120 minutes (range 60 to 239 minutes) and a Cmax of 50 microUnits/mL (range 35 to 71 microUnits/mL) for regular human insulin. (Figure 2)Figure 2. Pharmacokinetic profiles of insulin glulisine and regular human insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes after a dose of 0.15 Units/kg.Insulin glulisine and regular human insulin were administered subcutaneously at a dose of 0.2 Units/kg in an euglycemic clamp study in patients with type 2 diabetes (n=24) and a body mass index (BMI) between 20 and 36 kg/m2. The median time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was 100 minutes (range 40 to 120 minutes) and the median peak concentration (Cmax) was 84 microUnits/mL (range 53 to 165 microUnits/mL) for insulin glulisine compared to a median Tmax of 240 minutes (range 80 to 360 minutes) and a median Cmax of 41 microUnits/mL (range 33 to 61 microUnits/mL) for regular human insulin. (Figure 3.)Figure 3. Pharmacokinetic profiles of insulin glulisine and regular human insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes after a subcutaneous dose of 0.2 Units/kg.When APIDRA was injected subcutaneously into different areas of the body, the time-concentration profiles were similar. The absolute bioavailability of insulin glulisine after subcutaneous administration is approximately 70%, regardless of injection area (abdomen 73%, deltoid 71%, thigh 68%).In a clinical study in healthy volunteers (n=32) the total insulin glulisine bioavailability was similar after subcutaneous injection of insulin glulisine and NPH insulin (premixed in the syringe) and following separate simultaneous subcutaneous injections. There was 27% attenuation of the maximum concentration (Cmax) of APIDRA after premixing; however, the time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was not affected. No data are available on mixing APIDRA with insulin preparations other than NPH insulin. [See Clinical Studies (14)].
Distribution and eliminationThe distribution and elimination of insulin glulisine and regular human insulin after intravenous administration are similar with volumes of distribution of 13 and 21 L and half-lives of 13 and 17 minutes, respectively. After subcutaneous administration, insulin glulisine is eliminated more rapidly than regular human insulin with an apparent half-life of 42 minutes compared to 86 minutes.
Pediatric patientsThe pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of APIDRA and regular human insulin were assessed in a study conducted in children 7 to 11 years old (n=10) and adolescents 12 to 16 years old (n=10) with type 1 diabetes. The relative differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between APIDRA and regular human insulin in these patients with type 1 diabetes were similar to those in healthy adult subjects and adults with type 1 diabetes.
RaceA study in 24 healthy Caucasians and Japanese subjects compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after subcutaneous injection of insulin glulisine, insulin lispro, and regular human insulin. With subcutaneous injection of insulin glulisine, Japanese subjects had a greater initial exposure (33%) for the ratio of AUC(0–1h) to AUC(0–clamp end) than Caucasians (21%) although the total exposures were similar. There were similar findings with insulin lispro and regular human insulin.
ObesityInsulin glulisine and regular human insulin were administered subcutaneously at a dose of 0.3 Units/kg in a euglycemic clamp study in obese, non-diabetic subjects (n=18) with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2. The median time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was 85 minutes (range 49 to 150 minutes) and the median peak concentration (Cmax) was 192 microUnits/mL (range 98 to 380 microUnits/mL) for insulin glulisine compared to a median Tmax of 150 minutes (range 90 to 240 minutes) and a median Cmax of 86 microUnits/mL (range 43 to 175 microUnits/mL) for regular human insulin. The more rapid onset of action and shorter duration of activity of APIDRA and insulin lispro compared to regular human insulin were maintained in an obese non-diabetic population (n= 18). (Figure 4.)Figure 4. Glucose infusion rates (GIR) in a euglycemic clamp study after subcutaneous injection of 0.3 Units/kg of APIDRA, insulin lispro or regular human insulin in an obese population.
Renal impairmentStudies with human insulin have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with renal failure. In a study performed in 24 non-diabetic subjects with normal renal function (ClCr >80 mL/min), moderate renal impairment (30–50 mL/min) and severe renal impairment (<30 mL/min), the subjects with moderate and severe renal impairment had increased exposure to insulin glulisine by 29% to 40% and reduced clearance of insulin glulisine by 20% to 25% compared to subjects with normal renal function. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Hepatic impairmentThe effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of APIDRA has not been studied. Some studies with human insulin have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with liver failure. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
GenderThe effect of gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of APIDRA has not been studied.
PregnancyThe effect of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of APIDRA has not been studied.
SmokingThe effect of smoking on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of APIDRA has not been studied.
Do not use after the expiration date (see carton and container).Unopened Vial/ SoloStarUnopened APIDRA vials and SoloStar should be stored in a refrigerator, 36°F–46°F (2°C–8°C). Protect from light. APIDRA should not be stored in the freezer and it should not be allowed to freeze. Discard if it has been frozen.Unopened vials/SoloStar not stored in a refrigerator must be used within 28 days.
Open (In-Use) Vial:Opened vials, whether or not refrigerated, must be used within 28 days. If refrigeration is not possible, the open vial in use can be kept unrefrigerated for up to 28 days away from direct heat and light, as long as the temperature is not greater than 77°F (25°C).
Infusion sets:Infusion sets (reservoirs, tubing, and catheters) and the APIDRA in the reservoir must be discarded after 48 hours of use or after exposure to temperatures that exceed 98.6°F (37°C).
Intravenous use:Infusion bags prepared as indicated under DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.4) are stable at room temperature for 48 hours.
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6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of APIDRA.Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate reliably their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Medication errors have been reported in which other insulins, particularly long-acting insulins, have been accidentally administered instead of APIDRA [See Patient Counseling Information (17)].
7 Drug Interactions
A number of drugs affect glucose metabolism and may necessitate insulin dose adjustment and particularly close monitoring.Drugs that may increase the blood glucose-lowering effect of insulins including APIDRA, and therefore increase the risk of hypoglycemia, include oral antidiabetic products, pramlintide, ACE inhibitors, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, propoxyphene, pentoxifylline, salicylates, somatostatin analogs, and sulfonamide antibiotics. Drugs that may reduce the blood-glucose-lowering effect of APIDRA include corticosteroids, niacin, danazol, diuretics, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., epinephrine, albuterol, terbutaline), glucagon, isoniazid, phenothiazine derivatives, somatropin, thyroid hormones, estrogens, progestogens (e.g., in oral contraceptives), protease inhibitors, and atypical antipsychotics. Beta-blockers, clonidine, lithium salts, and alcohol may either increase or decrease the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulin. Pentamidine may cause hypoglycemia, which may sometimes be followed by hyperglycemia. The signs of hypoglycemia may be reduced or absent in patients taking anti-adrenergic drugs such as beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine.
Pregnancy Category C: Reproduction and teratology studies have been performed with insulin glulisine in rats and rabbits using regular human insulin as a comparator. Insulin glulisine was given to female rats throughout pregnancy at subcutaneous doses up to 10 Units/kg once daily (dose resulting in an exposure 2 times the average human dose, based on body surface area comparison) and did not have any remarkable toxic effects on embryo-fetal development. Insulin glulisine was given to female rabbits throughout pregnancy at subcutaneous doses up to 1.5 Units/kg/day (dose resulting in an exposure 0.5 times the average human dose, based on body surface area comparison). Adverse effects on embryo-fetal development were only seen at maternal toxic dose levels inducing hypoglycemia. Increased incidence of post-implantation losses and skeletal defects were observed at a dose level of 1.5 Units/kg once daily (dose resulting in an exposure 0.5 times the average human dose, based on body surface area comparison) that also caused mortality in dams. A slight increased incidence of post-implantation losses was seen at the next lower dose level of 0.5 Units/kg once daily (dose resulting in an exposure 0.2 times the average human dose, based on body surface area comparison) which was also associated with severe hypoglycemia but there were no defects at that dose. No effects were observed in rabbits at a dose of 0.25 Units/kg once daily (dose resulting in an exposure 0.1 times the average human dose, based on body surface area comparison). The effects of insulin glulisine did not differ from those observed with subcutaneous regular human insulin at the same doses and were attributed to secondary effects of maternal hypoglycemia.There are no well-controlled clinical studies of the use of APIDRA in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. It is essential for patients with diabetes or a history of gestational diabetes to maintain good metabolic control before conception and throughout pregnancy. Insulin requirements may decrease during the first trimester, generally increase during the second and third trimesters, and rapidly decline after delivery. Careful monitoring of glucose control is essential in these patients.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is unknown whether insulin glulisine is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when APIDRA is administered to a nursing woman. Use of APIDRA is compatible with breastfeeding, but women with diabetes who are lactating may require adjustments of their insulin doses.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of subcutaneous injections of APIDRA have been established in pediatric patients (age 4 to 17 years) with type 1 diabetes [See Clinical Studies (14.4)]. APIDRA has not been studied in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes younger than 4 years of age and in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes.As in adults, the dosage of APIDRA must be individualized in pediatric patients based on metabolic needs and frequent monitoring of blood glucose.
8.5 Geriatric Use
In clinical trials (n=2408), APIDRA was administered to 147 patients ≥65 years of age and 27 patients ≥75 years of age. The majority of this small subset of elderly patients had type 2 diabetes. The change in HbA1c values and hypoglycemia frequencies did not differ by age. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised when APIDRA is administered to geriatric patients.
Excess insulin may cause hypoglycemia and, particularly when given intravenously, hypokalemia. Mild episodes of hypoglycemia usually can be treated with oral glucose. Adjustments in drug dosage, meal patterns, or exercise may be needed. More severe episodes of hypoglycemia with coma, seizure, or neurologic impairment may be treated with intramuscular/subcutaneous glucagon or concentrated intravenous glucose. Sustained carbohydrate intake and observation may be necessary because hypoglycemia may recur after apparent clinical recovery. Hypokalemia must be corrected appropriately.
APIDRA® (insulin glulisine [rDNA origin] injection) is a rapid-acting human insulin analog used to lower blood glucose. Insulin glulisine is produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli (K12). Insulin glulisine differs from human insulin in that the amino acid asparagine at position B3 is replaced by lysine and the lysine in position B29 is replaced by glutamic acid. Chemically, insulin glulisine is 3B-lysine-29B-glutamic acid-human insulin, has the empirical formula C258H384N64O78S6 and a molecular weight of 5823 and has the following structural formula:APIDRA is a sterile, aqueous, clear, and colorless solution. Each milliliter of APIDRA contains 100 units (3.49 mg) insulin glulisine, 3.15 mg metacresol, 6 mg tromethamine, 5 mg sodium chloride, 0.01 mg polysorbate 20, and water for injection. APIDRA has a pH of approximately 7.3. The pH is adjusted by addition of aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide.
12.1 Mechanism Of Action
Regulation of glucose metabolism is the primary activity of insulins and insulin analogs, including insulin glulisine. Insulins lower blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulins inhibit lipolysis and proteolysis, and enhance protein synthesis. The glucose lowering activities of APIDRA and of regular human insulin are equipotent when administered by the intravenous route. After subcutaneous administration, the effect of APIDRA is more rapid in onset and of shorter duration compared to regular human insulin. [See Pharmacodynamics (12.2)].
Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with diabetes demonstrated that APIDRA has a more rapid onset of action and a shorter duration of activity than regular human insulin when given subcutaneously.In a study in patients with type 1 diabetes (n= 20), the glucose-lowering profiles of APIDRA and regular human insulin were assessed at various times in relation to a standard meal at a dose of 0.15 Units/kg. (Figure 1.)The maximum blood glucose excursion (ΔGLUmax; baseline subtracted glucose concentration) for APIDRA injected 2 minutes before a meal was 65 mg/dL compared to 64 mg/dL for regular human insulin injected 30 minutes before a meal (see Figure 1A), and 84 mg/dL for regular human insulin injected 2 minutes before a meal (see Figure 1B). The maximum blood glucose excursion for APIDRA injected 15 minutes after the start of a meal was 85 mg/dL compared to 84 mg/dL for regular human insulin injected 2 minutes before a meal (see Figure 1C).Figure 1. Serial mean blood glucose collected up to 6 hours following a single dose of APIDRA and regular human insulin. APIDRA given 2 minutes (APIDRA - pre) before the start of a meal compared to regular human insulin given 30 minutes (Regular - 30 min) before start of the meal (Figure 1A) and compared to regular human insulin (Regular - pre) given 2 minutes before a meal (Figure 1B). APIDRA given 15 minutes (APIDRA - post) after start of a meal compared to regular human insulin (Regular - pre) given 2 minutes before a meal (Figure 1C). On the x-axis zero (0) is the start of a 15-minute meal.In a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study, 16 healthy male subjects received an intravenous infusion of APIDRA or regular human insulin with saline diluent at a rate of 0.8 milliUnits/kg/min for two hours. Infusion of the same dose of APIDRA or regular human insulin produced equivalent glucose disposal at steady state.
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Standard 2-year carcinogenicity studies in animals have not been performed. In Sprague Dawley rats, a 12-month repeat dose toxicity study was conducted with insulin glulisine at subcutaneous doses of 2.5, 5, 20 or 50 Units/kg twice daily (dose resulting in an exposure 1, 2, 8, and 20 times the average human dose, based on body surface area comparison). There was a non-dose dependent higher incidence of mammary gland tumors in female rats administered insulin glulisine compared to untreated controls. The incidence of mammary tumors for insulin glulisine and regular human insulin was similar. The relevance of these findings to humans is not known. Insulin glulisine was not mutagenic in the following tests: Ames test, in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test in V79 Chinese hamster cells, and in vivo mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test in rats.In fertility studies in male and female rats at subcutaneous doses up to 10 Units/kg once daily (dose resulting in an exposure 2 times the average human dose, based on body surface area comparison), no clear adverse effects on male and female fertility, or general reproductive performance of animals were observed.
14 Clinical Studies
The safety and efficacy of APIDRA was studied in adult patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (n =1833) and in children and adolescent patients (4 to 17 years) with type 1 diabetes (n=572). The primary efficacy parameter in these trials was glycemic control, assessed using glycated hemoglobin (GHb reported as HbA1c equivalent).
14.1 Type 1 Diabetes-Adults
A 26-week, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, non-inferiority study was conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes to assess the safety and efficacy of APIDRA (n= 339) compared to insulin lispro (n= 333) when administered subcutaneously within 15 minutes before a meal. Insulin glargine was administered once daily in the evening as the basal insulin. There was a 4-week run-in period with insulin lispro and insulin glargine prior to randomization. Most patients were Caucasian (97%). Fifty eight percent of the patients were men. The mean age was 39 years (range 18 to 74 years). Glycemic control, the number of daily short-acting insulin injections and the total daily doses of APIDRA and insulin lispro were similar in the two treatment groups (Table 6).Table 6: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus–AdultTreatment durationTreatment in combination with:26 weeksInsulin glargineAPIDRAInsulin LisproGlycated hemoglobin (GHb)GHb reported as HbA1c equivalent (%) Number of patients331322 Baseline mean7.67.6 Adjusted mean change from baseline-0.1-0.1 Treatment difference: APIDRA – Insulin Lispro0.0 95% CI for treatment difference(-0.1; 0.1)Basal insulin dose (Units/day) Baseline mean2424 Adjusted mean change from baseline02Short-acting insulin dose (Units/day) Baseline mean3031 Adjusted mean change from baseline-1-1Mean number of short-acting insulin injections per day 33Body weight (kg) Baseline mean73.974.1 Mean change from baseline0.60.3
14.2 Type 2 Diabetes-Adults
A 26-week, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, non-inferiority study was conducted in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes to assess the safety and efficacy of APIDRA (n= 435) given within 15 minutes before a meal compared to regular human insulin (n=441) administered 30 to 45 minutes prior to a meal. NPH human insulin was given twice a day as the basal insulin. All patients participated in a 4-week run-in period with regular human insulin and NPH human insulin. Eighty-five percent of patients were Caucasian and 11% were Black. The mean age was 58 years (range 26 to 84 years). The average body mass index (BMI) was 34.6 kg/m2. At randomization, 58% of the patients were taking an oral antidiabetic agent. These patients were instructed to continue use of their oral antidiabetic agent at the same dose throughout the trial. The majority of patients (79%) mixed their short-acting insulin with NPH human insulin immediately prior to injection. The reductions from baseline in GHb were similar between the 2 treatment groups (see Table 7). No differences between APIDRA and regular human insulin groups were seen in the number of daily short-acting insulin injections or basal or short-acting insulin doses. (See Table 7.) Table 7: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus–AdultTreatment duration26 weeksTreatment in combination with:NPH human insulinAPIDRARegular Human InsulinGlycated hemoglobin (GHb)GHb reported as HbA1c equivalent (%) Number of patients404403 Baseline mean7.67.5 Adjusted mean change from baseline-0.5-0.3 Treatment difference: APIDRA – Regular Human Insulin-0.2 95% CI for treatment difference(-0.3; -0.1)Basal insulin dose (Units/day) Baseline mean 5957 Adjusted mean change from baseline66Short-acting insulin dose (Units/day) Baseline mean3231 Adjusted mean change from baseline45Mean number of short-acting insulin injections per day 22Body weight (kg) Baseline mean100.599.2 Mean change from baseline1.82.0
14.3 Type 1 Diabetes-Adults: Pre- And Post-Meal Administration
A 12-week, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, non-inferiority study was conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes to assess the safety and efficacy of APIDRA administered at different times with respect to a meal. APIDRA was administered subcutaneously either within 15 minutes before a meal (n=286) or immediately after a meal (n=296) and regular human insulin (n= 278) was administered subcutaneously 30 to 45 minutes prior to a meal. Insulin glargine was administered once daily at bedtime as the basal insulin. There was a 4-week run-in period with regular human insulin and insulin glargine followed by randomization. Most patients were Caucasian (94%). The mean age was 40 years (range 18 to 73 years). Glycemic control (see Table 8) was comparable for the 3 treatment regimens. No changes from baseline between the treatments were seen in the total daily number of short-acting insulin injections. (See Table 8.)Table 8: Pre- and Post-Meal Administration in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus–AdultTreatment duration Treatment in combination with:12 weeksinsulin glargine12 weeksinsulin glargine12 weeksinsulin glargineAPIDRApre mealAPIDRApost mealRegular Human InsulinGlycated hemoglobin (GHb)GHb reported as HbA1c equivalent (%) Number of patients268276257 Baseline mean22.214.171.124 Adjusted mean change from baselineAdjusted mean change from baseline treatment difference (98.33% CI for treatment difference): APIDRA pre meal vs. Regular Human Insulin - 0.1 (-0.3; 0.0) APIDRA post meal vs. Regular Human Insulin 0.0 (-0.1; 0.2) APIDRA post meal vs. pre meal 0.2 (0.0; 0.3)-0.3-0.1-0.1Basal insulin dose (Units/day) Baseline mean292928 Adjusted mean change from baseline101Short-acting insulin dose (Units/day) Baseline mean292927 Adjusted mean change from baseline-1-12Mean number of short-acting insulin injections per day333Body weight (kg) Baseline mean79.280.378.9 Mean change from baseline0.3-0.30.3
14.4 Type 1 Diabetes-Pediatric Patients
A 26-week, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, non-inferiority study was conducted in children and adolescents older than 4 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus to assess the safety and efficacy of APIDRA (n= 277) compared to insulin lispro (n= 295) when administered subcutaneously within 15 minutes before a meal. Patients also received insulin glargine (administered once daily in the evening) or NPH insulin (administered once in the morning and once in the evening). There was a 4-week run-in period with insulin lispro and insulin glargine or NPH prior to randomization. Most patients were Caucasian (91%). Fifty percent of the patients were male. The mean age was 12.5 years (range 4 to 17 years). Mean BMI was 20.6 kg/m2. Glycemic control (see Table 9) was comparable for the two treatment regimens. Table 9: Results from a 26-week study in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitusAPIDRALispro Number of patients271291Basal InsulinNPH or insulin glargineNPH or insulin glargineGlycated hemoglobin (GHb)GHb reported as HbA1c equivalent (%) Baseline mean8.28.2 Adjusted mean change from baseline0.10.2 Treatment Difference: Mean (95% confidence interval)-0.1 (-0.2, 0.1)Basal insulin dose (Units/kg/day) Baseline mean0.50.5 Mean change from baseline0.00.0Short-acting insulin dose (Units/kg/day) Baseline mean 0.50.5 Mean change from baseline0.00.0Mean number of short-acting insulin injections per day33Baseline mean body weight (kg)51.550.8Mean weight change from baseline (kg)2.22.2
14.5 Type 1 Diabetes-Adults: Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion
A 12-week randomized, active control study (APIDRA versus insulin aspart) conducted in adults with type 1 diabetes (APIDRA n= 29, insulin aspart n=30) evaluated the use of APIDRA in an external continuous subcutaneous insulin pump. All patients were Caucasian. The mean age was 46 years (range 21 to 73 years). The mean GHb increased from baseline to endpoint in both treatment groups (from 6.8% to 7.0% for APIDRA; from 7.1% to 7.2% for insulin aspart).
16.1 How Supplied
APIDRA 100 units per mL (U-100) is available as:10 mL vialsNDC 0088-2500-333 mL SoloStar prefilled pen, package of 5NDC 0088-2502-05Pen needles are not included in the packs.SoloStar is compatible with all pen needles from Becton Dickinson and Company, Ypsomed and Owen Mumford.
16.3 Preparation And Handling
After dilution for intravenous use, the solution should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Do not use the solution if it has become cloudy or contains particles; use only if it is clear and colorless. APIDRA is not compatible with Dextrose solution and Ringers solution and, therefore, cannot be used with these solution fluids. The use of APIDRA with other solutions has not been studied and is, therefore, not recommended.
17 Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling.
Advise patients that they must never share an APIDRA SoloStar pen with another person, even if the needle is changed. Advise patients using APIDRA vials not to reuse or share needles or syringes with another person. Sharing carries a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.
17.2 Instructions For All Patients
Patients should be instructed on self-management procedures including glucose monitoring, proper injection technique, and management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Patients must be instructed on handling of special situations such as intercurrent conditions (illness, stress, or emotional disturbances), an inadequate or skipped insulin dose, inadvertent administration of an increased insulin dose, inadequate food intake, and skipped meals. Refer patients to the APIDRA Patient Information Leaflet for additional information.Women with diabetes should be advised to inform their doctor if they are pregnant or are contemplating pregnancy.Accidental mix-ups between APIDRA and other insulins, particularly long-acting insulins, have been reported. To avoid medication errors between APIDRA and other insulins, patients should be instructed to always check the insulin label before each injection.
17.3 For Patients Using Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Pumps
- Patients using external pump infusion therapy should be trained appropriately. The following insulin pumpsThe brands listed are the registered trademarks of their respective owners and are not trademarks of sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC have been used in APIDRA clinical trials conducted by sanofi-aventis, the manufacturer of APIDRA:Disetronic® H-Tron® plus V100 and D-Tron® with Disetronic catheters (Rapid™, Rapid C™, Rapid D™, and Tender™)MiniMed® Models 506, 507, 507c and 508 with MiniMed catheters (Sof-set Ultimate QR™, and Quick-set™).Before using a different insulin pump with APIDRA, read the pump label to make sure the pump has been evaluated with APIDRA.To minimize insulin degradation, infusion set occlusion, and loss of the preservative (metacresol), the infusion sets (reservoir, tubing, and catheter) and the APIDRA in the reservoir must be replaced at least every 48 hours and a new infusion site should be selected. The temperature of the insulin may exceed ambient temperature when the pump housing, cover, tubing or sport case is exposed to sunlight or radiant heat. Insulin exposed to temperatures higher than 98.6°F (37°C) should be discarded. Infusion sites that are erythematous, pruritic, or thickened should be reported to the healthcare professional, and a new site selected because continued infusion may increase the skin reaction or alter the absorption of APIDRA.Pump or infusion set malfunctions or handling errors or insulin degradation can lead to rapid hyperglycemia, and ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis. This is especially pertinent for rapid-acting insulin analogs that are more rapidly absorbed through skin and have a shorter duration of action. Prompt identification and correction of the cause of hyperglycemia or ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis is necessary. Problems include pump malfunction, infusion set occlusion, leakage, disconnection or kinking, handling errors and degraded insulin. Less commonly, hypoglycemia from pump malfunction may occur. If these problems cannot be promptly corrected, patients should resume therapy with subcutaneous insulin injection and contact their healthcare professional. Patients administering APIDRA by continuous subcutaneous infusion must have an alternative insulin delivery system in case of pump system failure. [See Dosage and Administration (2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.8), and How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)].
- APIDRA® (uh PEE druh)(insulin glulisine [recombinant DNA origin] injection)solution for injectionRead the Patient Information that comes with APIDRA before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This leaflet does not take the place of talking with your healthcare provider about your diabetes or treatment. If you have questions about APIDRA or about diabetes, talk with your healthcare provider.Do not share your APIDRA SoloStar pen or syringes with other people, even if the needle has been changed. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them.What is APIDRA?APIDRA is a man-made insulin used to control high blood sugar in adults and children with diabetes mellitus.It is not known if APIDRA is safe or effective in:children under age 4 with type 1 diabeteschildren with type 2 diabetesWho should NOT take APIDRA?Do not take APIDRA:when your blood sugar is too low (hypoglycemia). See the section, "What are the possible side effects of APIDRA?"if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in APIDRA. See the end of this leaflet for a complete list of ingredients. Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure.What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking APIDRA?Medical conditions can affect your insulin needs. Tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you: have liver or kidney problems. are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. It is not known if APIDRA will harm your unborn baby or nursing child. You and your healthcare provider should talk about the best way to manage your diabetes while you are pregnant or breast-feeding. It is especially important to keep good control of your blood sugar during pregnancy.have heart failure or other heart problems. If you have heart failure, it may get worse while you take TZDs with APIDRA.Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements especially ones commonly called TZDs (thiazolidinediones). Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of your medicines with you and show it to your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine. How should I take APIDRA?Take APIDRA exactly as prescribed.Do not make any changes to your dose or type of insulin unless told to do so by your healthcare provider. Know your insulin. Make sure you know: the type and strength of insulin prescribed for youthe amount of insulin you takethe best time for you to take your insulin. This may change if you take a different type of insulin or if the way you give your insulin changes for example, using an insulin pump instead of giving injections under the skin (subcutaneous injections).APIDRA starts working faster than regular insulin, but does not work as long.APIDRA is usually used with a longer-acting insulin when given by injection under the skin (subcutaneous), or by itself when using an insulin pump. Read the instructions for use that come with your APIDRA. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have any questions. Your healthcare provider should show you how to inject APIDRA before you start taking it.Your healthcare provider will prescribe the best type of APIDRA for you. APIDRA is available in: 3 mL SoloStar® prefilled pen 10 mL vials You need a prescription to get APIDRA. Always be sure you receive the right insulin from the pharmacy. Check your blood sugar level before each use of APIDRA. Ask your healthcare provider what your blood sugars should be and when you should check your blood sugar levels. Check the label to make sure you have the correct insulin type. This is especially important if you also take long-acting insulin.APIDRA should look clear and colorless. Do not use APIDRA if it looks cloudy, colored, or has particles in it. Talk with your pharmacist or healthcare provider if you have any questions. If you take too much APIDRA, your blood sugar may fall low (hypoglycemia). You can treat mild low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) by drinking or eating something sugary right away. Do not share your APIDRA SoloStar pen with other people, even if the needle has been changed. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them.Do not reuse or share your syringes with other people. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them.Do not reuse needles.Your dose of APIDRA may need to be changed because of:illnessstressother medicines you takechange in dietchange in physical activity or exercise travelCheck your blood sugar and stay on the diet and exercise plan as prescribed by your healthcare provider.What should I consider while taking APIDRA? Alcohol may affect your blood sugar when you take APIDRADriving and operating machinery. You may have trouble paying attention or reacting if you have low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Be careful when you drive a car or operate machinery. Ask your healthcare provider if it is alright for you to drive if you have: low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)decreased or no warning signs of low blood sugarWhat are the possible side effects of APIDRA?APIDRA can cause serious side effects, including:Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Symptoms of low blood sugar may include:feeling anxious, or irritable, mood changes trouble concentrating or feeling confusedtingling in your hands, feet, lips, or tonguefeeling dizzy, light-headed, or drowsynightmares or trouble sleepingheadacheblurred vision slurred speecha fast heart beat sweatingshakinesswalking unsteady Very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can cause unconsciousness (passing out), seizures, and death. Talk to your healthcare provider about how to tell if you have low blood sugar and what to do if this happens while taking APIDRA. Know your symptoms of low blood sugar. Follow your healthcare provider's instructions for treating your low blood sugar. Talk to your healthcare provider if low blood sugar is a problem for you. Your dose of APIDRA may need to be changed. Serious allergic reactions.Get medical help right away if you have any of these symptoms of a severe allergic reaction: a rash all over your bodyshortness of breathtrouble breathing (wheezing)fast pulsesweatingfeel faint (due to low blood pressure)Low potassium in your blood. Your doctor will check you for this. Common side effects include: Reactions at the injection site (local allergic reaction). You may get redness, swelling and itching at the injection site. If you keep having skin reactions or they are serious talk to your healthcare provider.Skin thickening or pits at the injection site. Do not inject insulin into skin where this has happened. Choose an injection area (upper arm, thigh, or stomach area). Change injection sites within the area you choose with each dose. Do not inject into the exact same spot for each injection.Weight gainHeart Failure. Taking certain diabetes pills called thiazolidinediones or "TZDs" with APIDRA may cause heart failure in some people. This can happen even if you have never had heart failure or heart problems before. If you already have heart failure it may get worse while you take TZDs with APIDRA. Your healthcare provider should monitor you closely while you are taking TZDs with APIDRA. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any new or worse symptoms of heart failure including:shortness of breathswelling of your ankles or feetsudden weight gainDuring treatment with TZDs and APIDRA, the TZD dose may need to be adjusted or stopped by your healthcare provider if you have new or worse heart failure.Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all of the possible side effects of APIDRA. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-332-1088.How should I store APIDRA? See the Patient Instructions for Use that come with your APIDRA for specific storage instructions. Unopened APIDRA: Do not use APIDRA after the expiration date stamped on the label. Keep all unopened APIDRA in the refrigerator between 36°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C). Do not freeze. Do not use APIDRA if it has been frozen.Keep APIDRA away from direct heat and light. Unopened vials and SoloStar that were not kept in a refrigerator must be used within 28 days after opening. General Information about APIDRAMedicines are sometimes prescribed for conditions that are not mentioned in patient information leaflets. Do not use APIDRA for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give APIDRA to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them.This leaflet summarizes the most important information about APIDRA. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider for information about APIDRA that is written for healthcare providers. For more information about APIDRA call 1-800-633-1610 or go to www.apidra.com.What are the ingredients in APIDRA?Active ingredient: insulin glulisineInactive ingredients: metacresol, tromethamine, sodium chloride, polysorbate 20, water for injection, hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide ADDITIONAL INFORMATIONDIABETES FORECAST is a national magazine designed especially for patients with diabetes and their families and is available by subscription from the American Diabetes Association, (ADA), P.O. Box 363, Mt. Morris, IL 61054-0363, 1-800-DIABETES (1-800-342-2383). You may also visit the ADA website at www.diabetes.org.Another publication, COUNTDOWN, is available from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (JDRF), 120 Wall Street, 19th Floor, New York, New York 10005, 1-800-JDF-CURE (1-800-533-2873). You may also visit the JDRF website at www.jdf.org. To get more information about diabetes, check with your healthcare provider or diabetes educator or visit www.DiabetesWatch.com. For more information about APIDRA call 1-800-633-1610 or visit www.apidra.com.Rev. February 2015sanofi-aventis U.S. LLCBridgewater NJ 08807A SANOFI COMPANY©2015 sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC
Instructions For Use
- INSTRUCTIONS FOR USEAPIDRA® 10 mL vial (100 Units/mL)Do not share your syringes with other people, even if the needle has been changed. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them.This Instructions for Use has two parts: Part 1 Use with a syringe Part 2 Use with an external insulin infusion pumpBe sure to read, understand and follow these instructions before taking APIDRA. Part 1 Use with a syringe If you will give yourself subcutaneous injections of APIDRA:You should take APIDRA within 15 minutes before a meal or within 20 minutes after starting a meal.Do not inject APIDRA if you are not going to eat within 15 minutes.Inject APIDRA into the skin of your upper arm, thigh, or stomach area. Do not inject APIDRA into a vein or into a muscle.Choose an injection area (upper arm, thigh, or stomach area). Change injection sites within the area you choose with each dose. Do not inject into the exact same spot for each injection. Do not mix APIDRA with insulins other than NPH, for subcutaneous injections. If mixing APIDRA with NPH insulin, draw up APIDRA into the syringe first. Inject the mixture right away.Use the needles and syringes prescribed by your healthcare provider.Do not reuse or share your syringes with other people. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them.Do not reuse needles.Before every injection make sure you have the following items:Alcohol swabsNeedle and syringeInsulin vialPuncture resistant container. See "How do I dispose of used needles and syringes?".Drawing the insulin into a syringe1.Use a new syringe each time you give an injection of APIDRA. Do not reuse or share your syringes with other people. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them.Preparing for an injection 2.Wash your hands with soap and water. Before you start to prepare your injection, check the label to make sure that you are taking the right type of insulin.3.Look at the APIDRA in the vial. It should look clear. Do not use this vial of APIDRA if the solution is colored, or cloudy, or if you see particles in it.4.If you are using a new vial, remove the protective cap. Do not remove the stopper.5.Wipe the rubber stopper with an alcohol swab. You do not have to shake the vial of APIDRA before use.6.Use the needles and syringes prescribed by your healthcare provider. APIDRA 10 mL vials come with 100 units of insulin in 1 mL of APIDRA.7.Use a new needle and syringe for each injection. Use disposable syringes and needles only one time. Do not reuse or share your syringes with other people. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them. Do not reuse needles.8.Draw air into the syringe equal to the insulin dose prescribed by your healthcare provider. 9.Put the needle through the rubber stopper of the vial and push the plunger to inject the air into the vial.10.Leave the syringe in the vial and turn both upside down. Hold the syringe and vial firmly in one hand.11.Make sure the tip of the needle is in the insulin solution. With your free hand, pull back on the plunger to draw the correct dose of insulin into the syringe.12Before you take the needle out of the vial, check the syringe for air bubbles. If you see bubbles in the syringe, hold the syringe straight up and tap the side of the syringe with your finger a few times to make any air bubbles float to the top. Gently push the air bubbles out with the plunger and draw insulin back into the syringe until you have the correct dose. If you are mixing APIDRA with NPH insulin, check with your healthcare provider on how to mix it the right way.13.Remove the needle from the vial. Do not let the needle touch anything. You are now ready to inject.Giving the injectionDo the injection exactly as shown to you by your healthcare provider. Inject APIDRA under your skin. 14.Choose an injection area (for example upper arm, thigh or stomach area). Change injection sites within the area you choose. Do not inject in the same spot.15.Clean the area with an alcohol swab. Let the injection site dry before you inject.16.Pinch the skin. Insert the needle into the skin. Release the skin.17.Inject the dose by slowly pushing in the plunger of the syringe all the way, making sure you have injected all the insulin. Keep the needle in the skin for at least 10 seconds.Pull the needle out of your skin, gently press the injection site with a finger for several seconds. Do not rub the area.18.Do not recap the needle. Recapping can lead to a needle stick injury and passing of infection. See "How do I dispose of used needles and syringes?".If your injection is given by another person, this person must also be careful to prevent accidental needle stick injury and passing infections.How do I dispose of used needles and syringes?19.Check with your healthcare provider's office for instructions about the right way to dispose of used needles and syringes. There may be local or state laws about how to dispose of used needles and syringes. Do not dispose of used needles or syringes in household trash and do not recycle them. 20.Put used needles and syringes in a container specially made for throwing away syringes and needles (called a "sharps" container) or a hard plastic container with a screw-on cap or a metal container with a plastic lid labeled "Used Syringes". These containers should be sealed and dispose of the right way. See "How should I store APIDRA?" in the Patient Information leaflet that comes With APIDRA for complete instructions on how to store APIDRA vials. Part 2 Use with an external insulin pump:Be sure to read, understand, and follow these instructions before using APIDRA with an external insulin infusion pump. Always read the instruction manual for your pump. These instructions may differ from the instructions that accompany your insulin infusion pump. When you use Apidra in the pump system, it is important that you always follow these Apidra specific instructions. Failure to follow the Apidra specific instructions may lead to serious adverse events. If you will be using an insulin pump:APIDRA should be given into the stomach area.Change injection sites in the stomach area.Do not mix APIDRA with other insulins and do not dilute APIDRA.Use only insulin pumps that have been specially tested with APIDRA.Follow your healthcare provider or pharmacist instructions for which insulin pumps may be used.Change the infusion set (reservoir, tubing, and catheter), and the APIDRA in the reservoir at least every 2 days (48 hours). Change all of these parts sooner if they have been exposed to temperatures higher than 98.6°F (37°C).Important information about using APIDRA with an external insulin infusion pump Do not mix APIDRA with any other insulin or liquid when used in a pump.If your APIDRA infusion pump set is not working the right way or in case of handling errors, you may not get the right amount of insulin that can cause: low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)high amounts of sugar and ketones in your blood or urinebuild-up of acid in your blood because your body is breaking down fat instead of sugar (diabetic ketoacidosis)You must have an alternative insulin delivery system in case of pump failure.When you start using APIDRA by infusion pump, your insulin dose may need to be adjusted. Check with your healthcare provider before making any changes to your insulin dose.How to use APIDRA with an external insulin infusion pump?Check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist to see if your pump and infusion set can be used with APIDRA. See the instruction manual of your specific pump on proper use of insulin in a pump. Call your healthcare provider if you have questions about using the pump.Change the infusion set, reservoir with insulin, and injection site: at least every 48 hours, change more often than every 48 hours if you have high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), or the pump alarm sounds.if the insulin has been in temperatures over 98.6°F (37°C). Dark colored pump cases or sport covers can increase this type of heat. The location where the pump is worn may affect the temperature. If you get reactions at the injections infusion site you may need to change infusion sites more often. If your APIDRA infusion pump is not working the right way, follow these steps: Use insulin from a new vial of APIDRA if infusion pump alarms do not respond to all of the following: a repeat injection or bolus of APIDRAa change in the infusion set and the reservoira change in the infusion injection siteIf the same problems happen again, do not use your infusion pump with APIDRA. You may need to restart insulin injections with syringes and needles.Contact your healthcare provider right away. See section I of the Instructions for Use ("Use with a syringe") for the steps for giving injections of APIDRA using syringes and needles.Continue to check your blood sugar often.How should I store APIDRA 10 mL vial?Keep in the refrigerator or below 77°F (25°C).Keep vials away from direct heat and light.Dispose of any opened vial after 28 days after the first use, even if there is insulin left in the vial.Rev. February 2015sanofi-aventis U.S. LLCBridgewater NJ 08807A SANOFI COMPANY©2015 sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC
- APIDRA® SoloStar®(insulin glulisine [rDNA origin] injection)3 mL SoloStar prefilled penInstructions for UseBe sure that you read, understand and follow these instructions before you use your APIDRA SoloStar. Talk with your healthcare provider about the right way to use your APIDRA SoloStar before you use it for the first time. Keep this leaflet in case you need to look at it again later. Do not share your APIDRA SoloStar pen with other people, even if the needle has been changed. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them.APIDRA SoloStar should not be used by people who are blind or have severe vision problems, without the help of a person who has good eyesight and who is trained to use the APIDRA SoloStar the right way. APIDRA SoloStar is a disposable prefilled pen used to inject APIDRA. Each APIDRA SoloStar has 300 units of insulin which can be used for many doses. You can select a dose from 1 to 80 units. The pen plunger moves with each dose. The plunger will only move to the end of the cartridge when 300 units of insulin have been given.If you will give yourself subcutaneous injections of APIDRA:You should take APIDRA within 15 minutes before a meal or within 20 minutes after starting a meal.Do not inject APIDRA if you are not going to eat within 15 minutes.Inject APIDRA into the skin of your upper arm, thigh, or stomach area. Do not inject APIDRA into a vein or into a muscle.Choose an injection area (upper arm, thigh, or stomach area). Change injection sites within the area you choose with each dose. Do not inject into the exact same spot for each injection. Important information for use of APIDRA SoloStar:Do not share your APIDRA SoloStar pen with other people, even if the needle has been changed. You may give other people a serious infection, or get a serious infection from them.Do not reuse needles. Use a new needle for each injection. APIDRA SoloStar may be used with pen needles from Becton Dickinson and Company, Ypsomed and Owen Mumford. Contact your healthcare provider for further information.Do a safety test before each injection. (See step 3.)Do not select a dose or press the injection button without a needle attached.If your injection is given by another person, this person must be careful to avoid accidental needle stick injury and prevent passing (transmission of) infection.Do not use APIDRA SoloStar if it is damaged or if you are not sure that it is working correctly.Always carry an extra APIDRA SoloStar prefilled pen in case your APIDRA SoloStar is lost or damaged.Step 1. Preparing for an injectionMake sure you have the following items:APIDRA SoloStarPen needlesAlcohol swabPuncture resistant container. See "How do I dispose of used needles and APIDRA SoloStar?".A.Check the label on your APIDRA SoloStar to make sure you have the right insulin. The APIDRA Solostar is blue. It has a dark blue injection button with a raised ring on the top.B.Check the expiration date, located on the carton or the label of your APIDRA SoloStar, to make sure the date has not passed. Do not use an APIDRA SoloStar if the date has passed.C.Take off the pen cap.D.Look at the insulin in your APIDRA SoloStar. Check to make sure that the insulin looks clear. Do not use this APIDRA SoloStar if the insulin is cloudy, colored, or has particles in it.Step 2. Attaching the needleDo not reuse needles. Always use a new sterile needle for each injection to help prevent contamination, and potential needle blocks. Read the pen needle "Instructions for Use" before you use them. Please note: Pen needles may look different. The pen needles shown are for illustrative purposes only.A.Wipe the Rubber Seal with alcohol.B.Remove the protective seal from the new pen needle.C.Line up the needle with the pen, and keep it straight as you attach it (screw or push on, depending on the needle type).If you do not keep the needle straight while you attach it this can damage the rubber seal, and cause leakage of insulin, or break the needle.Step 3. Doing a Safety testDo a safety test before each injection to make sure that you get the correct dose of APIDRA. The safety test:makes sure that the pen and needle work properlyremoves air bubblesA.Select a dose of 2 units by turning the dosage selector.B.Take off the outer needle cap and keep it to remove the used needle after injection. Take off the inner needle cap and dispose of it.C.Hold the pen with the needle pointing upwards.D.Tap the insulin reservoir so that any air bubbles rise up towards the needle.E.Press the injection button all the way in. Check if insulin comes out of the needle tip.You may have to do the safety test more than once before you see the insulin. If no insulin comes out, check for air bubbles and repeat the safety test two more times to remove them.If still no insulin comes out, the needle may be blocked. Change the needle and try again.If no insulin comes out after changing the needle, your APIDRA SoloStar may be damaged. Do not use this APIDRA SoloStar.Step 4. Selecting your doseSelect the APIDRA dose prescribed by your healthcare provider. You can select the insulin dose in steps of 1 unit, from a minimum of 1 unit to a maximum of 80 units. If you need a dose larger than 80 units, you should give it as two or more injections.A.Check that the dose window shows "0" after the safety test.B.Select your needed dose (in the example below, the selected dose is 30 units). If you turn past your dose, you can turn back down.Do not push the injection button while turning, insulin will come out.You cannot turn the dosage selector passed the number of units left in the pen. Do not force the dosage selector to turn. In this case, either you can inject the amount of insulin that is still in the pen and finish your dose with a new APIDRA SoloStar or you can use a new APIDRA SoloStar for your full dose.Step 5. Giving the injectionA.Give the injection exactly as shown to you by your healthcare provider. B.Insert the needle into your skin.C.Inject the dose by pressing the injection button in all the way. Only push the injection button when you are ready to inject. The number in the dose window will return to "0" as you inject.D.Keep the injection button pressed all the way in. Slowly count to 10 before you take the needle out of your skin. This will make sure that the full dose has been given.Step 6. Removing and disposing of the pen needleAlways remove the pen needle after each injection and store your APIDRA SoloStar without a needle attached. This helps prevent:Contamination and infectionAir from getting into the insulin reservoir and leakage of insulin. This will help to make sure you inject the right dose of insulin.A.Follow the instructions from your healthcare provider when removing and disposing of the needle. For example "scoop" the outer needle cap back on the needle and use it to unscrew the used needle from the pen. To lessen the risk of accidental needle stick injury and passing infection: do not recap needles with your fingersnever replace the inner needle cap.If your injection is given by another person, this person must also be careful when removing and disposing of the needles to prevent accidental needle stick injury and passing infection. B.Dispose of the needle the right way into your special puncture resistant container (See "How Do I Dispose of used needles and APIDRA SoloStar?").C.Always put the pen cap back on the pen, then store the APIDRA SoloStar until your next injection.How do I dispose of used needles and APIDRA SoloStar?Check with your healthcare provider for instructions about the right way to dispose of used needles and APIDRA SoloStar s. There may be local or state laws about how to throw away used needles and APIDRA SoloStar. Do not dispose of used needles or APIDRA SoloStar in household trash and do not recycle them.Put used needles and used empty APIDRA SoloStar in a container made specially for disposing of used syringes and needles (called a "sharps" container) or a hard plastic container (such as empty detergent bottles), with a screw-on cap, or metal container with a plastic lid labeled "Used Syringes". These containers should be sealed and disposed of the right way.How should I Store APIDRA SoloStar? Do not refrigerate APIDRA SoloStar after first use.Keep at room temperature below 77ºF (25ºC).Dispose of any opened APIDRA SoloStar 28 days after first use.MaintenanceProtect your APIDRA SoloStar from dust and dirt.You can clean the outside of your APIDRA SoloStar by wiping it with a damp cloth.Do not soak, wash or lubricate the pen as this may damage it.Handle your APIDRA SoloStar with care. Avoid situations where your APIDRA SoloStar might be damaged. If you are concerned that your APIDRA SoloStar may be damaged, use a new one.If you have any questions about APIDRA SoloStar or about diabetes, ask your healthcare provider, go to www.apidra.com or call sanofi-aventis U.S. at 1-800-633-1610.sanofi-aventis U.S. LLCBridgewater, NJ 08807Date of revision:February 2015©2015 sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC
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