NDC 51991-983 Norepinephrine Bitartrate

Norepinephrine Bitartrate

NDC Product Code 51991-983

NDC 51991-983-17

Package Description: 10 VIAL, SINGLE-DOSE in 1 CARTON > 4 mL in 1 VIAL, SINGLE-DOSE (51991-983-99)

NDC Product Information

Norepinephrine Bitartrate with NDC 51991-983 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.. The generic name of Norepinephrine Bitartrate is norepinephrine bitartrate. The product's dosage form is injection, solution, concentrate and is administered via intravenous form. The RxNorm Crosswalk for this NDC code indicates a single RxCUI concept is associated to this product: 242969.

Dosage Form: Injection, Solution, Concentrate - A sterile preparation for parenteral use which, upon the addition of suitable solvents, yields a solution conforming in all respects to the requirements for Injections.

Product Type: Human Prescription Drug What kind of product is this?
Indicates the type of product, such as Human Prescription Drug or Human Over the Counter Drug. This data element matches the “Document Type” field of the Structured Product Listing.

Norepinephrine Bitartrate Active Ingredient(s)

What is the Active Ingredient(s) List?
This is the active ingredient list. Each ingredient name is the preferred term of the UNII code submitted.


Inactive Ingredient(s)

About the Inactive Ingredient(s)
The inactive ingredients are all the component of a medicinal product OTHER than the active ingredient(s). The acronym "UNII" stands for “Unique Ingredient Identifier” and is used to identify each inactive ingredient present in a product.

  • SODIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 451W47IQ8X)
  • SODIUM METABISULFITE (UNII: 4VON5FNS3C)

Administration Route(s)

What are the Administration Route(s)?
The translation of the route code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration.

  • Intravenous - Administration within or into a vein or veins.

Pharmacological Class(es)

What is a Pharmacological Class?
These are the reported pharmacological class categories corresponding to the SubstanceNames listed above.

  • Catecholamine - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)
  • Catecholamines - [CS]

Product Labeler Information

What is the Labeler Name?
Name of Company corresponding to the labeler code segment of the Product NDC.

Labeler Name: Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Labeler Code: 51991
FDA Application Number: ANDA214455 What is the FDA Application Number?
This corresponds to the NDA, ANDA, or BLA number reported by the labeler for products which have the corresponding Marketing Category designated. If the designated Marketing Category is OTC Monograph Final or OTC Monograph Not Final, then the Application number will be the CFR citation corresponding to the appropriate Monograph (e.g. “part 341”). For unapproved drugs, this field will be null.

Marketing Category: ANDA - A product marketed under an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application. What is the Marketing Category?
Product types are broken down into several potential Marketing Categories, such as NDA/ANDA/BLA, OTC Monograph, or Unapproved Drug. One and only one Marketing Category may be chosen for a product, not all marketing categories are available to all product types. Currently, only final marketed product categories are included. The complete list of codes and translations can be found at www.fda.gov/edrls under Structured Product Labeling Resources.

Start Marketing Date: 07-01-2021 What is the Start Marketing Date?
This is the date that the labeler indicates was the start of its marketing of the drug product.

Listing Expiration Date: 12-31-2022 What is the Listing Expiration Date?
This is the date when the listing record will expire if not updated or certified by the product labeler.

Exclude Flag: N - NO What is the NDC Exclude Flag?
This field indicates whether the product has been removed/excluded from the NDC Directory for failure to respond to FDA"s requests for correction to deficient or non-compliant submissions ("Y"), or because the listing certification is expired ("E"), or because the listing data was inactivated by FDA ("I"). Values = "Y", "N", "E", or "I".

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Norepinephrine Bitartrate Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

1 Indications And Usage

Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection is indicated to raise blood pressure in adult patients with severe, acute hypotension.

Other

Correct HypovolemiaAddress hypovolemia before initiation of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection therapy. If the patient does not respond to therapy, suspect occult hypovolemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

AdministrationDilute Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection prior to use [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].Infuse Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection into a large vein. Avoid infusions into the veins of the leg in the elderly or in patients with occlusive vascular disease of the legs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Avoid using a catheter-tie-in technique.

DiscontinuationWhen discontinuing the infusion, reduce the flow rate gradually. Avoid abrupt withdrawal.

Emergency Treatment of ExtravasationTo prevent sloughing and necrosis in areas in which extravasation has occurred, infiltrate the ischemic area as soon as possible, using a syringe with a fine hypodermic needle with 5 to 10 mg of phentolamine mesylate in 10 to 15 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection in adults.Sympathetic blockade with phentolamine causes immediate and conspicuous local hyperemic changes if the area is infiltrated within 12 hours.

Risk SummaryLimited published data consisting of a small number of case reports and multiple small trials involving the use of norepinephrine in pregnant women at the time of delivery have not identified an increased risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. There are risks to the mother and fetus from hypotension associated with septic shock, myocardial infarction and stroke which are medical emergencies in pregnancy and can be fatal if left untreated. (see Clinical Considerations). In animal reproduction studies, using high doses of intravenous norepinephrine resulted in lowered maternal placental blood flow. Clinical relevance to changes in the human fetus is unknown since the average maintenance dose is ten times lower (see Data). Increased fetal reabsorptions were observed in pregnant hamsters after receiving daily injections at approximately 2 times the maximum recommended dose on a mg/m3 basis for four days during organogenesis (see Data).The estimated background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal riskHypotension associated with septic shock, myocardial infarction, and stroke are medical emergencies in pregnancy which can be fatal if left untreated. Delaying treatment in pregnant women with hypotension associated with septic shock, myocardial infarction and stroke may increase the risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Life-sustaining therapy for the pregnant woman should not be withheld due to potential concerns regarding the effects of norepinephrine on the fetus.

Data

Animal DataA study in pregnant sheep receiving high doses of intravenous norepinephrine (40 mcg/min, at approximately 10 times the average maintenance dose of 2-4 mcg/min in human, on a mg/kg basis) exhibited a significant decrease in maternal placental blood flow. Decreases in fetal oxygenation, urine and lung liquid flow were also observed.Norepinephrine administration to pregnant rats on Gestation Day 16 or 17 resulted in cataract production in rat fetuses.In hamsters, an increased number of resorptions (29.1% in study group vs. 3.4% in control group), fetal microscopic liver abnormalities and delayed skeletal ossification were observed at approximately 2 times the maximum recommended intramuscular or subcutaneous dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day from Gestation Day 7-10).

Risk SummaryThere are no data on the presence of norepinephrine in either human or animal milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Clinically relevant exposure to the infant is not expected based on the short half-life and poor oral bioavailability of norepinephrine.

AbsorptionFollowing initiation of intravenous infusion, the steady state plasma concentration is achieved in 5 min.

DistributionPlasma protein binding of norepinephrine is approximately 25%. It is mainly bound to plasma albumin and to a smaller extent to prealbumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. The volume of distribution is 8.8 L. Norepinephrine localizes mainly in sympathetic nervous tissue. It crosses the placenta but not the blood-brain barrier.

EliminationThe mean half-life of norepinephrine is approximately 2.4 min. The average metabolic clearance is 3.1 L/min.

MetabolismNorepinephrine is metabolized in the liver and other tissues by a combination of reactions involving the enzymes catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and MAO. The major metabolites are normetanephrine and 3-methoxyl-4-hydroxy mandelic acid (vanillylmandelic acid, VMA), both of which are inactive. Other inactive metabolites include 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol.

ExcretionNoradrenaline metabolites are excreted in urine primarily as sulphate conjugates and, to a lesser extent, as glucuronide conjugates. Only small quantities of norepinephrine are excreted unchanged.

Risk of Tissue DamageAdvise the patient, family, or caregiver to report signs of extravasation urgently [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Mfd. by:RAFARM SAPaiania Attiki PC 19002GreeceDistributed by:Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.Berlin, CT 06037

2.2 Dosage

After an initial dosage of 8 to 12 mcg per minute via intravenous infusion, assess patient response and adjust dosage to maintain desired hemodynamic effect. Monitor blood pressure every two minutes until the desired hemodynamic effect is achieved, and then monitor blood pressure every five minutes for the duration of the infusion.Typical maintenance intravenous dosage is 2 to 4 mcg per minute.

2.3 Preparation Of Diluted Solution

Visually inspect Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration (the solution is colorless). Do not use the solution if its color is pinkish or darker than slightly yellow or if it contains a precipitate. Add the content of one Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection vial (4 mg in 4 mL) to 1,000 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or Sodium Chloride Injection solutions that contain 5% dextrose to produce a 4 mcg per mL dilution. Dextrose reduces loss of potency due to oxidation. Administration in saline solution alone is not recommended.Use higher concentration solutions in patients requiring fluid restriction. Prior to use, store the diluted Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection solution for up to 24 hours at room temperature [20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F)] and protect from light.

2.4 Drug Incompatibilities

Avoid contact with iron salts, alkalis, or oxidizing agents.Whole blood or plasma, if indicated to increase blood volume, should be administered separately.

3 Dosage Forms And Strengths

Injection: 4 mg/4 mL (1 mg/mL norepinephrine base) sterile, colorless solution in a single-dose amber glass vial.

4 Contraindications

None.

5.1 Tissue Ischemia

Administration of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection to patients who are hypotensive from hypovolemia can result in severe peripheral and visceral vasoconstriction, decreased renal perfusion and reduced urine output, tissue hypoxia, lactic acidosis, and reduced systemic blood flow despite "normal" blood pressure. Address hypovolemia prior to initiating Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Avoid Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection in patients with mesenteric or peripheral vascular thrombosis, as this may increase ischemia and extend the area of infarction.Gangrene of the extremities has occurred in patients with occlusive or thrombotic vascular disease or who received prolonged or high dose infusions. Monitor for changes to the skin of the extremities in susceptible patients. Extravasation of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection may cause necrosis and sloughing of surrounding tissue. To reduce the risk of extravasation, infuse into a large vein, check the infusion site frequently for free flow, and monitor for signs of extravasation [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].

5.2 Hypotension After Abrupt Discontinuation

Sudden cessation of the infusion rate may result in marked hypotension. When discontinuing the infusion, gradually reduce the Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection infusion rate while expanding blood volume with intravenous fluids.

5.3 Cardiac Arrhythmias

Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection elevates intracellular calcium concentrations and may cause arrhythmias, particularly in the setting of hypoxia or hypercarbia. Perform continuous cardiac monitoring of patients with arrhythmias.

5.4 Allergic Reactions Associated With Sulfite

Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people.

6 Adverse Reactions

  • The following adverse reactions are described in greater detail in other sections:Tissue Ischemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]Cardiac Arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]The most common adverse reactions are hypertension and bradycardia. The following adverse reactions can occur:Nervous system disorders: Anxiety, headacheRespiratory disorders: Respiratory difficulty, pulmonary edema

7.1 Mao-Inhibiting Drugs

Co-administration of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors or other drugs with MAO-inhibiting properties (e.g., linezolid) can cause severe, prolonged hypertension.If administration of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection cannot be avoided in patients who recently have received any of these drugs and in whom, after discontinuation, MAO activity has not yet sufficiently recovered, monitor for hypertension.

7.2 Tricyclic Antidepressants

Co-administration of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection with tricyclic antidepressants (including amitriptyline, nortriptyline, protriptyline, clomipramine, desipramine, imipramine) can cause severe, prolonged hypertension. If administration of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection cannot be avoided in these patients, monitor for hypertension.

7.3 Antidiabetics

Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection can decrease insulin sensitivity and raise blood glucose. Monitor glucose and consider dosage adjustment of antidiabetic drugs.

7.4 Halogenated Anesthetics

Concomitant use of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection with halogenated anesthetics (e.g., cyclopropane, desflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane) may lead to ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. Monitor cardiac rhythm in patients receiving concomitant halogenated anesthetics.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.Avoid administration of Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection into the veins in the leg in elderly patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

10 Overdosage

Overdosage with Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection may result in headache, severe hypertension, reflex bradycardia, marked increase in peripheral resistance, and decreased cardiac output.In case of overdosage, discontinue Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection until the condition of the patient stabilizes.

11 Description

Norepinephrine (sometimes referred to as l-arterenol/Levarterenol or l-norepinephrine) is a sympathomimetic amine which differs from epinephrine by the absence of a methyl group on the nitrogen atom.Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection is (-)-α-(aminomethyl)-3,4-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol tartrate (1:1) (salt) monohydrate (molecular weight 337.3 g/mol) and has the following structural formula:Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection is supplied in a sterile aqueous solution in the form of the bitartrate salt to be administered by intravenous infusion. Norepinephrine is sparingly soluble in water, very slightly soluble in alcohol and ether, and readily soluble in acids. Each mL contains 1 mg of norepinephrine base (equivalent to 1.89 mg of norepinephrine bitartrate, anhydrous basis), sodium chloride for isotonicity, not more than 0.2 mg of sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant. It has a pH of 3.0 to 4.5. The air in the containers has been displaced by nitrogen gas.

12.1 Mechanism Of Action

Norepinephrine is a peripheral vasoconstrictor (alpha-adrenergic action) and an inotropic stimulator of the heart and dilator of coronary arteries (beta-adrenergic action).

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

The primary pharmacodynamic effects of norepinephrine are cardiac stimulation and vasoconstriction. Cardiac output is generally unaffected, although it can be decreased, and total peripheral resistance is also elevated. The elevation in resistance and pressure result in reflex vagal activity, which slows the heart rate and increases stroke volume. The elevation in vascular tone or resistance reduces blood flow to the major abdominal organs as well as to skeletal muscle. Coronary blood flow is substantially increased secondary to the indirect effects of alpha stimulation. After intravenous administration, a pressor response occurs rapidly and reaches steady state within 5 minutes. The pharmacologic actions of norepinephrine are terminated primarily by uptake and metabolism in sympathetic nerve endings. The pressor action stops within 1-2 minutes after the infusion is discontinued.

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and fertility studies have not been performed.

16 How Supplied/Storage And Handling

Norepinephrine Bitartrate Injection, USP, is a sterile, colorless solution for injection intended for intravenous use. It contains the equivalent of 1 mg of norepinephrine base per 1 mL (4 mg/4 mL). It is available as 4 mg/4 mL in single-dose amber glass vials. Supplied as:NDCStrengthHow supplied51991-983-99 - Vial51991-983-17 - Carton of 101 mg/mL4 mg/4 mL in 5 mL glass vial; Carton of 10 × 4 mL Single-dose Vials

Storage And Handling

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]Store in original carton until time of administration to protect from light. Discard unused portion.

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