NDC 70518-1902 Pravastatin Sodium

Pravastatin Sodium

NDC Product Code 70518-1902

NDC Code: 70518-1902

Proprietary Name: Pravastatin Sodium Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Proprietary Name?
The proprietary name also known as the trade name is the name of the product chosen by the medication labeler for marketing purposes.

Non-Proprietary Name: Pravastatin Sodium Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Non-Proprietary Name?
The non-proprietary name is sometimes called the generic name. The generic name usually includes the active ingredient(s) of the product.


Product Characteristics
Color(s):
GREEN (C48329 - LIGHT GREEN)
Shape: RECTANGLE (C48347)
Size(s):
10 MM
Imprint(s):
PB;8
Score: 1

Code Structure
  • 70518 - Remedyrepack Inc.
    • 70518-1902 - Pravastatin Sodium

NDC 70518-1902-0

Package Description: 90 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC

NDC 70518-1902-1

Package Description: 30 TABLET in 1 BLISTER PACK

NDC Product Information

Pravastatin Sodium with NDC 70518-1902 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Remedyrepack Inc.. The generic name of Pravastatin Sodium is pravastatin sodium. The product's dosage form is tablet and is administered via oral form.

Labeler Name: Remedyrepack Inc.

Dosage Form: Tablet - A solid dosage form containing medicinal substances with or without suitable diluents.

Product Type: Human Prescription Drug Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat kind of product is this?
Indicates the type of product, such as Human Prescription Drug or Human Over the Counter Drug. This data element matches the “Document Type” field of the Structured Product Listing.


Pravastatin Sodium Active Ingredient(s)

Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Active Ingredient(s) List?
This is the active ingredient list. Each ingredient name is the preferred term of the UNII code submitted.

  • PRAVASTATIN SODIUM 40 mg/1

Inactive Ingredient(s)

Additional informationCallout TooltipAbout the Inactive Ingredient(s)
The inactive ingredients are all the component of a medicinal product OTHER than the active ingredient(s). The acronym "UNII" stands for “Unique Ingredient Identifier” and is used to identify each inactive ingredient present in a product.

  • CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM (UNII: M28OL1HH48)
  • LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE (UNII: EWQ57Q8I5X)
  • MAGNESIUM OXIDE (UNII: 3A3U0GI71G)
  • MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)
  • CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE (UNII: OP1R32D61U)
  • D&C YELLOW NO. 10 (UNII: 35SW5USQ3G)
  • FD&C BLUE NO. 1 (UNII: H3R47K3TBD)
  • POVIDONE (UNII: FZ989GH94E)

Administration Route(s)

Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat are the Administration Route(s)?
The translation of the route code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration.

  • Oral - Administration to or by way of the mouth.

Pharmacological Class(es)

Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is a Pharmacological Class?
These are the reported pharmacological class categories corresponding to the SubstanceNames listed above.

  • HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - [MoA] (Mechanism of Action)
  • HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - [MoA] (Mechanism of Action)

Product Labeler Information

Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Labeler Name?
Name of Company corresponding to the labeler code segment of the Product NDC.

Labeler Name: Remedyrepack Inc.
Labeler Code: 70518
FDA Application Number: ANDA207068 Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the FDA Application Number?
This corresponds to the NDA, ANDA, or BLA number reported by the labeler for products which have the corresponding Marketing Category designated. If the designated Marketing Category is OTC Monograph Final or OTC Monograph Not Final, then the Application number will be the CFR citation corresponding to the appropriate Monograph (e.g. “part 341”). For unapproved drugs, this field will be null.

Marketing Category: ANDA - A product marketed under an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application. Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Marketing Category?
Product types are broken down into several potential Marketing Categories, such as NDA/ANDA/BLA, OTC Monograph, or Unapproved Drug. One and only one Marketing Category may be chosen for a product, not all marketing categories are available to all product types. Currently, only final marketed product categories are included. The complete list of codes and translations can be found at www.fda.gov/edrls under Structured Product Labeling Resources.

Start Marketing Date: 02-22-2019 Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Start Marketing Date?
This is the date that the labeler indicates was the start of its marketing of the drug product.

Listing Expiration Date: 12-31-2020 Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the Listing Expiration Date?
This is the date when the listing record will expire if not updated or certified by the product labeler.

Exclude Flag: N Additional informationCallout TooltipWhat is the NDC Exclude Flag?
This field indicates whether the product has been removed/excluded from the NDC Directory for failure to respond to FDA’s requests for correction to deficient or non-compliant submissions. Values = ‘Y’ or ‘N’.

* Please review the disclaimer below.

Pravastatin Sodium Product Label Images

Pravastatin Sodium Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

1 Indications And Usage

Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be only one component of multiple risk factor intervention in individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Drug therapy is indicated as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate.

1.1 Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease

  • In hypercholesterolemic patients without clinically evident coronary heart disease (CHD), pravastatin sodium tablets are indicated to:reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI).reduce the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures.reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality with no increase in death from non-cardiovascular causes.In patients with clinically evident CHD, pravastatin sodium tablets are indicated to:reduce the risk of total mortality by reducing coronary death.reduce the risk of MI.reduce the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures.reduce the risk of stroke and stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA).slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.

1.2 Hyperlipidemia

  • Pravastatin sodium tablets are indicated:as an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total cholesterol (Total-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and triglyceride (TG) levels and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb).
  • 1as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of patients with elevated serum TG levels (Fredrickson Type IV).for the treatment of patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (
  • Fredrickson Type III) who do not respond adequately to diet.
  • As an adjunct to diet and lifestyle modification for treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) in children and adolescent patients ages 8 years and older if after an adequate trial of diet the following findings are present:
  • LDL-C remains ≥190 mg/dL orLDL-C remains ≥160 mg/dL and:
  • There is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) ortwo or more other CVD risk factors are present in the patient.

1.3 Limitations Of Use

Pravastatin sodium tablets have not been studied in conditions where the major lipoprotein abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons (





Fredrickson Types I and V).

2.1 General Dosing Information

The patient should be placed on a standard cholesterol-lowering diet before receiving pravastatin sodium tablets and should continue on this diet during treatment with pravastatin sodium tablets [see NCEP Treatment Guidelines for details on dietary therapy].

2.2 Adult Patients

The recommended starting dose is 40 mg once daily. If a daily dose of 40 mg does not achieve desired cholesterol levels, 80 mg once daily is recommended. Pravastatin sodium tablets can be administered orally as a single dose at any time of the day, with or without food. Since the maximal effect of a given dose is seen within 4 weeks, periodic lipid determinations should be performed at this time and dosage adjusted according to the patient’s response to therapy and established treatment guidelines.

2.3 Patients With Renal Impairment

In patients with severe renal impairment, a starting dose of 10 mg pravastatin daily is recommended.

Children (Ages 8 To 13 Years, Inclusive)

The recommended dose is 20 mg once daily in children 8 to 13 years of age. Doses greater than 20 mg have not been studied in this patient population.

Adolescents (Ages 14 To 18 Years)

The recommended starting dose is 40 mg once daily in adolescents 14 to 18 years of age. Doses greater than 40 mg have not been studied in this patient population.Children and adolescents treated with pravastatin should be reevaluated in adulthood and appropriate changes made to their cholesterol-lowering regimen to achieve adult goals for LDL-C [see





Indications and Usage (1.2)].

2.5 Concomitant Lipid-Altering Therapy

Pravastatin sodium tablets may be used with bile acid resins. When administering a bile-acid-binding resin (e.g., cholestyramine, colestipol) and pravastatin, pravastatin sodium tablets should be given either 1 hour or more before or at least 4 hours following the resin. [See





Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]

2.6 Dosage In Patients Taking Cyclosporine

In patients taking immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine concomitantly with pravastatin, therapy should begin with 10 mg of pravastatin sodium once-a-day at bedtime and titration to higher doses should be done with caution. Most patients treated with this combination received a maximum pravastatin sodium dose of 20 mg/day. In patients taking cyclosporine, therapy should be limited to 20 mg of pravastatin sodium once daily [see





Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and





Drug Interactions (7.1)].

2.7 Dosage In Patients Taking Clarithromycin

In patients taking clarithromycin, therapy should be limited to 40 mg of pravastatin sodium once daily [see





Drug Interactions (7.2)].

3 Dosage Forms And Strengths

Pravastatin sodium tablets, USP are supplied as:10 mg tablets: Pink coloured, mottled,
rounded rectangular shaped, biconvex, uncoated tablets, debossed ‘PB’ on one side and
‘1’ on other side.





20
mg tablets: Yellow coloured, mottled, rounded rectangular shaped, biconvex, uncoated tablets, debossed ‘PB’ on one side and ‘2’ on other side.





40
mg tablets: Light Green coloured, mottled, rounded rectangular shaped, biconvex, uncoated tablets, debossed ‘PB’ on one side and ‘8’ on other side.





80
mg tablets: Yellow coloured, mottled, oval shaped, uncoated tablets, debossed ‘PB’ on one side and ‘4’
on other side.

4.1 Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity to any component of this
medication.

4.2 Liver

Active liver disease or unexplained, persistent elevations of serum transaminases [see





Warnings
and Precautions (5.2)].

4.3 Pregnancy

Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol and other products of cholesterol biosynthesis are essential components for fetal development (including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes). Since statins decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, they are contraindicated during pregnancy and in nursing mothers. PRAVASTATIN SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED TO WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE ONLY WHEN SUCH PATIENTS ARE HIGHLY UNLIKELY TO CONCEIVE AND HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARDS. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this class of drug, therapy should be discontinued immediately and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see





Use in Specific Populations (8.1,





8.3)].

4.4 Lactation

Pravastatin is present in human milk. Because statins have the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who require pravastatin sodium tablets treatment should not breastfeed their infants [see





Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].

5.1 Skeletal Muscle

Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with pravastatin and other drugs in this class. A history of renal impairment may be a risk factor for the development of rhabdomyolysis. Such patients merit closer monitoring for skeletal muscle effects.





Uncomplicated myalgia has also been reported in pravastatin-treated patients [see





Adverse Reactions (6)]. Myopathy, defined as muscle aching or muscle weakness in conjunction with increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values to greater than 10 times the ULN, was rare (<0.1%) in pravastatin clinical trials. Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevation of CPK. Predisposing factors include advanced age (≥65), uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and renal impairment.





There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum CPK, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation and improvement with immunosuppressive agents.All patients should be advised to promptly report to their physician unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing pravastatin sodium tablets.Pravastatin therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. Pravastatin therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient experiencing an acute or serious condition predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis, e.g., sepsis; hypotension; major surgery; trauma; severe metabolic, endocrine, or electrolyte disorders; or uncontrolled epilepsy.The risk of myopathy during treatment with statins is increased with concurrent therapy with either erythromycin, cyclosporine, niacin, or fibrates. However, neither myopathy nor significant increases in CPK levels have been observed in 3 reports involving a total of 100 post-transplant patients (24 renal and 76 cardiac) treated for up to 2 years concurrently with pravastatin 10 to 40 mg and cyclosporine. Some of these patients also received other concomitant immunosuppressive therapies. Further, in clinical trials involving small numbers of patients who were treated concurrently with pravastatin and niacin, there were no reports of myopathy. Also, myopathy was not reported in a trial of combination pravastatin (40 mg/day) and gemfibrozil (1200 mg/day), although 4 of 75 patients on the combination showed marked CPK elevations versus 1 of 73 patients receiving placebo. There was a trend toward more frequent CPK elevations and patient withdrawals due to musculoskeletal symptoms in the group receiving combined treatment as compared with the groups receiving placebo, gemfibrozil, or pravastatin monotherapy.





The use of fibrates alone may occasionally be associated with myopathy. The benefit of further alterations in lipid levels by the combined use of pravastatin with fibrates should be carefully weighed against the potential risks of this combination.Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with pravastatin coadministered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing pravastatin with colchicine [see





Drug Interactions (7.3)].

5.2 Liver

Statins, like some other lipid-lowering therapies, have been associated with biochemical abnormalities of liver function. In 3 long-term (4.8 to 5.9 years), placebo-controlled clinical trials (WOS, LIPID, CARE), 19,592 subjects (19,768 randomized) were exposed to pravastatin or placebo [see





Clinical Studies (14)]. In an analysis of serum transaminase values (ALT, AST), incidences of marked abnormalities were compared between the pravastatin and placebo treatment groups; a marked abnormality was defined as a post-treatment test value greater than 3 times the ULN for subjects with pretreatment values less than or equal to the ULN, or 4 times the pretreatment value for subjects with pretreatment values greater than the ULN but less than 1.5 times the ULN. Marked abnormalities of ALT or AST occurred with similar low frequency (≤1.2%) in both treatment groups. Overall, clinical trial experience showed that liver function test abnormalities observed during pravastatin therapy were usually asymptomatic, not associated with cholestasis, and did not appear to be related to treatment duration. In a 320-patient placebo-controlled clinical trial, subjects with chronic (>6 months) stable liver disease, due primarily to hepatitis C or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, were treated with 80 mg pravastatin or placebo for up to 9 months. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of subjects with at least one ALT ≥2 times the ULN for those with normal ALT (≤ ULN) at baseline or a doubling of the baseline ALT for those with elevated ALT (> ULN) at baseline. By Week 36, 12 out of 160 (7.5%) subjects treated with pravastatin met the prespecified safety ALT endpoint compared to 20 out of 160 (12.5%) subjects receiving placebo. Conclusions regarding liver safety are limited since the study was not large enough to establish similarity between groups (with 95% confidence) in the rates of ALT elevation.





It is recommended that liver function tests be performed prior to the initiation of therapy and when clinically indicated.Active liver disease or unexplained persistent transaminase elevations are contraindications to the use of pravastatin [see





Contraindications (4.2)]. Caution should be exercised when pravastatin is administered to patients who have a recent (<6 months) history of liver disease, have signs that may suggest liver disease (e.g., unexplained aminotransferase elevations, jaundice), or are heavy users of alcohol.





There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including pravastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with pravastatin sodium tablets, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found do not restart pravastatin sodium tablets.

5.3 Endocrine Function

Statins interfere with cholesterol synthesis and lower circulating cholesterol levels and, as such, might theoretically blunt adrenal or gonadal steroid hormone production. Results of clinical trials with pravastatin in males and post-menopausal females were inconsistent with regard to possible effects of the drug on basal steroid hormone levels. In a study of 21 males, the mean testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin was significantly reduced (p<0.004) after 16 weeks of treatment with 40 mg of pravastatin. However, the percentage of patients showing a ≥50% rise in plasma testosterone after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation did not change significantly after therapy in these patients. The effects of statins on spermatogenesis and fertility have not been studied in adequate numbers of patients. The effects, if any, of pravastatin on the pituitary-gonadal axis in pre-menopausal females are unknown. Patients treated with pravastatin who display clinical evidence of endocrine dysfunction should be evaluated appropriately. Caution should also be exercised if a statin or other agent used to lower cholesterol levels is administered to patients also receiving other drugs (e.g., ketoconazole, spironolactone, cimetidine) that may diminish the levels or activity of steroid hormones.In a placebo-controlled study of 214 pediatric patients with HeFH, of which 106 were treated with pravastatin (20 mg in the children aged 8 to 13 years and 40 mg in the adolescents aged 14 to 18 years) for 2 years, there were no detectable differences seen in any of the endocrine parameters (ACTH, cortisol, DHEAS, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol [girls] or testosterone [boys]) relative to placebo. There were no detectable differences seen in height and weight changes, testicular volume changes, or Tanner score relative to placebo.

6 Adverse Reactions

Pravastatin is generally well tolerated; adverse reactions have usually been mild and transient. In 4-month-long placebo-controlled trials, 1.7% of pravastatin-treated patients and 1.2% of placebo-treated patients were discontinued from treatment because of adverse experiences attributed to study drug therapy; this difference was not statistically significant.

Short-Term Controlled Trials

In the pravastatin sodium tablets placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 1313 patients (age range 20 to 76 years, 32.4% women, 93.5% Caucasians, 5% Blacks, 0.9% Hispanics, 0.4% Asians, 0.2% Others) with a median treatment duration of 14 weeks, 3.3% of patients on pravastatin sodium tablets and 1.2% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation and occurred at an incidence greater than placebo were: liver function test increased, nausea, anxiety/depression, and dizziness.All adverse clinical events (regardless of causality) reported in ≥2% of pravastatin-treated patients in placebo-controlled trials of up to 8 months duration are identified in Table 1:Table 1: Adverse Events in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Pravastatin
5 to 40 mg and at an Incidence Greater Than Placebo in Short-Term Placebo-Controlled Trials (% of patients)Body System/Event5 mg





N=100





10 mg





N=153





20 mg





N=478





40 mg





N=171





Any Dose





N=902





Placebo





N=411





Cardiovascular





    Angina Pectoris





5.04.64.83.54.53.4Dermatologic





    Rash





3.02.66.71.24.51.4Gastrointestinal





    Nausea/Vomiting





    Diarrhea





    Flatulence





    Dyspepsia/Heartburn





    Abdominal Distension





4.0





8.0





2.0





0.0





2.0





5.9





8.5





3.3





3.3





3.3





10.5





6.5





4.6





3.6





2.1





2.3





4.7





0.0





0.6





0.6





7.4





6.7





3.2





2.5





2.0





7.1





5.6





4.4





2.7





2.4





General





    Fatigue





    Chest Pain





    Influenza





4.0





4.0





4.0





1.3





1.3





2.6





5.2





3.3





1.9





0.0





1.2





0.6





3.4





2.7





2.0





3.9





1.9





0.7





Musculoskeletal





    Musculoskeletal
Pain





    Myalgia





13.0





1.0





3.9





2.6





13.2





2.9





5.3





1.2





10.1





2.3





10.2





1.2





Nervous System    





    Headache





    Dizziness





5.0





4.0





6.5





1.3





7.5





5.2





3.5





0.6





6.3





3.5





4.6





3.4





Respiratory





    Pharyngitis





    Upper Respiratory Infection





    Rhinitis





    Cough





2.0





6.0





7.0





4.0





4.6





9.8





5.2





1.3





1.5





5.2





3.8





3.1





1.2





4.1





1.2





1.2





2.0





5.9





3.9





2.5





2.7





5.8





4.9





1.7





Investigation





    ALT Increased





    g-GT Increased





    CPK Increased





2.0





3.0





5.0





2.0





2.6





1.3





4.0





2.1





5.2





1.2





0.6





2.9





2.9





2.0





4.1





1.2





1.2





3.6





The safety and tolerability of pravastatin sodium tablets at a dose of 80 mg in 2 controlled trials with a mean exposure of 8.6 months was similar to that of pravastatin sodium tablets at lower doses except that 4 out of 464 patients taking 80 mg of pravastatin had a single elevation of CK >10 times ULN compared to 0 out of 115 patients taking 40 mg of pravastatin.

Long-Term Controlled Morbidity And Mortality Trials

In the pravastatin sodium tablets placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 21,483 patients (age range 24 to 75 years, 10.3% women, 52.3% Caucasians, 0.8% Blacks, 0.5% Hispanics, 0.1% Asians, 0.1% Others, 46.1% Not Recorded) with a median treatment duration of 261 weeks, 8.1% of patients on pravastatin sodium tablets and 9.3% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality.Adverse event data were pooled from 7 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study [WOS]; Cholesterol and Recurrent Events study [CARE]; Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease study [LIPID]; Pravastatin Limitation of Atherosclerosis in the Coronary Arteries study [PLAC I]; Pravastatin, Lipids and Atherosclerosis in the Carotids study [PLAC II]; Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study [REGRESS]; and Kuopio Atherosclerosis Prevention Study [KAPS]) involving a total of 10,764 patients treated with pravastatin 40 mg and 10,719 patients treated with placebo. The safety and tolerability profile in the pravastatin group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Patients were exposed to pravastatin for a mean of 4.0 to 5.1 years in WOS, CARE, and LIPID and 1.9 to 2.9 years in PLAC I, PLAC II, KAPS, and REGRESS. In these long-term trials, the most common reasons for discontinuation were mild, non-specific gastrointestinal complaints. Collectively, these 7 trials represent 47,613 patient-years of exposure to pravastatin. All clinical adverse events (regardless of causality) occurring in ≥2% of patients treated with pravastatin in these studies are identified in Table 2.Table 2: Adverse Events in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Pravastatin
40 mg and at an Incidence Greater Than Placebo in Long-Term Placebo-Controlled TrialsBody
System/EventPravastatin





(N=10,764)





%
of patients





Placebo





(N=10,719)





%
of patients





Dermatologic





    Rash (including dermatitis)





7.2





7.1





General





    Edema





    Fatigue





    Chest Pain





    Fever





    Weight Gain





    Weight Loss





3.0





8.4





10.0





2.1





3.8





3.3





2.7





7.8





9.8





1.9





3.3





2.8





Musculoskeletal





    Musculoskeletal
Pain





    Muscle Cramp





    Musculoskeletal Traumatism





24.9





5.1





10.2





24.4





4.6





9.6





Nervous System





    Dizziness





    Sleep Disturbance





    Anxiety/Nervousness





    Paresthesia





7.3





3.0





4.8





3.2





6.6





2.4





4.7





3.0





Renal/Genitourinary





    Urinary Tract Infection





2.7





2.6





Respiratory





    Upper Respiratory Tract Infection





    Cough





    Influenza





    Pulmonary Infection





    Sinus Abnormality





    Tracheobronchitis





21.2





8.2





9.2





3.8





7.0





3.4





20.2





7.4





9.0





3.5





6.7





3.1





Special Senses





    Vision
Disturbance (includes blurred vision, diplopia)





3.4





3.3





Infections





    Viral Infection





3.2





2.9





In addition to the events listed above in the long-term trials table, events of probable, possible, or uncertain relationship to study drug that occurred in <2.0% of pravastatin-treated patients in the long-term trials included the following:Dermatologic: scalp hair abnormality (including alopecia), urticaria.





Endocrine/Metabolic: sexual dysfunction, libido change.





General: flushing.





Immunologic: allergy, edema head/neck.





Musculoskeletal: muscle weakness.





Nervous System: vertigo, insomnia, memory impairment, neuropathy (including peripheral neuropathy).





Special Senses: taste disturbance.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

In addition to the events reported above, as with other drugs in this class, the following events have been reported during postmarketing experience with pravastatin sodium tablets, regardless of causality assessment:Musculoskeletal: myopathy,
rhabdomyolysis, tendon disorder, polymyositis.





There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use [see





Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].





Nervous System: dysfunction of certain cranial nerves (including alteration of taste, impairment of extraocular movement, facial paresis), peripheral nerve palsy.





There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory impairment, confusion) associated with statin use. These cognitive issues have been reported for all statins. The reports are generally nonserious, and reversible upon statin discontinuation, with variable times to symptom onset (1 day to years) and symptom resolution (median of 3 weeks).Hypersensitivity: anaphylaxis, angioedema, lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, dermatomyositis, vasculitis, purpura, hemolytic anemia, positive ANA, ESR increase, arthritis, arthralgia, asthenia, photosensitivity, chills, malaise, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome).





Gastrointestinal: abdominal pain, constipation, pancreatitis, hepatitis (including chronic active hepatitis), cholestatic jaundice, fatty change in liver, cirrhosis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, hepatoma, fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure.





Dermatologic: a variety of skin changes (e.g., nodules, discoloration, dryness of mucous membranes, changes to hair/nails).





Renal: urinary abnormality (including dysuria, frequency, nocturia).





Respiratory: dyspnea, interstitial lung disease.






Psychiatric:
nightmare.






Reproductive: gynecomastia.





Laboratory
Abnormalities: liver function test abnormalities, thyroid function abnormalities.

6.3 Laboratory Test Abnormalities

Increases in ALT, AST values and CPK have been observed [see





Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].





Transient, asymptomatic eosinophilia has been reported. Eosinophil counts usually returned to normal despite continued therapy. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia have been reported with statins.

6.4 Pediatric Patients

In a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled
study involving 100 boys and 114 girls with HeFH (n=214; age range 8 to 18.5 years, 53% female, 95% Caucasians, <1% Blacks, 3% Asians, 1% Other), the safety and tolerability profile of pravastatin was generally similar to that of placebo. [See





Warnings and Precautions (5.3),





Use in Specific Populations (8.4), and





Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]

7 Drug Interactions

For the concurrent therapy of either cyclosporine, fibrates, niacin (nicotinic acid), or erythromycin, the risk of myopathy increases [see





Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and





Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.1 Cyclosporine

The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant administration of cyclosporine. Limit pravastatin to 20 mg once daily for concomitant use with cyclosporine [see





Dosage and Administration (2.6),





Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and





Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.2 Clarithromycin And Other Macrolide Antibiotics

The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant administration of clarithromycin. Limit pravastatin to 40 mg once daily for concomitant use with clarithromycin [see





Dosage and Administration (2.7),





Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and





Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].





Other macrolides (e.g., erythromycin and azithromycin) have the potential to increase statin exposures while used in combination. Pravastatin should be used cautiously with macrolide antibiotics due to a potential increased risk of myopathies.

7.3 Colchicine

The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant administration of colchicine [see





Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.4 Gemfibrozil

Due to an increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are coadministered with gemfibrozil, concomitant administration of pravastatin with gemfibrozil should be avoided [see





Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.5 Other Fibrates

Because it is known that the risk of myopathy during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is increased with concurrent administration of other fibrates, pravastatin should be administered with caution when used concomitantly with other fibrates [see





Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.6 Niacin

The risk of skeletal muscle effects may be enhanced when pravastatin is used in combination with niacin; a reduction in pravastatin dosage should be considered in this setting [see





Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk SummaryPravastatin sodium tablets are contraindicated for use in pregnant woman because of the potential for fetal harm. As safety in pregnant women has not been established and there is no apparent benefit to therapy with pravastatin sodium tablets during pregnancy, pravastatin sodium tablets should be immediately discontinued as soon as pregnancy is recognized [see





Contraindications (4.3)]. Limited published data on the use of pravastatin in pregnant women are insufficient to determine a drug-associated risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of fetal malformations was seen in rabbits or rats exposed to 10 times to 120 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 80 mg/day. Fetal skeletal abnormalities, offspring mortality, and developmental delays occurred when pregnant rats were administered 10 times to 12 times the MRHD during organogenesis to parturition [see





Data]. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.





The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.DataHuman Data Limited published data on pravastatin have not shown an increased risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage.Rare reports of congenital anomalies have been received following intrauterine exposure to other statins. In a review





2 of approximately 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to simvastatin or lovastatin, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed what would be expected in the general population. The number of cases is adequate to exclude a ≥3- to 4-fold increase in congenital anomalies over the background incidence. In 89% of the prospectively followed pregnancies, drug treatment was initiated prior to pregnancy and was discontinued at some point in the first trimester when pregnancy was identified.





Animal DataEmbryofetal and neonatal mortality was observed in rats given pravastatin during the period of organogenesis or during organogenesis continuing through weaning. In pregnant rats given oral gavage doses of 4, 20, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day from gestation days 7 through 17 (organogenesis) increased mortality of offspring and increased cervical rib skeletal anomalies were observed at ≥100 mg/kg/day systemic exposure, 10 times the human exposure at 80 mg/day MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m





2).





In other studies, no teratogenic effects were observed when pravastatin was dosed orally during organogenesis in rabbits (gestation days 6 through 18) up to 50 mg/kg/day or in rats (gestation days 7 through 17) up to 1000 mg/kg/day. Exposures were 10 times (rabbit) or 120 times (rat) the human exposure at 80 mg/day MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m





2).





In pregnant rats given oral gavage doses of 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg/day from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21 (weaning), increased mortality of offspring and developmental delays were observed at ≥100 mg/kg/day systemic exposure, corresponding to 12 times the human exposure at 80 mg/day MRHD, based on body surface area (mg/m





2).





In pregnant rats, pravastatin crosses the placenta and is found in fetal tissue at 30% of the maternal plasma levels following administration of a single dose of 20 mg/day orally on gestation day 18, which corresponds to exposure 2 times the MRHD of 80 mg daily based on body surface area (mg/m





2). In lactating rats, up to 7 times higher levels of pravastatin are present in the breast milk than in the maternal plasma, which corresponds to exposure 2 times the MRHD of 80 mg/day based on body surface area (mg/m





2).

8.2 Lactation

Risk SummaryPravastatin use is contraindicated during breastfeeding [see





Contraindications (4.4)]





. Based on one lactation study in published literature, pravastatin is present in human milk. There is no available information on the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with pravastatin sodium tablets.

8.3 Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential

ContraceptionFemalesPravastatin may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see





Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]





. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with pravastatin sodium tablets.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of pravastatin sodium tablets in children and adolescents from 8 to 18 years of age have been evaluated in a placebo-controlled study of 2 years duration. Patients treated with pravastatin had an adverse experience profile generally similar to that of patients treated with placebo with influenza and headache commonly reported in both treatment groups. [See





Adverse Reactions (6.4).]





Doses greater than 40 mg have not been studied in this population. Children and adolescent females of childbearing potential should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while on pravastatin therapy [see





Contraindications (4.3) and





Use in Specific Populations
(8.1)]. For dosing information [see





Dosage
and Administration (2.4)].





Double-blind, placebo-controlled pravastatin studies in children less than 8 years of age have not been conducted.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Two secondary prevention trials with pravastatin (CARE and LIPID) included a total of 6593 subjects treated with pravastatin 40 mg for periods ranging up to 6 years. Across these 2 studies, 36.1% of pravastatin subjects were aged 65 and older and 0.8% were aged 75 and older. The beneficial effect of pravastatin in elderly subjects in reducing cardiovascular events and in modifying lipid profiles was similar to that seen in younger subjects. The adverse event profile in the elderly was similar to that in the overall population. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses to pravastatin between elderly and younger patients.Mean pravastatin AUCs are slightly (25% to 50%) higher in elderly subjects than in healthy young subjects, but mean maximum plasma concentration (C





max), time to maximum plasma concentration (T





max),
and half-life (t





½) values are similar in both age groups and substantial
accumulation of pravastatin would not be expected in the elderly [see





Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].





Since advanced age (≥65 years) is a predisposing factor for myopathy, pravastatin sodium tablets should be prescribed with caution in the elderly [see





Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and





Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.6 Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Pravastatin has not been evaluated in patients with rare homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. In this group of patients, it has been reported that statins are less effective because the patients lack functional LDL receptors.

10 Overdosage

To date, there has been limited experience with overdosage of pravastatin. If an overdose occurs, it should be treated symptomatically with laboratory monitoring and supportive measures should be instituted as required.

11 Description

Pravastatin is one of a class of lipid-lowering compounds, the statins, which reduce cholesterol biosynthesis. These agents are competitive
inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme catalyzing the early rate-limiting
step in cholesterol biosynthesis, conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate.Pravastatin
sodium is designated chemically as 1-Naphthalene-heptanoic acid, 1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-β,δ,6-trihydroxy-2-methyl-8-(2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-,
monosodium salt, [1S-[1α(βS*,δS*),2α,6α,8β(R*),8aα]]-.Structural formula:Pravastatin sodium is an odorless, white to off-white,
fine or crystalline powder. It is a relatively polar hydrophilic compound
with a partition coefficient (octanol/water) of 0.59 at a pH of 7.0. It is
soluble in methanol and water (>300 mg/mL), slightly soluble in isopropanol,
and practically insoluble in acetone, acetonitrile, chloroform, and ether.Pravastatin sodium tablets, USP are available for oral administration as 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg tablets.
Inactive ingredients include: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium oxide,
magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and povidone. The 10 mg tablet
also contains ferric oxide red, the 20 mg and 80 mg tablets also contain ferric oxide yellow, and the 40 mg tablet also contains D & C yellow No. 10 aluminum lake & FD & C blue No. l aluminum lake.

12.1 Mechanism Of Action

Pravastatin is a reversible inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early and rate limiting step in the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol. In addition, pravastatin reduces VLDL and TG and increases HDL-C.

General

Absorption: Pravastatin sodium tablets are administered orally in the active form. In studies in man, peak plasma pravastatin concentrations occurred 1 to 1.5 hours upon oral administration. Based on urinary recovery of total radiolabeled drug, the average oral absorption of pravastatin is 34% and absolute bioavailability is 17%. While the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract reduces systemic bioavailability, the lipid-lowering effects of the drug are similar whether taken with or 1 hour prior to meals.





Pravastatin plasma concentrations, including area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), C





max, and steady-state minimum (C





min), are directly proportional to administered dose. Systemic bioavailability of pravastatin administered following a bedtime dose was decreased 60% compared to that following an AM dose. Despite this decrease in systemic bioavailability, the efficacy of pravastatin administered once daily in the evening, although not statistically significant, was marginally more effective than that after a morning dose.





The coefficient of variation (CV), based on between-subject variability, was 50% to 60% for AUC. The geometric means of pravastatin C





max and AUC following a 20 mg dose in the fasted state were 26.5 ng/mL and 59.8 ng*hr/mL, respectively.





Steady-state AUCs, C





max, and C





min plasma concentrations showed no evidence of pravastatin accumulation following once or twice daily administration of pravastatin sodium tablets.





Distribution: Approximately 50% of the circulating drug is bound to plasma proteins.





Metabolism: The major biotransformation pathways for pravastatin are: (a) isomerization to 6-epi pravastatin and the 3α-hydroxyisomer of pravastatin (SQ 31,906) and (b) enzymatic ring hydroxylation to SQ 31,945. The 3α-hydroxyisomeric metabolite (SQ 31,906) has 1/10 to 1/40 the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of the parent compound. Pravastatin undergoes extensive first-pass extraction in the liver (extraction ratio 0.66).





Excretion: Approximately 20% of a radiolabeled oral dose is excreted in urine and 70% in the feces. After intravenous administration of radiolabeled pravastatin to normal volunteers, approximately 47% of total body clearance was via renal excretion and 53% by non-renal routes (i.e., biliary excretion and biotransformation).





Following single dose oral administration of





14C-pravastatin, the radioactive elimination t





½ for pravastatin is 1.8 hours in humans.

Specific Populations

Renal Impairment: A single 20 mg oral dose of pravastatin was administered to 24 patients with varying degrees of renal impairment (as determined by creatinine clearance). No effect was observed on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin or its 3α-hydroxy isomeric metabolite (SQ 31,906). Compared to healthy subjects with normal renal function, patients with severe renal impairment had 69% and 37% higher mean AUC and C





max values, respectively, and a 0.61 hour shorter t





½ for the inactive enzymatic ring hydroxylation metabolite (SQ 31,945).





Hepatic Impairment: In a study comparing the kinetics of pravastatin in patients with biopsy confirmed cirrhosis (N=7) and normal subjects (N=7), the mean AUC varied 18-fold in cirrhotic patients and 5-fold in healthy subjects. Similarly, the peak pravastatin values varied 47-fold for cirrhotic patients compared to 6-fold for healthy subjects. [See





Warnings and Precautions (5.2).]





Geriatric: In a single oral dose study using pravastatin 20 mg, the mean AUC for pravastatin was approximately 27% greater and the mean cumulative urinary excretion (CUE) approximately 19% lower in elderly men (65 to 75 years old) compared with younger men (19 to 31 years old). In a similar study conducted in women, the mean AUC for pravastatin was approximately 46% higher and the mean CUE approximately 18% lower in elderly women (65 to 78 years old) compared with younger women (18 to 38 years old). In both studies, C





max, T





max, and t





½ values were similar in older and younger subjects. [See





Use in Specific Populations (8.5).]





Pediatric: After 2 weeks of once-daily 20 mg oral pravastatin administration, the geometric means of AUC were 80.7 (CV 44%) and 44.8 (CV 89%) ng*hr/mL for children (8 to 11 years, N=14) and adolescents (12 to 16 years, N=10), respectively. The corresponding values for C





max were 42.4 (CV 54%) and 18.6 ng/mL (CV 100%) for children and adolescents, respectively. No conclusion can be made based on these findings due to the small number of samples and large variability. [See





Use in Specific Populations (8.4).]

Drug-Drug Interactions

Table 3: Effect of Coadministered Drugs on the Pharmacokinetics of PravastatinPravastatinCoadministered Drug and Dosing RegimenDose (mg)Change in AUCChange in C





maxBID = twice daily; OD = once daily; QID = four times dailyCyclosporine 5 mg/kg single dose40 mg single dose↑282%↑327%Clarithromycin 500 mg BID for 9 days40 mg OD for 8 days↑110%↑128%Boceprevir 800 mg TID for 6 days40 mg single dose↑63%↑49%Darunavir 600 mg BID/Ritonavir 100 mg BID for 7 days40 mg single dose↑81%↑63%Colestipol 10 g single dose20 mg single dose↓47%↓53%Cholestyramine 4 g single dose






    Administered simultaneously






    Administered 1 hour prior to cholestyramine






    Administered 4 hours after cholestyramine





20 mg single dose↓40%





↑12%





↓12%





↓39%





↑30%





↓6.8%





Cholestyramine 24 g OD for 4 weeks20 mg BID for 8 weeks





5 mg BID for 8 weeks





10 mg BID for 8 weeks





↓51%





↓38%





↓18%





↑4.9%





↑23%





↓33%





Fluconazole






    200 mg IV for 6 days






    200 mg PO for 6 days





20 mg PO+10 mg IV





20 mg PO+10 mg IV





↓34%





↓16%





↓33%





↓16%





Kaletra 400 mg/100 mg BID for 14 days20 mg OD for 4 days↑33%↑26%Verapamil IR 120 mg for 1 day and





Verapamil ER 480 mg for 3 days





40 mg single dose↑31%↑42%Cimetidine 300 mg QID for 3 days20 mg single dose↑30%↑9.8%Antacids 15 mL QID for 3 days20 mg single dose↓28%↓24%Digoxin 0.2 mg OD for 9 days 20 mg OD for 9 days↑23%↑26%Probucol 500 mg single dose20 mg single dose↑14%↑24%Warfarin 5 mg OD for 6 days20 mg BID for 6 days↓13%↑6.7%Itraconazole 200 mg OD for 30 days40 mg OD for 30 days↑11% (compared to Day 1)↑17% (compared to Day 1)Gemfibrozil 600 mg single dose20 mg single dose↓7.0%↓20%Aspirin 324 mg single dose20 mg single dose↑4.7%↑8.9%Niacin 1 g single dose20 mg single dose↓3.6%↓8.2%Diltiazem20 mg single dose↑2.7%↑30%Grapefruit juice40 mg single dose↓1.8%↑3.7%Table 4: Effect of Pravastatin on the Pharmacokinetics of Coadministered DrugsPravastatin Dosing RegimenName and DoseChange in AUCChange in C





maxBID = twice daily; OD = once daily20 mg BID for 6 daysWarfarin 5 mg OD for 6 days





Change in mean prothrombin time





↑17%





↑0.4 sec





↑15%20 mg OD for 9 daysDigoxin 0.2 mg OD for 9 days↑4.6%↑5.3%20 mg BID for 4 weeks





10 mg BID for 4 weeks





5 mg BID for 4 weeks





Antipyrine 1.2 g single dose↑3.0%





↑1.6%





↑ Less than 1%





Not Reported20 mg OD for 4 daysKaletra 400 mg/100 mg BID for 14 daysNo changeNo change

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

In a 2-year study in rats fed pravastatin at doses of 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg body weight, there was an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in males at the highest dose (p<0.01). These effects in rats were observed at approximately 12 times the human dose (HD) of 80 mg based on body surface area (mg/m





2) and at approximately 4 times the HD, based on AUC.





In a 2-year study in mice fed pravastatin at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, there was an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in males and females at both 250 and 500 mg/kg/day (p<0.0001). At these doses, lung adenomas in females were increased (p=0.013). These effects in mice were observed at approximately 15 times (250 mg/kg/day) and 23 times (500 mg/kg/day) the HD of 80 mg, based on AUC. In another 2-year study in mice with doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (producing drug exposures approximately 2 times the HD of 80 mg, based on AUC), there were no drug-induced tumors.No evidence of mutagenicity was observed





in vitro, with or without
rat-liver metabolic activation, in the following studies: microbial mutagen tests, using mutant strains of





Salmonella typhimurium or





Escherichia coli; a forward mutation assay in L5178Y TK +/− mouse lymphoma cells; a chromosomal aberration test in hamster cells; and a gene conversion assay using





Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, there was no
evidence of mutagenicity in either a dominant lethal test in mice or a micronucleus test in mice.





In a fertility study in adult rats with daily doses up to 500 mg/kg, pravastatin did not produce any adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive performance.

Cns Toxicity

CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhage and edema and mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, were seen in dogs treated with pravastatin at a dose of 25 mg/kg/day. These effects in dogs were observed at approximately 59 times the HD of 80 mg/day, based on AUC. Similar CNS vascular lesions have been observed with several other drugs in this class.A chemically similar drug in this class produced optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in clinically normal dogs in a dose-dependent fashion starting at 60 mg/kg/day, a dose that produced mean plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose (as measured by total enzyme inhibitory activity). This same drug also produced vestibulocochlear Wallerian-like degeneration and retinal ganglion cell chromatolysis in dogs treated for 14 weeks at 180 mg/kg/day, a dose which resulted in a mean plasma drug level similar to that seen with the 60 mg/kg/day dose.When administered to juvenile rats (postnatal days [PND] 4 through 80 at 5 to 45 mg/kg/day), no drug related changes were observed at 5 mg/kg/day. At 15 and 45 mg/kg/day, altered body-weight gain was observed during the dosing and 52-day recovery periods as well as slight thinning of the corpus callosum at the end of the recovery period. This finding was not evident in rats examined at the completion of the dosing period and was not associated with any inflammatory or degenerative changes in the brain. The biological relevance of the corpus callosum finding is uncertain due to the absence of any other microscopic changes in the brain or peripheral nervous tissue and because it occurred at the end of the recovery period. Neurobehavioral changes (enhanced acoustic startle responses and increased errors in water-maze learning) combined with evidence of generalized toxicity were noted at 45 mg/kg/day during the later part of the recovery period. Serum pravastatin levels at 15 mg/kg/day are approximately ≥1 times (AUC) the maximum pediatric dose of 40 mg. No thinning of the corpus callosum was observed in rats dosed with pravastatin (≥250 mg/kg/day) beginning PND 35 for 3 months suggesting increased sensitivity in younger rats. PND 35 in a rat is approximately equivalent to an 8- to 12-year-old human child. Juvenile male rats given 90 times (AUC) the 40 mg dose had decreased fertility (20%) with sperm abnormalities compared to controls.

14.1 Prevention Of Coronary Heart Disease

In the Pravastatin Primary Prevention
Study (WOS),





3 the effect of pravastatin sodium tablets on fatal
and nonfatal CHD was assessed in 6595 men 45 to 64 years of age, without a
previous MI, and with LDL-C levels between 156 to 254 mg/dL (4 to 6.7 mmol/L).
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were
treated with standard care, including dietary advice, and either pravastatin
40 mg daily (N=3302) or placebo (N=3293) and followed for a median duration
of 4.8 years. Median (25





th, 75





th percentile)
percent changes from baseline after 6 months of pravastatin treatment in Total-C,
LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C were −20.3 (−26.9, −11.7), −27.7 (−36.0, −16.9), −9.1
(−27.6, 12.5), and 6.7 (−2.1, 15.6), respectively.





Pravastatin sodium tablets
significantly reduced the rate of first coronary events (either CHD death
or nonfatal MI) by 31% (248 events in the placebo group [CHD death=44, nonfatal
MI=204] versus 174 events in the pravastatin sodium tablets group [CHD death=31, nonfatal MI=143],
p=0.0001 [see figure below]). The risk reduction with pravastatin sodium tablets was similar
and significant throughout the entire range of baseline LDL cholesterol levels.
This reduction was also similar and significant across the age range studied
with a 40% risk reduction for patients younger than 55 years and a 27% risk
reduction for patients 55 years and older. The Pravastatin Primary Prevention
Study included only men, and therefore it is not clear to what extent these
data can be extrapolated to a similar population of female patients. Pravastatin sodium tablets also significantly decreased the risk for undergoing
myocardial revascularization procedures (coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]
surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA]) by 37% (80
vs 51 patients, p=0.009) and coronary angiography by 31% (128 vs 90, p=0.007).
Cardiovascular deaths were decreased by 32% (73 vs 50, p=0.03)
and there was no increase in death from non-cardiovascular causes.

14.2 Secondary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Events

In the LIPID





4 study,
the effect of pravastatin, 40 mg daily, was assessed in 9014 patients (7498
men; 1516 women; 3514 elderly patients [age ≥65 years]; 782 diabetic patients)
who had experienced either an MI (5754 patients) or had been hospitalized
for unstable angina pectoris (3260 patients) in the preceding 3 to 36 months.
Patients in this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study participated
for an average of 5.6 years (median of 5.9 years) and at randomization had
Total-C between 114 and 563 mg/dL (mean 219 mg/dL), LDL-C between 46 and 274
mg/dL (mean 150 mg/dL), TG between 35 and 2710 mg/dL (mean
160 mg/dL), and HDL-C between 1 and 103 mg/dL (mean 37 mg/dL). At baseline,
82% of patients were receiving aspirin and 76% were receiving antihypertensive
medication. Treatment with pravastatin sodium tablets significantly reduced the risk for total
mortality by reducing coronary death (see





Table 5).
The risk reduction due to treatment with pravastatin sodium tablets on CHD mortality was consistent
regardless of age. Pravastatin sodium tablets significantly reduced the risk for total mortality
(by reducing CHD death) and CHD events (CHD mortality or nonfatal MI) in patients
who qualified with a history of either MI or hospitalization for unstable
angina pectoris.





Table 5: LIPID - Primary and Secondary EndpointsNumber
(%) of Subjects EventPravastatin 40
mg





(N=4512)





Placebo





(N=4502)





Risk





Reduction





p-value





Primary
Endpoint    CHD
mortality287 (6.4)373 (8.3)24%0.0004Secondary
Endpoints     Total
mortality498 (11.0)633 (14.1)23%<0.0001    CHD
mortality or nonfatal MI 557 (12.3)715 (15.9)24%<0.0001    Myocardial
revascularization





    procedures
(CABG or PTCA)





584 (12.9)706 (15.7)20%<0.0001    Stroke        All-cause169 (3.7)204 (4.5)19%0.0477        Non-hemorrhagic154 (3.4)196 (4.4)23%0.0154    Cardiovascular
mortality331 (7.3)433 (9.6)25%<0.0001In the CARE





5 study, the effect
of pravastatin, 40 mg daily, on CHD death and nonfatal MI was assessed in 4159
patients (3583 men and 576 women) who had experienced a MI in the preceding
3 to 20 months and who had normal (below the 75





th percentile
of the general population) plasma total cholesterol levels. Patients in this
double-blind, placebo-controlled study participated for an average of 4.9
years and had a mean baseline Total-C of 209 mg/dL. LDL-C levels in this patient
population ranged from 101 to 180 mg/dL (mean 139 mg/dL). At baseline, 84%
of patients were receiving aspirin and 82% were taking antihypertensive medications.
Median (25





th, 75





th percentile)
percent changes from baseline after 6 months of pravastatin
treatment in Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C were −22.0 (−28.4, −14.9), −32.4
(−39.9, −23.7), −11.0 (−26.5, 8.6), and 5.1 (−2.9, 12.7), respectively. Treatment
with pravastatin sodium tablets significantly reduced the rate of first recurrent coronary
events (either CHD death or nonfatal MI), the risk of undergoing revascularization
procedures (PTCA, CABG), and the risk for stroke or TIA (see





Table
6).





Table 6: CARE - Primary and Secondary EndpointsNumber
(%) of SubjectsEventPravastatin 40
mg





(N=2081)





Placebo





(N=2078)





Risk





Reduction





p-value





a  The
risk reduction due to treatment with pravastatin sodium tablets was consistent in both sexes.





Primary
Endpoint  CHD
mortality or nonfatal MI





a212 (10.2)274 (13.2)24%0.003Secondary
Endpoints  Myocardial
revascularization procedures (CABG or PTCA)294 (14.1)391 (18.8)27%<0.001  Stroke
or TIA93 (4.5)124 (6.0)26%0.029In the PLAC I





6 study, the effect
of pravastatin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary
angiography in patients with coronary disease and moderate hypercholesterolemia
(baseline LDL-C range: 130 to 190 mg/dL). In this double-blind, multicenter,
controlled clinical trial, angiograms were evaluated at baseline and at 3
years in 264 patients. Although the difference between pravastatin and placebo
for the primary endpoint (per-patient change in mean coronary artery diameter)
and 1 of 2 secondary endpoints (change in percent lumen diameter stenosis)
did not reach statistical significance, for the secondary endpoint of change
in minimum lumen diameter, statistically significant slowing of disease was
seen in the pravastatin treatment group (p=0.02).





In
the REGRESS





7 study, the effect of pravastatin on
coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary angiography in 885 patients
with angina pectoris, angiographically documented coronary artery disease,
and hypercholesterolemia (baseline total cholesterol range: 160 to 310 mg/dL).
In this double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, angiograms were
evaluated at baseline and at 2 years in 653 patients (323 treated with pravastatin).
Progression of coronary atherosclerosis was significantly slowed in the pravastatin
group as assessed by changes in mean segment diameter (p=0.037) and minimum
obstruction diameter (p=0.001).





Analysis of pooled
events from PLAC I, PLAC II,





8 REGRESS, and KAPS





9 studies
(combined N=1891) showed that treatment with pravastatin was associated with
a statistically significant reduction in the composite event rate of fatal
and nonfatal MI (46 events or 6.4% for placebo versus 21 events or 2.4% for
pravastatin, p=0.001). The predominant effect of pravastatin was to reduce
the rate of nonfatal MI.

14.3 Primary Hypercholesterolemia ( Fredrickson Types Iia And Iib)

Pravastatin sodium tablets are highly effective in reducing
Total-C, LDL-C, and TG in patients with heterozygous familial, presumed familial
combined, and non-familial (non-FH) forms of primary hypercholesterolemia,
and mixed dyslipidemia. A therapeutic response is seen within 1 week, and
the maximum response usually is achieved within 4 weeks. This response is
maintained during extended periods of therapy. In addition, pravastatin sodium tablets are effective
in reducing the risk of acute coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients
with and without previous MI.A single daily dose is
as effective as the same total daily dose given twice a day. In multicenter,
double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia,
treatment with pravastatin in daily doses ranging from 10 to 40 mg consistently
and significantly decreased Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and Total-C/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C
ratios (see





Table 7).





In a
pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies
of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, treatment with pravastatin
at a daily dose of 80 mg (N=277) significantly decreased Total-C, LDL-C, and
TG. The 25





th and 75





th percentile
changes from baseline in LDL-C for pravastatin 80 mg were −43% and −30%. The
efficacy results of the individual studies were consistent with the pooled
data (see





Table 7).





Treatment
with pravastatin modestly decreased VLDL-C and pravastatin across all doses produced
variable increases in HDL-C (see





Table 7).





Table 7: Primary Hypercholesterolemia Studies: Dose Response of Pravastatin sodium tablets
Once Daily Administrationa  A
multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.





b  Pooled
analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.





DoseTotal-CLDL-CHDL-CTGMean Percent Changes
From Baseline After 8 Weeks





aPlacebo (N=36)−3%−4%+1%−4%10 mg (N=18)−16%−22%+7%−15%20 mg (N=19)−24%−32%+2%−11%40 mg (N=18)−25%−34%+12%−24%Mean Percent Changes
From Baseline After 6 Weeks





bPlacebo (N=162)0%−1%−1%+1%80 mg (N=277)−27%−37%+3%−19%In another clinical trial, patients treated with pravastatin
in combination with cholestyramine (70% of patients were taking cholestyramine
20 or 24 g per day) had reductions equal to or greater than 50% in LDL-C.
Furthermore, pravastatin attenuated cholestyramine-induced increases in TG
levels (which are themselves of uncertain clinical significance).

14.4 Hypertriglyceridemia ( Fredrickson Type Iv)

The response to pravastatin in patients
with Type IV hyperlipidemia (baseline TG >200 mg/dL and LDL-C <160 mg/dL)
was evaluated in a subset of 429 patients from the CARE study. For pravastatin-treated
subjects, the median (min, max) baseline TG level was 246.0 (200.5, 349.5)
mg/dL (see





Table 8).





Table 8: Patients with Fredrickson Type IV Hyperlipidemia Median
(25





th, 75





th percentile) % Change from Baseline





Pravastatin 40 mg (N=429)Placebo (N=430)TG−21.1 (−34.8, 1.3)−6.3 (−23.1, 18.3)Total-C−22.1 (−27.1, −14.8)0.2 (−6.9, 6.8)LDL-C−31.7 (−39.6, −21.5)0.7 (−9.0, 10.0)HDL-C7.4 (−1.2, 17.7)2.8 (−5.7, 11.7)Non-HDL-C−27.2 (−34.0, −18.5)−0.8 (−8.2, 7.0)

14.5 Dysbetalipoproteinemia ( Fredrickson Type Iii)

The response to pravastatin in two double-blind crossover studies of 46 patients with genotype E2/E2 and





Fredrickson Type III dysbetalipoproteinemia is shown in





Table 9.





Table 9: Patients with Fredrickson Type III Dysbetalipoproteinemia
Median (min, max) % Change from BaselineMedian(min, max)





at Baseline(mg/dL)





Median % Change (min, max)





Pravastatin 40 mg (N=20)





Study 1Total-C386.5 (245.0, 672.0)−32.7 (−58.5, 4.6)TG443.0 (275.0, 1299.0)−23.7 (−68.5, 44.7)VLDL-C





a206.5 (110.0, 379.0)−43.8 (−73.1, −14.3)LDL-C





a117.5 (80.0, 170.0)−40.8 (−63.7, 4.6)HDL-C30.0 (18.0, 88.0)6.4 (−45.0, 105.6)Non-HDL-C344.5 (215.0, 646.0)−36.7 (−66.3, 5.8)a  N=14





Median (min, max)





at
Baseline (mg/dL)





Median % Change (min, max)





Pravastatin
40 mg (N=26)





Study 2Total-C340.3 (230.1, 448.6)−31.4 (−54.5, −13.0)TG343.2 (212.6, 845.9)−11.9 (−56.5, 44.8)VLDL-C145.0 (71.5, 309.4)−35.7 (−74.7, 19.1)LDL-C128.6 (63.8, 177.9)−30.3 (−52.2, 13.5)HDL-C38.7 (27.1, 58.0)5.0 (−17.7, 66.7)Non-HDL-C295.8 (195.3, 421.5)−35.5 (−81.0, −13.5)

14.6 Pediatric Clinical Study

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study
in 214 patients (100 boys and 114 girls) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia
(HeFH), aged 8 to 18 years was conducted for 2 years. The children (aged 8 to 13
years) were randomized to placebo (N=63) or 20 mg of pravastatin daily (N=65)
and the adolescents (aged 14 to 18 years) were randomized to placebo (N=45) or
40 mg of pravastatin daily (N=41). Inclusion in the study required an LDL-C
level >95





th percentile for age and sex and one
parent with either a clinical or molecular diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia.
The mean baseline LDL-C value was 239 mg/dL and 237 mg/dL
in the pravastatin (range: 151 to 405 mg/dL) and placebo (range: 154 to 375 mg/dL)
groups, respectively.





Pravastatin significantly decreased
plasma levels of LDL-C, Total-C, and ApoB in both children and adolescents
(see





Table 10). The effect of pravastatin treatment
in the 2 age groups was similar.





Table 10: Lipid-Lowering Effects of Pravastatin in Pediatric Patients
with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Least-Squares Mean % Change
from Baseline at Month 24 (Last Observation Carried Forward: Intent-to-Treat)





aPravastatin





20
mg





(Aged 8 to 13





years)





N=65





Pravastatin





40
mg





(Aged 14 to 18





years)





N=41





Combined





Pravastatin





(Aged
8 to 18





years)





N=106





Combined





Placebo





(Aged
8 to 18





years)





N=108





95% CI of the Difference
Between Combined Pravastatin and Placeboa  The
above least-squares mean values were calculated based on log-transformed lipid
values.





b  Significant
at p≤0.0001 when compared with placebo.





LDL-C −26.04





b−21.07





b−24.07





b−1.52(−26.74, −18.86)TC −20.75





b−13.08





b−17.72





b−0.65(−20.40, −13.83)HDL-C 1.0413.715.973.13(−1.71, 7.43)TG −9.58−0.30−5.88−3.27(−13.95, 10.01)ApoB(N)





−23.16





b(61)





−18.08





b(39)





−21.11





b(100)





−0.97





(106)





(−24.29, −16.18)The mean achieved LDL-C was 186 mg/dL (range: 67 to 363 mg/dL)
in the pravastatin group compared to 236 mg/dL (range: 105 to 438 mg/dL) in the
placebo group.The safety and efficacy of pravastatin
doses above 40 mg daily have not been studied in children. The long-term efficacy
of pravastatin therapy in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood
has not been established.

15 References

  • Fredrickson DS, Levy RI, Lees RS. Fat transport in lipoproteins
  • - An integrated approach to mechanisms and disorders.
  • N Engl J Med.
  • 1967;276: 34-44, 94-103, 148-156, 215-225, 273-281.
  • Manson JM, Freyssinges C, Ducrocq MB, Stephenson WP. Postmarketing
  • Surveillance of lovastatin and simvastatin exposure during pregnancy.
  • Reprod
  • Toxicol. 1996;10(6):439-446.
  • Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, et al, for the West of Scotland
  • Coronary Prevention Study Group (WOS). Prevention of coronary heart disease
  • With pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia.
  • N Engl J Med.
  • 1995;333:1301-1307.
  • The Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic
  • Disease Group (LIPID). Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with
  • Pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial
  • Cholesterol levels.
  • N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1349-1357.
  • Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, et al, for the Cholesterol
  • And Recurrent Events Trial Investigators (CARE). The effect of pravastatin
  • On coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol
  • Levels.
  • N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1001-1009.
  • Pitt B, Mancini GBJ, Ellis SG, et al, for the PLAC I Investigators.
  • Pravastatin limitation of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries (PLAC I):
  • Reduction in atherosclerosis progression and clinical events.
  • J Am
  • Coll Cardiol. 1995;26:1133-1139.
  • Jukema JW, Bruschke AVG, van Boven AJ, et al, for the
  • Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study Group (REGRESS). Effects of lipid
  • Lowering by pravastatin on progression and regression of coronary artery disease
  • In symptomatic man with normal to moderately elevated serum cholesterol levels.
  • Circ.
  • 1995;91:2528-2540.
  • Crouse JR, Byington RP, Bond MG, et al. Pravastatin, lipids,
  • And atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries: Design features of a clinical
  • Trial with carotid atherosclerosis outcome (PLAC II).
  • Control Clin
  • Trials. 1992;13:495-506.
  • Salonen R, Nyyssonen K, Porkkala E, et al. Kuopio Atherosclerosis
  • Prevention Study (KAPS). A population-based primary preventive trial of the
  • Effect of LDL lowering on atherosclerotic progression in carotid and femoral
  • Arteries.
  • Circ. 1995;92:1758-1764.

16.1 How Supplied

Pravastatin sodium tablets, USP are supplied as:





10 mg
tablets: Pink coloured, mottled,
rounded rectangular shaped, biconvex, uncoated tablets, debossed ‘PB’ on one side and
‘1’ on other side.
They are supplied in bottles containing desiccant canister as follows.





NDC NumberSize16729-008-15Bottle of 90 tablets16729-008-16Bottle of 500 tablets16729-008-17Bottle of 1000 tablets20 mg tablets:Yellow coloured, mottled, rounded rectangular shaped, biconvex, uncoated tablets, debossed ‘PB’ on one side and ‘2’ on other side.
They are supplied in bottles containing desiccant canister as follows.





NDC NumberSize16729-009-15Bottle of 90 tablets16729-009-16Bottle of 500 tablets16729-009-17Bottle of 1000 tablets40
mg tablets: Light Green coloured, mottled, rounded rectangular shaped, biconvex, uncoated tablets, debossed ‘PB’ on one side and ‘8’ on other side.
They are supplied in bottles containing desiccant canister as follows.





NDC NumberSize16729-010-15Bottle of 90 tablets16729-010-16Bottle of 500 tablets16729-010-17Bottle of 1000 tablets80 mg tablets: Yellow coloured, mottled, oval shaped, uncoated tablets, debossed ‘PB’ on one side and ‘4’
on other side.
They are supplied in bottles containing desiccant canister as follows.





NDC NumberSize16729-011-15Bottle of 90 tablets16729-011-16Bottle of 500 tablets16729-011-17Bottle of 1000 tablets

16.2 Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep tightly closed (protect from moisture). Protect from light.

17 Patient Counseling Information

Muscle PainPatients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly
if accompanied by malaise or fever or if these muscle signs or symptoms persist after discontinuing pravastatin sodium tablets [see





Warnings
and Precautions (5.1)].





Liver EnzymesIt is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of pravastatin sodium tablets, and thereafter when clinically indicated. All patients treated with pravastatin sodium tablets should be advised to promptly report any symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine, or jaundice [see





Warnings
and Precautions (5.2)].





Embryofetal ToxicityAdvise females of reproductive potential of the risk to a fetus, to use effective contraception during treatment, and to inform their healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see





Contraindications (4.3), Use





in Specific Populations (8.1,





8.3)]





.LactationAdvise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Pravastatin sodium tablets [see





Contraindications (4.4),





Use in Specific Populations (8.2)]





.

Other

Manufactured For:Accord Healthcare, Inc.,1009, Slater Road,Suite 210-B,Durham, NC 27703,USA.Manufactured By:
Intas Pharmaceuticals Limited,
Plot No. : 457, 458,Village – Matoda,Bavla Road, Ta.- Sanand,Dist.- Ahmedabad – 382 210.INDIA.10 0983 0 669002Issued July 2016

* Please review the disclaimer below.

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