NDC 68968-6610 Minivelle

Estradiol

NDC Product Code 68968-6610

NDC CODE: 68968-6610

Proprietary Name: Minivelle What is the Proprietary Name?
The proprietary name also known as the trade name is the name of the product chosen by the medication labeler for marketing purposes.

Non-Proprietary Name: Estradiol What is the Non-Proprietary Name?
The non-proprietary name is sometimes called the generic name. The generic name usually includes the active ingredient(s) of the product.

Drug Use Information

Drug Use Information
The drug use information is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of a health care professional. Always ask a health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

  • This medication is a female hormone (estrogen). It is used by women to help reduce symptoms of menopause (such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness). These symptoms are caused by the body making less estrogen. If you are using this medication to treat symptoms only in and around the vagina, products applied directly inside the vagina should be considered before medications that are taken by mouth, absorbed through the skin, or injected. This medication may also be used by women who are not able to produce enough estrogen (for example, due to hypogonadism, primary ovarian failure). Certain estrogen products may also be used by women after menopause to prevent bone loss (osteoporosis). However, there are other medications (such as raloxifene, bisphosphonates including alendronate) that are also effective in preventing bone loss and may be safer. These medications should be considered for use before estrogen treatment.

NDC Code Structure

  • 68968 - Noven Therapeutics, Llc

NDC 68968-6610-8

Package Description: 8 POUCH in 1 PACKET > 1 d in 1 POUCH (68968-6610-1)

Price per Unit: $25.08208 per EA

NDC Product Information

Minivelle with NDC 68968-6610 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Noven Therapeutics, Llc. The generic name of Minivelle is estradiol. The product's dosage form is film, extended release and is administered via transdermal form. The RxNorm Crosswalk for this NDC code indicates multiple RxCUI concepts are associated to this product: 1149632, 1356979, 1356997, 1357007, 1357009, 1551622, 241946, 242891, 242892 and 248478.

Dosage Form: Film, Extended Release - A drug delivery system in the form of a film that releases the drug over an extended period in such a way as to maintain constant drug levels in the blood or target tissue.

Product Type: Human Prescription Drug What kind of product is this?
Indicates the type of product, such as Human Prescription Drug or Human Over the Counter Drug. This data element matches the “Document Type” field of the Structured Product Listing.

Minivelle Active Ingredient(s)

What is the Active Ingredient(s) List?
This is the active ingredient list. Each ingredient name is the preferred term of the UNII code submitted.


Inactive Ingredient(s)

About the Inactive Ingredient(s)
The inactive ingredients are all the component of a medicinal product OTHER than the active ingredient(s). The acronym "UNII" stands for “Unique Ingredient Identifier” and is used to identify each inactive ingredient present in a product.

  • DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL (UNII: E107L85C40)
  • OLEYL ALCOHOL (UNII: 172F2WN8DV)
  • POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)
  • DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL (UNII: E107L85C40)
  • OLEYL ALCOHOL (UNII: 172F2WN8DV)
  • POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)
  • DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL (UNII: E107L85C40)
  • OLEYL ALCOHOL (UNII: 172F2WN8DV)
  • POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)
  • DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL (UNII: E107L85C40)
  • OLEYL ALCOHOL (UNII: 172F2WN8DV)
  • POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)
  • DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL (UNII: E107L85C40)
  • OLEYL ALCOHOL (UNII: 172F2WN8DV)
  • POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)

Administration Route(s)

What are the Administration Route(s)?
The translation of the route code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration.

  • Transdermal - Administration through the dermal layer of the skin to the systemic circulation by diffusion.

Pharmacological Class(es)

What is a Pharmacological Class?
These are the reported pharmacological class categories corresponding to the SubstanceNames listed above.

  • Estradiol Congeners - [CS]
  • Estrogen - [EPC] (Established Pharmacologic Class)
  • Estrogen Receptor Agonists - [MoA] (Mechanism of Action)

Product Labeler Information

What is the Labeler Name?
Name of Company corresponding to the labeler code segment of the Product NDC.

Labeler Name: Noven Therapeutics, Llc
Labeler Code: 68968
FDA Application Number: NDA203752 What is the FDA Application Number?
This corresponds to the NDA, ANDA, or BLA number reported by the labeler for products which have the corresponding Marketing Category designated. If the designated Marketing Category is OTC Monograph Final or OTC Monograph Not Final, then the Application number will be the CFR citation corresponding to the appropriate Monograph (e.g. “part 341”). For unapproved drugs, this field will be null.

Marketing Category: NDA - A product marketed under an approved New Drug Application. What is the Marketing Category?
Product types are broken down into several potential Marketing Categories, such as NDA/ANDA/BLA, OTC Monograph, or Unapproved Drug. One and only one Marketing Category may be chosen for a product, not all marketing categories are available to all product types. Currently, only final marketed product categories are included. The complete list of codes and translations can be found at www.fda.gov/edrls under Structured Product Labeling Resources.

Start Marketing Date: 12-20-2012 What is the Start Marketing Date?
This is the date that the labeler indicates was the start of its marketing of the drug product.

Listing Expiration Date: 12-31-2022 What is the Listing Expiration Date?
This is the date when the listing record will expire if not updated or certified by the product labeler.

Exclude Flag: N - NO What is the NDC Exclude Flag?
This field indicates whether the product has been removed/excluded from the NDC Directory for failure to respond to FDA"s requests for correction to deficient or non-compliant submissions ("Y"), or because the listing certification is expired ("E"), or because the listing data was inactivated by FDA ("I"). Values = "Y", "N", "E", or "I".

* Please review the disclaimer below.

Minivelle Product Labeling Information

The product labeling information includes all published material associated to a drug. Product labeling documents include information like generic names, active ingredients, ingredient strength dosage, routes of administration, appearance, usage, warnings, inactive ingredients, etc.

Product Labeling Index

Warning: Endometrial Cancer, Cardiovascular Disorders, Breast Cancer, And Probable Dementia

Estrogen-Alone TherapyEndometrial CancerThere is an increased risk of endometrial cancer in a woman with a uterus who uses unopposed estrogens. Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2)] . Cardiovascular Disorders and Probable DementiaEstrogen-alone therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1, 5.3), and Clinical Studies ( 14.3, 14.4)] . The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen-alone substudy reported increased risks of stroke and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 7.1 years of treatment with daily oral conjugated estrogens (CE) [0.625 mg]-alone, relative to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1), and Clinical Studies ( 14.3)] . The WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI reported an increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 5.2 years of treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone, relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5), and Clinical Studies ( 14.4)] . Only daily oral 0.625 mg CE was studied in the estrogen-alone substudy of the WHI. Therefore, the relevance of the WHI findings regarding adverse cardiovascular events and dementia to lower CE doses, other routes of administration, or other estrogen-alone product is not known. Without such data, it is not possible to definitively exclude these risks or determine the extent of these risks for other products. Discuss with your patient the benefits and risks of estrogen-alone therapy, taking into account her individual risk profile. Estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.Estrogen Plus Progestin Therapy Cardiovascular Disorders and Probable DementiaEstrogen plus progestin therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1, 5.3), and Clinical Studies ( 14.3, 14.4] . The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported increased risks of DVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5.6 years of treatment with daily oral CE (0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) [2.5 mg], relative to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1), and Clinical Studies ( 14.3)] . The WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of the WHI, reported an increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg) combined with MPA (2.5 mg), relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5), and Clinical Studies ( 14.4)] . Breast Cancer The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy also demonstrated an increased risk of invasive breast cancer [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2), and Clinical Studies ( 14.3)]. Only daily oral 0.625 mg CE and 2.5 MPA were studied in the estrogen plus progestin substudy of the WHI. Therefore, the relevance of the WHI findings regarding adverse cardiovascular events, dementia, and breast cancer to lower CE plus other MPA doses, other routes of administration, or other estrogen plus progestin products is not known. Without such data, it is not possible to definitively exclude these risks or determine the extent of these risks for other products. Discuss with your patient the benefits and risks of estrogen plus progestin therapy, taking into account her individual risk profile. Estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.

1.1 Treatment Of Moderate To Severe Vasomotor Symptoms Due To Menopause

MINIVELLE is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms due to menopause.

1.2 Prevention Of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

MINIVELLE is indicated for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. When prescribing solely for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, therapy should only be considered for women at significant risk of osteoporosis and non-estrogen medications should be carefully considered.Limitation of UseWhen prescribing solely for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, therapy should only be considered for women at significant risk of osteoporosis and non-estrogen medications should be carefully considered.

2 Dosage And Administration

Generally, when estrogen is prescribed for a postmenopausal woman with a uterus, a progestin should be considered to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. A woman without a uterus does not need a progestin. In some cases, however, hysterectomized women with a history of endometriosis may need a progestin [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2, 5.14)]. Use of estrogen-alone, or in combination with a progestin, should be with the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Postmenopausal women should be re-evaluated periodically as clinically appropriate to determine if treatment is still necessary.

2.1 Treatment Of Moderate To Severe Vasomotor Symptoms

Start therapy with MINIVELLE 0.0375 mg per day applied to the skin twice weekly. Dosage adjustment should be guided by the clinical response. Therapy should be started at the lowest effective dose and the shortest duration consistent with the treatment goals. Attempts to taper or discontinue the medication should be made at 3 to 6 month intervals.

2.2 Prevention Of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Start therapy with MINIVELLE 0.025 mg per day applied to the skin twice weekly. The dose may be adjusted as necessary.

2.3 Patch Application Instructions

The adhesive side of MINIVELLE should be placed on a clean, dry area on the lower abdomen (below the umbilicus) or buttocks. MINIVELLE should not be applied to the breasts.MINIVELLE should be replaced twice weekly (every 3-4 days).The sites of application must be rotated, with an interval of at least 1 week allowed between applications to a particular site.The area selected should not be oily, damaged, or irritated. The waistline should be avoided, since tight clothing may rub the system off. The system should be applied immediately after opening the pouch and removing the protective liner. The system should be pressed firmly in place with the palm of the hand for about 10 seconds, making sure there is good contact with the skin, especially around the edges. In the event that a system should fall off, the same system may be reapplied. If the same system cannot be reapplied, a new system should be applied to another location. If a woman has forgotten to apply a patch, she should apply a new patch as soon as possible. In either case, the original treatment schedule should be continued. The interruption of treatment in women taking MINIVELLE might increase the likelihood of breakthrough bleeding, spotting and recurrence of symptoms.

3 Dosage Forms And Strengths

Transdermal system: 0.025 mg/day, 0.0375 mg/day, 0.05 mg/day, 0.075 mg/day, and 0.1 mg/day.

4 Contraindications

  • MINIVELLE is contraindicated in women with any of the following conditions:Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleedingKnown, suspected or history of breast cancerKnown or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasiaActive DVT, PE, or a history of these conditionsActive arterial thromboembolic disease (for example, stroke and MI), or a history of these conditionsKnown anaphylactic reaction or angioedema or hypersensitivity with MINIVELLEKnown liver impairment or diseaseKnown protein C, protein S, or antithrombin deficiency, or other known thrombophilic disordersKnown or suspected pregnancy

5.1 Cardiovascular Disorders

An increased risk of stroke and DVT has been reported with estrogen-alone therapy. An increased risk of PE, DVT, stroke and MI has been reported with estrogen plus progestin therapy. Should any of these occur or be suspected, estrogen with or without progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately. Risk factors for arterial vascular disease (for example, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity) and/or venous thromboembolism (VTE) (for example, personal history or family history of VTE, obesity, and systemic lupus erythematosus) should be managed appropriately. StrokeIn the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (45 versus 33 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in risk was demonstrated in year 1 and persisted [see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)]. Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately. Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest no increased risk of stroke for those women receiving CE (0.625 mg)-alone versus those receiving placebo (18 versus 21 per 10,000 women-years). ¹In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (33 versus 25 per 10,000 women-years) [see Clinical Studies, ( 14.3)] . The increase in risk was demonstrated after the first year and persisted. ¹ Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately. Coronary Heart DiseaseIn the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, no overall effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) events (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI, or CHD death) was reported in women receiving estrogen-alone compared to placebo ² [see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)] . Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest a statistically non-significant reduction in CHD events (CE [0.625 mg]-alone compared to placebo) in women with less than 10 years since menopause (8 versus 16 per 10,000 women-years). ¹In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, there was a statistically non-significant increased risk of CHD events reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (41 versus 34 per 10,000 women years). ¹ An increase in relative risk was demonstrated in year 1, and a trend toward decreasing relative risk was reported in years 2 through 5 [see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)] . In postmenopausal women with documented heart disease (n = 2,763, average 66.7 years of age), in a controlled clinical trial of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study; [HERS]), treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) demonstrated no cardiovascular benefit. During an average follow-up of 4.1 years, treatment with CE plus MPA did not reduce the overall rate of CHD events in postmenopausal women with established CHD. There were more CHD events in the CE plus MPA-treated group than in the placebo group in year 1, but not during the subsequent years. Two thousand, three hundred and twenty-one (2,321) women from the original HERS trial agreed to participate in an open-label extension of HERS, HERS II. Average follow-up in HERS II was an additional 2.7 years, for a total of 6.8 years overall. Rates of CHD events were comparable among women in the CE plus MPA group and the placebo group in the HERS, HERS II, and overall. Venous Thromboembolism In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, the risk of VTE (DVT and PE), was increased for women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to placebo (30 versus 22 per 10,000 women-years), although only the increased risk of DVT reached statistical significance (23 versus 15 per 10,000 women years). The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first 2 years ³ [see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)] . Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately. In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant 2-fold greater rate of VTE was reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (35 versus 17 per 10,000 women-years). Statistically significant increases in risk for both DVT (26 versus 13 per 10,000 women-years) and PE (18 versus 8 per 10,000 women-years) were also demonstrated. The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first year and persisted ⁴[see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)] . Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately. If feasible, estrogens should be discontinued at least 4 to 6 weeks before surgery of the type associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, or during periods of prolonged immobilization.

5.2 Malignant Neoplasms

Endometrial cancerAn increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in women with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2 to 12 times greater than in non-users, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with the use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears to be associated with prolonged use, with increased risks of 15- to 24-fold for 5 to 10 years or more. This risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued.An increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in women with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2 to 12 times greater than in non-users, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with the use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears to be associated with prolonged use, with increased risks of 15- to 24-fold for 5 to 10 years or more. This risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued.Clinical surveillance of all women using estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding.Clinical surveillance of all women using estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding.There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens of equivalent estrogen dose. Adding a progestin to postmenopausal estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens of equivalent estrogen dose. Adding a progestin to postmenopausal estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.Breast CancerThe most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen-alone users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, daily CE-alone was not associated with an increased risk of invasive breast cancer (relative risk [RR] 0.80). The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen-alone users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, daily CE-alone was not associated with an increased risk of invasive breast cancer (relative risk [RR] 0.80) ⁵ [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen plus progestin users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg). After a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the estrogen plus progestin substudy reported an increased risk of invasive breast cancer in women who took daily CE plus MPA. In this substudy, prior use of estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy was reported by 26 percent of the women. The relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.24, and the absolute risk was 41 versus 33 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.86, and the absolute risk was 46 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported no prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.09, and the absolute risk was 40 versus 36 cases per 10,000 women-years for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. In the same substudy, invasive breast cancers were larger, were more likely to be node positive, and were diagnosed at a more advanced stage in the CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) group compared with the placebo group. Metastatic disease was rare, with no apparent difference between the two groups. Other prognostic factors, such as histologic subtype, grade and hormone receptor status did not differ between the groups. The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen plus progestin users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg). After a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the estrogen plus progestin substudy reported an increased risk of invasive breast cancer in women who took daily CE plus MPA. In this substudy, prior use of estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy was reported by 26 percent of the women. The relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.24, and the absolute risk was 41 versus 33 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.86, and the absolute risk was 46 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported no prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.09, and the absolute risk was 40 versus 36 cases per 10,000 women-years for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. In the same substudy, invasive breast cancers were larger, were more likely to be node positive, and were diagnosed at a more advanced stage in the CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) group compared with the placebo group. Metastatic disease was rare, with no apparent difference between the two groups. Other prognostic factors, such as histologic subtype, grade and hormone receptor status did not differ between the groups ⁶ [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].Consistent with the WHI clinical trial, observational studies have also reported an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen plus progestin therapy, and a smaller increased risk for estrogen-alone therapy, after several years of use. The risk increased with duration of use, and appeared to return to baseline over about 5 years after stopping treatment (only the observational studies have substantial data on risk after stopping). Observational studies also suggest that the risk of breast cancer was greater, and became apparent earlier, with estrogen plus progestin therapy as compared to estrogen-alone therapy. However, these studies have not found significant variation in the risk of breast cancer among different estrogen plus progestin combinations, doses, or routes of administration.Consistent with the WHI clinical trial, observational studies have also reported an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen plus progestin therapy, and a smaller increased risk for estrogen-alone therapy, after several years of use. The risk increased with duration of use, and appeared to return to baseline over about 5 years after stopping treatment (only the observational studies have substantial data on risk after stopping). Observational studies also suggest that the risk of breast cancer was greater, and became apparent earlier, with estrogen plus progestin therapy as compared to estrogen-alone therapy. However, these studies have not found significant variation in the risk of breast cancer among different estrogen plus progestin combinations, doses, or routes of administration.The use of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin has been reported to result in an increase in abnormal mammograms requiring further evaluation. The use of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin has been reported to result in an increase in abnormal mammograms requiring further evaluation. All women should receive yearly breast examinations by a healthcare provider and perform monthly breast self examinations. In addition, mammography examinations should be scheduled based on patient age, risk factors, and prior mammogram results. All women should receive yearly breast examinations by a healthcare provider and perform monthly breast self examinations. In addition, mammography examinations should be scheduled based on patient age, risk factors, and prior mammogram results. Ovarian CancerThe WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported a statistically non-significant increased risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 1.58 (95 percent CI, 0.77-3.24). The absolute risk for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 4 versus 3 cases per 10,000 women-years. ⁷A meta-analysis of 17 prospective and 35 retrospective epidemiology studies found that women who used hormonal therapy for menopausal symptoms had an increased risk for ovarian cancer. The primary analysis, using case-control comparisons, included 12,110 cancer cases from the 17 prospective studies. The relative risks associated with current use of hormonal therapy was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 1.50); there was no difference in the risk estimates by duration of the exposure (less than 5 years [medianof 3 years] vs. greater than 5 years [median of 10 years] of use before the cancer diagnosis). The relative risk associated with combined current and recent use (discontinued use within 5 years before cancer diagnosis) was 1.37 (95% CI 1.27-1.48), and the elevated risk was significant for both estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin products. The exact duration of hormone therapy use associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, however, is unknown.

5.3 Probable Dementia

In the WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI, a population of 2,947 hysterectomized women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone or placebo. After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, 28 women in the estrogen-alone group and 19 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1.49 (95 percent CI, 0.83-2.66). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years ⁸ [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5), and Clinical Studies ( 14.4)]. In the WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of WHI, a population of 4,532 postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) or placebo.After an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the CE plus MPA group and 21 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21-3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 cases per 10,000 women-years ⁸ [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5), and Clinical Studies ( 14.4)]. When data from the two populations in the WHIMS estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin ancillary studies were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI, 1.19-2.60). Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women ⁸ [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5), and Clinical Studies ( 14.4)].

5.4 Gallbladder Disease

A 2- to 4-fold increase in the risk of gallbladder disease requiring surgery in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens has been reported.

5.5 Hypercalcemia

Estrogen administration may lead to severe hypercalcemia in women with breast cancer and bone metastases. If hypercalcemia occurs, use of the drug should be stopped and appropriate measures taken to reduce the serum calcium level.

5.6 Visual Abnormalities

Retinal vascular thrombosis has been reported in patients receiving estrogens. Discontinue medication pending examination if there is sudden partial or complete loss of vision, or a sudden onset of proptosis, diplopia, or migraine. If examination reveals papilledema or retinal vascular lesions, estrogens should be permanently discontinued.

5.7 Addition Of A Progestin When A Woman Has Not Had A Hysterectomy

Studies of the addition of a progestin for 10 or more days of a cycle of estrogen administration, or daily with estrogen in a continuous regimen, have reported a lowered incidence of endometrial hyperplasia than would be induced by estrogen treatment alone. Endometrial hyperplasia may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone regimens. These include an increased risk of breast cancer.

5.8 Elevated Blood Pressure

In a small number of case reports, substantial increases in blood pressure have been attributed to idiosyncratic reactions to estrogens. In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a generalized effect of estrogens on blood pressure was not seen.

5.9 Hypertriglyceridemia

In women with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis. Consider discontinuation of treatment if pancreatitis occurs.

5.10 Hepatic Impairment And/Or Past History Of Cholestatic Jaundice

Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function. For women with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued.

5.11 Hypothyroidism

Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels. Women with normal thyroid function can compensate for the increased TBG by making more thyroid hormone, thus maintaining free T 4 and T 3 serum concentrations in the normal range. Women dependent on thyroid hormone replacement therapy who are also receiving estrogens may require increased doses of their thyroid replacement therapy. These women should have their thyroid function monitored in order to maintain their free thyroid hormone levels in an acceptable range.

5.12 Fluid Retention

Estrogens may cause some degree of fluid retention. Women with conditions that might be influenced by this factor, such as cardiac or renal dysfunction, warrant careful observation when estrogen is prescribed.

5.13 Hypocalcemia

Estrogen therapy should be used with caution in women with hypoparathyroidism as estrogen-induced hypocalcemia may occur.

5.14 Exacerbation Of Endometriosis

A few cases of malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated post-hysterectomy with estrogen-alone therapy. For women known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered.

5.15 Severe Anaphylactic/Anaphylactoid Reactions And Angioedema

Cases of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, which developed anytime during the course of Minivelle treatment and required emergency medical management, have been reported in the postmarketing setting. Involvement of skin (hives, pruritus, swollen lips-tongue-face) and either respiratory tract (respiratory compromise) or gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain, vomiting) has been noted.Angioedema involving eye/eyelid, face, larynx, pharynx, tongue and extremity (hands, legs, ankles, and fingers) with or without urticaria requiring medical intervention has occurred in the postmarketing experience of using Minivelle. If angioedema involves the tongue, glottis, or larynx, airway obstruction may occur. Patients who develop angioedema anytime during the course of treatment with Minivelle should not receive it again.Exogenous estrogens may exacerbate symptoms of angioedema in women with hereditary angioedema.

5.16 Exacerbation Of Other Conditions

Estrogen therapy may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraines, porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions.

5.17 Laboratory Tests

Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels have not been shown to be useful in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms.

5.18 Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions

Accelerated prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation time; increased platelet count; increased factors II, VII antigen, VIII antigen, VIII coagulant activity, IX, X, XII, VII-X complex, II-VII-X complex; and beta-thromboglobulin; decreased levels of anti factor Xa and antithrombin III; decreased antithrombin III activity; increased levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen activity; increased plasminogen antigen and activity.Increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone levels, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T 4 levels (by column or by radioimmunoassay) or T 3 levels by radioimmunoassay. T 3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T 4 and free T 3 concentrations are unaltered. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone. Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum, for example, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), leading to increased total circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Free hormone concentrations, such as testosterone and estradiol, may be decreased. Other plasma proteins may be increased (angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin).Increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL 2 cholesterol subfraction concentrations, reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration, increased triglycerides levels. Impaired glucose tolerance.

6 Adverse Reactions

  • The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in labeling:Cardiovascular Disorders [see Boxed Warning, Warning and Precaution, ( 5.1)] Endometrial Cancer [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. There were no clinical trials conducted with MINIVELLE. MINIVELLE is bioequivalent to Vivelle ®. The following adverse reactions are reported with Vivelle therapy: Table 1: Summary of Most Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions (Vivelle versus Placebo) Regardless of Relationship Reported at a Frequency ≥5 Percent† Represents milligrams of estradiol delivered daily by each system *NOS represents not otherwise specified **NEC represents not elsewhere classified ***Application site erythema and application site irritation were observed in 3.2% or less of patients across treatment groups. Vivelle 0.025 mg/day † (N=47) N (%) Vivelle 0.0375 mg/day † (N=130) N (%) Vivelle 0.05 mg/day † (N=103) N (%) Vivelle 0.075 mg/day † (N=46) N (%) Vivelle 0.1 mg/day † (N=132) 2 N (%) Placebo (N=157) N (%) Gastrointestinal disordersConstipation2 (4.3)5 (3.8)4 (3.9)3 (6.5)2 (1.5)4 (2.5)Dyspepsia4 (8.5)12 (9.2)3 (2.9)2 (4.3)010 (6.4)Nausea2 (4.3)8 (6.2)4 (3.9)07 (5.3)5 (3.2)General disorders and administration site conditions ***Influenza-like illness3 (6.4)6 (4.6)8 (7.8)03 (2.3)10 (6.4)Pain NOS*08 (6.2)02 (4.3)7 (5.3)7 (4.5)Infections and infestationsInfluenza4 (8.5)4 (3.1)6 (5.8)010 (7.6)14 (8.9)Nasopharyngitis3 (6.4)16 (12.3)10 (9.7)9 (19.6)11 (8.3)24 (15.3)Sinusitis NOS*4 (8.5)17 (13.1)13 (12.6)3 (6.5)7 (5.3)16 (10.2)Upper respiratory tract infection NOS* 3 (6.4)8 (6.2)11 (10.7)4 (8.7)6 (4.5)9 (5.7)InvestigationsWeight increased4 (8.5)5 (3.8)2 (1.9)2 (4.3)03 (1.9)Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disordersArthralgia011 (8.5)4 (3.9)2 (4.3)5 (3.8)9 (5.7)Back pain4 (8.5)10 (7.7)9 (8.7)4 (8.7)14 (10.6)10 (6.4)Neck pain3 (6.4)4 (3.1)4 (3.9)06 (4.5)2 (1.3)Pain in limb010 (7.7)7 (6.8)2 (4.3)6 (4.5)9 (5.7)Nervous system disordersHeadache NOS*7 (14.9)35 (26.9)32 (31.1)23 (50.0)34 (25.8)37 (23.6)Sinus headache012 (9.2)5 (4.9)5 (10.9)2 (1.5)8 (5.1)Psychiatric disordersAnxiety NEC **3 (6.4)5 (3.8)002 (1.5)4 (2.5)Depression5 (10.6)4 (3.1)7 (6.8)04 (3.0)6 (3.8)Insomnia3 (6.4)6 (4.6)4 (3.9)2 (4.3)2 (1.5)9 (5.7)Reproductive system and breast disordersBreast tenderness8 (17.0)10 (7.7)8 (7.8)3 (6.5)17 (12.9)0Dysmenorrhea0003 (6.5)00Intermenstrual bleeding 3 (6.4)9 (6.9)6 (5.8)014 (10.6)7 (4.5)Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disordersSinus congestion04 (3.1)3 (2.9)3 (6.5)6 (4.5)7 (4.5) Vascular disordersHot flushes NOS*3 (6.4)03 (2.9)006 (3.8)Hypertension NOS*2 (4.3)03 (2.9)002 (1.3)During the clinical pharmacology studies with MINIVELLE, 35 percent or less of subjects experienced barely perceptible erythema. No transdermal systems were removed due to irritation. Three subjects (2.2 percent) reported mild discomfort while wearing MINIVELLE (N=136).

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Minivelle. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.BreastBreast enlargement CardiovascularPalpitations, angina unstableGastrointestinalHemorrhage, diarrheaSkinApplication site reactions, erythema, rash, hyperhidrosis, pruritis, urticariaCentral Nervous SystemDizziness, paresthesia, migraine, mood swings,emotional disorder, irritability, nervousnessMiscellaneousPortal vein thrombosis, dyspnea, malaise, fatigue, peripheral edema, muscle spasms, paresthesia oral, swollen tongue, lip swelling, pharyngeal edema

7 Drug Interactions

No drug interaction studies have been conducted for MINIVELLE.

7.1 Metabolic Interactions

In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that estrogens are metabolized partially by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Therefore, inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A4 may affect estrogen drug metabolism. Inducers of CYP3A4 such as St. John’s wort ( Hypericum perforatum) preparations, phenobarbital, carbamazepine and rifampin may reduce plasma concentrations of estrogens, possibly resulting in a decrease in therapeutic effects and/or changes in the uterine bleeding profile. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir, and grapefruit juice may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and may result in side effects.

8.1 Pregnancy

MINIVELLE should not be used during pregnancy [see Contraindications ( 4)] . There appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who have used estrogens and progestins as an oral contraceptive inadvertently during early pregnancy.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

MINIVELLE should not be used during lactation. Estrogen administration to nursing women has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the breast milk. Detectable amounts of estrogens have been identified in the breast milk of women receiving estrogen therapy. Caution should be exercised when MINIVELLE is administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

MINIVELLE is not indicated in children. Clinical studies have not been conducted in the pediatric population.

8.5 Geriatric Use

There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric women involved in clinical studies utilizing MINIVELLE to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to MINIVELLE.The Women’s Health Initiative StudiesIn the WHI estrogen-alone substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg]-alone versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of stroke in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)] . In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg] plus MPA [2.5 mg] versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of nonfatal stroke and invasive breast cancer in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies ( 14.3)] . The Women’s Health Initiative Memory StudyIn the WHIMS ancillary studies of postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age, there was an increased risk of probable dementia in women receiving estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin when compared to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3), and Clinical Studies ( 14.4)] . Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women ⁸ [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3), and Clinical Studies ( 14.3)] .

8.6 Renal Impairment

The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of MINIVELLE has not been studied.

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of MINIVELLE has not been studied.

10 Overdosage

Overdosage of estrogen may cause nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, abdominal pain, drowsiness and fatigue, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in women. Treatment of overdose consists of discontinuation of MINIVELLE therapy with institution of appropriate symptomatic care.

11 Description

MINIVELLE (estradiol transdermal system) contains estradiol in a multipolymeric adhesive. The system is designed to release estradiol continuously upon application to intact skin.Five dosage strengths of MINIVELLE are available to provide nominal in vivo delivery rates of 0.025, 0.0375, 0.05, 0.075, or 0.1 mg of estradiol per day via the skin. Each corresponding system has an active surface area of 1.65, 2.48, 3.30, 4.95, or 6.6 cm 2 and contains 0.41, 0.62, 0.83, 1.24, or 1.65 mg of estradiol USP, respectively. The composition of the systems per unit area is identical. Estradiol USP is a white, crystalline powder, chemically described as estra-1,3,5 (10)-triene-3,17β-diol.The structural formula isThe molecular formula of estradiol is C 18H 240 2. The molecular weight is 272.39 MINIVELLE is comprised of three layers. Proceeding from the visible surface toward the surface attached to the skin, these layers are (1) a polyolefin laminate backing (2) an adhesive formulation containing estradiol, acrylic adhesive, silicone adhesive, oleyl alcohol, NF, povidone, USP and dipropylene glycol, and (3) a polyester release liner which is attached to the adhesive surface and must be removed before the system can be used.The active component of the system is estradiol. The remaining components of the system are pharmacologically inactive.

12.1 Mechanism Of Action

Endogenous estrogens are largely responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Although circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions, estradiol is the principal intracellular human estrogen and is substantially more potent than its metabolites, estrone and estriol, at the receptor level.The primary source of estrogen in normally cycling adult women is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70 to 500 mcg of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. After menopause, most endogenous estrogen is produced by conversion of androstenedione, secreted by the adrenal cortex, to estrone in the peripheral tissues. Thus, estrone and the sulfate conjugated form, estrone sulfate, are the most abundant circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women.Estrogens act through binding to nuclear receptors in estrogen responsive tissues. To date, two estrogen receptors have been identified. These vary in proportion from tissue to tissue.Circulating estrogens modulate the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) through a negative feedback mechanism. Estrogens act to reduce the elevated concentrations of these hormones seen in postmenopausal women.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

There are no pharmacodynamic data for MINIVELLE.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Systemic estrogen exposures across different estrogen products should not be compared. These comparisons can be unreliable and misleading when there are differences in route of administration, estrogen components, dosing, or analytical methods that were used across the studies. AbsorptionIn a single-dose, two way-crossover clinical study conducted in 96 healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women under fed condition, MINIVELLE (0.1 mg per day) was bioequivalent to Vivelle (0.1 mg per day) based on estradiol exposure (AUC 0-84) and estradiol peak concentration (C max) following a single-dose on the lower abdomen for 84 hours. Estradiol pharmacokinetics were characterized in a separate open-label, single-center, randomized, single-dose, three-way crossover study conducted in 36 healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women (aged 40 to 65 years). MINIVELLE transdermal systems delivering nominal estradiol of approximately 0.025 mg, 0.05 mg, and 0.1 mg per day were applied to the lower abdomen under fed state in a crossover fashion for 84 hours. The mean estradiol pharmacokinetics parameters are summarized in Table 2. AUC and C max are dose proportional from 0.025 mg to 0.1 mg per day. Table 2: Mean (SD) Serum Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Baseline-Uncorrected Estradiol following a Single Dose of MINIVELLE (N=36)a Median (minimum-maximum) Parameter0.1 mg/day0.05 mg/day0.025 mg/dayAUC 84 (pg·hr/mL) 5875 (1857)3057 (980)1763 (600)AUC 120 (pg·hr/mL) 6252 (1938)3320 (1038)1979 (648)C max (pg/mL) 117 (39.3)56.6 (17.6)30.3 (11.1)T max (hr) a24.0 (8-60)24.0 (8-60)36.0 (8-84)Figure 1 illustrates the mean baseline-uncorrected estradiol serum concentrations of MINIVELLE at three different strengths. Figure 1: Mean Baseline-Uncorrected Estradiol Serum Concentration-Time Profiles Following a Single Dose of MINIVELLE 0.1 mg per day (Treatment A), 0.05 mg per day (Treatment B), and 0.025 mg per day (Treatment C) (N=36)DistributionNo specific investigation of the tissue distribution of estradiol absorbed from Minivelle in humans has been conducted. The distribution of exogenous estrogens is similar to that of endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are widely distributed in the body and are generally found in higher concentrations in the sex hormone target organs. Estrogens circulate in the blood largely bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin.MetabolismExogenous estrogens are metabolized in the same manner as endogenous estrogens. Circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions. These transformations take place mainly in the liver. Estradiol is converted reversibly to estrone, and both can be converted to estriol, which is a major urinary metabolite. Estrogens also undergo enterohepatic recirculation via sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the liver, biliary secretion of conjugates into the intestine, and hydrolysis in the intestine followed by reabsorption. In postmenopausal women a significant portion of the circulating estrogens exist as sulfate conjugates, especially estrone sulfate, which serves as a circulating reservoir for the formation of more active estrogens. ExcretionEstradiol, estrone and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. The mean half-life values of estradiol calculated from treatment groups in the bioequivalence study and dose-proportionality study after dosing with the MINIVELLE ranged from 6.2 to 7.9 hours. After removal of the transdermal systems, serum concentrations of estradiol and estrone returned to baseline concentrations within 24 hours.Adhesion and Adhesive ResidueBased on combined data from bioequivalence and dose proportionality studies consisting of 208 MINIVELLE observations, approximately 98 percent of the observations had an adhesion score of 0 (i.e., the skin adhesion rate was greater than or equal to 90 percent) over the 84-hour wear period. One subject had a complete detachment during the wear period. Approximately 65 percent of the transdermal systems evaluated in these studies were with MINIVELLE 0.1 mg per day (6.6 cm 2 active surface area). After removal of MINIVELLE, subjects had either no adhesive residue (score of 0) or light adhesive residue (score of 1). There were no subjects who had medium adhesive residue. Of the 208 MINIVELLE observations, 54 percent had light adhesive residue and 46 percent had no adhesive residue.

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Long-term, continuous administration of natural and synthetic estrogens in certain animal species increases the frequency of carcinomas of the breast, uterus, cervix, vagina, testis, and liver.

14.1 Effects On Vasomotor Symptoms

There have been no efficacy and safety trials conducted with MINIVELLE. In a pharmacokinetic study, MINIVELLE was shown to be bioequivalent to Vivelle.In two controlled clinical trials with Vivelle, in a total of 356 subjects, the 0.075 and 0.1 mg doses were superior to placebo in relieving vasomotor symptoms at Weeks 4, 8 and 12 of treatment. In these studies, the 0.0375 and 0.05 mg doses did not differ from placebo at Week 4, therefore, a third 12-week placebo-controlled study in 255 subjects was performed with Vivelle to establish the efficacy of the lowest dose of 0.0375 mg. The baseline mean daily number of hot flushes in these 255 subjects was 11.5. Results at Weeks 4, 8, and 12 of treatment are shown in Figure 2.Figure 2: Mean (SD) change from baseline in mean daily number of hot flushes for
Vivelle 0.0375 mg versus Placebo in a 12 week trial. The 0.0375 mg dose was superior to placebo in reducing both the frequency and severity of vasomotor symptoms at Weeks 4, 8 and 12 of treatment.

14.2 Effects On Bone Mineral Density

There have been no bone efficacy and safety trials conducted with MINIVELLE. In a pharmacokinetic study, MINIVELLE was shown to be bioequivalent to Vivelle.Efficacy and safety of Vivelle in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis have been studied in a 2-year double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. A total of 261 hysterectomized (161) and non-hysterectomized (100), surgically or naturally menopausal women (within 5 years of menopause), with no evidence of osteoporosis (lumbar spine bone mineral density within 2 standard deviations of average peak bone mass, i.e., ≥0.0827 g/cm 2) were enrolled in this study; 194 patients were randomized to one of the four doses of Vivelle (0.1, 0.05, 0.0375, or 0.025 mg/day) and 67 patients to placebo. Over 2 years, study systems were applied to the buttock or the abdomen twice a week. Non-hysterectomized women received oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg/day) throughout the study. The study population comprised naturally (82 percent) or surgically (18 percent) menopausal, hysterectomized (61 percent) or non-hysterectomized (39 percent) women with a mean age of 52.0 years (range 27 to 62 years); the mean duration of menopause was 31.7 months (range 2 to 72 months). Two hundred thirty-two (89 percent) randomized subjects (173 on active drug, 59 on placebo) contributed data to the analysis of percent change from baseline in bone mineral density (BMD) of the AP lumbar spine, the primary efficacy variable. Patients were given supplemental dietary calcium (100 mg elemental calcium/day) but no supplemental vitamin D. There was an increase in BMD of the AP lumbar spine in all Vivelle dose groups; in contrast to this, a decrease in AP lumbar spine BMD was observed in placebo patients. All Vivelle doses were significantly superior to placebo (p<0.05) at all time points with the exception of Vivelle 0.05 mg/day at 6 months. The highest dose of Vivelle was superior to the three lower doses. There were no statistically significant differences in pairwise comparisons among the three lower doses (See Figure 3). Figure 3: Bone mineral density – AP Lumbar spineLeast squares means of percentage change from baselineAll randomized patients with at least one post-baseline assessment available with last post-baseline observation carried forwardAnalysis of percent change from baseline in femoral neck BMD, a secondary efficacy outcome variable, showed qualitatively similar results; all doses of Vivelle were significantly superior to placebo (p<0.05) at 24 months. The highest Vivelle dose was superior to placebo at all time points. A mixture of significant and non-significant results were obtained for the lower dose groups at earlier time points. The highest Vivelle dose was superior to the three lower doses, and there were no significant differences among the three lower doses at this skeletal site (see Figure 4). Figure 4: Bone mineral density - Femoral neckLeast squares means of percentage change from baselineAll randomized patients with at least one post-baseline assessment available with last post-baseline observation carried forward

14.3 Women's Health Initiative Studies

The WHI enrolled approximately 27,000 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women in two substudies to assess the risks and benefits of daily oral CE (0.625 mg)-alone or in combination with MPA (2.5 mg) compared to placebo in the prevention of certain chronic diseases. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CHD (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome. A “global index” included the earliest occurrence of CHD, invasive breast cancer, stroke, PE, endometrial cancer (only in the CE plus MPA substudy), colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other cause. These substudies did not evaluate the effects of CE-alone or CE plus MPA on menopausal symptoms.WHI Estrogen-Alone SubstudyThe WHI estrogen-alone substudy was stopped early because an increased risk of stroke was observed, and it was deemed that no further information would be obtained regarding the risks and benefits of estrogen-alone in predetermined primary endpoints. Results of the estrogen-alone substudy, which included 10,739 women (average 63 years of age, range 50 to 79; 75.3 percent White, 15.1 percent Black, 6.1 percent Hispanic, 3.6 percent Other), after an average follow- up of 7.1 years are presented in Table 3.Table 3: Relative and Absolute Risk Seen in the Estrogen Alone Substudy of WHI aa Adapted from numerous WHI publications. WHI publications can be viewed at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi. b Nominal confidence intervals unadjusted for multiple looks and multiple comparisons. c Results are based on centrally adjudicated data for an average follow-up of 7.1 years. d Not included in “global index”. e Results are based on an average follow-up of 6.8 years. f All deaths, except from breast or colorectal cancer, definite or probable CHD, PE, or cerebrovascular disease. g A subset of the events was combined in a “global index”, defined as the earliest occurrence of CHD events. invasive breast cancer, stroke, PE, endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes. EventRelative Risk CE vs. Placebo (95% nCI b) CE 
n = 5,310 Placebo n = 5,429 Absolute Risk per 10,000 Women-Years CHD events cNon-fatal MI cCHD death c0.95 (0.78–1.16) 0.91 (0.73–1.14) 1.01 (0.71–1.43) 54 40 16 57 43 16 All Strokes cIschemic strokec1.33 (1.15–1.68) 1.55 (1.19–2.01)45 3833 25Deep vein thrombosis c,d1.47 (1.06–2.06)2315Pulmonary embolism c1.37 (0.90–2.07)1410Invasive breast cancer c0.80 (0.62–1.04)2834Colorectal cancer e1.08 (0.75–1.55)1716Hip fracture c0.65 (0.45–0.94)1219Vertebral fractures c,d0.64 (0.44–0.93)1118Lower arm/wrist fractures c,d0.58 (0.47–0.72)3559Total fractures c,d0.71 (0.64–0.80)144197Death due to other causes e,f1.08 (0.88–1.32)5350Overall mortality c,d1.04 (0.88–1.22)7975Global Index g1.02 (0.92–1.13)206201For those outcomes included in the WHI “global index” that reached statistical significance, the absolute excess risk per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE-alone was 12 more strokes, while the absolute risk reduction per 10,000 women-years was 7 fewer hip fractures. ⁹ The absolute excess risk of events included in the “global index” was a non-significant 5 events per 10,000 women-years. There was no difference between the groups in terms of all-cause mortality. No overall difference for primary CHD events (nonfatal MI, silent MI and CHD death) and invasive breast cancer incidence in women receiving CE-alone compared to placebo was reported in final centrally adjudicated results from the estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years.Centrally adjudicated results for stroke events from the estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, reported no significant differences in distribution of stroke subtype or severity, including fatal strokes, in women receiving CE-alone compared to placebo. Estrogen-alone increased the risk for ischemic stroke, and this excess risk was present in all subgroups of women examined. ¹⁰Timing of the initiation of estrogen-alone therapy relative to the start of menopause may affect the overall risk benefit profile. The WHI estrogen-alone substudy, stratified by age, showed in women 50 to 59 years of age a non-significant trend toward reduced risk for CHD [hazard ratio (HR) 0.63 (95 percent CI, 0.36-1.09)] and overall mortality [HR 0.71 (95 percent CI, 0.46-1.11)].WHI Estrogen Plus Progestin SubstudyThe WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy was stopped early. According to the predefined stopping rule, after an average follow-up of 5.6 years of treatment, the increased risk of invasive breast cancer and cardiovascular events exceeded the specified benefits included in the “global index”. The absolute excess risk of events included in the “global index” was 19 per 10,000 women-years.For those outcomes included in the WHI “global index” that reached statistical significance after 5.6 years of follow-up, the absolute excess risks per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE plus MPA were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 10 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while the absolute risk reduction per 10,000 women-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures.Results of the CE plus MPA substudy, which included 16,608 women (average 63 years of age, range 50 to 79; 83.9 percent White, 6.8 percent Black, 5.4 percent Hispanic, 3.9 percent Other) are presented in Table 4. These results reflect centrally adjudicated data after an average follow-up of 5.6 years.Table 4: Relative and Absolute Risk Seen in the Estrogen Plus Progestin Substudy of WHI at an Average of 5.6 Years a,ba Adapted from numerous WHI publications. WHI publications can be viewed at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi. b Results are based on centrally adjudicated data. c Nominal confidence intervals unadjusted for multiple looks and multiple comparisons. d Not included in “global index”. e Includes metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer, with the exception of in situ breast cancer. f All deaths, except from breast or colorectal cancer, definite or probable CHD, PE, or cerebrovascular disease. g A subset of the events was combined in a “global index”, defined as the earliest occurrence of CHD events, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes. EventRelative Risk CE/MPA vs. Placebo (95% nCI c) CE/MPA (n = 8,506) Placebo (n = 8,102) Absolute Risk per 10,000 Women-Years CHD events Non-fatal MI CHD death 1.23 (0.99–1.53) 1.28 (1.00–1.63) 1.10 (0.70–1.75) 41 31 8 34 25 8 All strokes Ischemic stroke1.31 (1.03–1.68) 1.44 (1.09–1.90)33 2625 18Deep vein thrombosis d1.95 (1.43–2.67)2613Pulmonary embolism2.13 (1.45–3.11)188Invasive breast cancer e1.24 (1.01–1.54)4133Colorectal cancer0.61 (0.42–0.87)1016Endometrial cancer d0.81 (0.48–1.36)67Cervical cancer d1.44 (0.47–4.42)21Hip fracture0.67 (0.47–0.96)1116Vertebral fractures d0.65 (0.46–0.92)1117Lower arm/wrist fractures d0.71 (0.59–0.85)4462Total fractures d0.76 (0.69–0.83)152199Overall mortality f1.00 (0.83–1.19)5252Global Index g1.13 (1.02–1.25)184165Timing of the initiation of estrogen plus progestin therapy relative to the start of menopause may affect the overall risk benefit profile. The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy stratified for age showed in women 50 to 59 years of age a non-significant trend toward reduced risk for overall mortality [HR 0.69 (95 percent CI, 0.44-1.07)].

14.4 Women's Health Initiative Memory Study

The WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI enrolled 2,947 predominantly healthy hysterectomized postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age (45 percent were 65 to 69 years of age, 36 percent were 70 to 74 years of age, and 19 percent were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared to placebo.After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, the relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1.49 (95 percent CI, 0.83-2.66). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years. Probable dementia as defined in this study included Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed type (having features of both AD and VaD). The most common classification of probable dementia in the treatment group and the placebo group was AD. Since the ancillary study was conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3) and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5)]. The WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study enrolled 4,532 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older (47 percent were 65 to 69 years of age, 35 percent were 70 to 74 years of age, and 18 percent were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared to placebo.After an average follow-up of 4 years, the relative risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21- 3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 per 10,000 women-years. Probable dementia as defined in this study included AD, VaD and mixed type (having features of both AD and VaD). The most common classification of probable dementia in the treatment group and the placebo group was AD. Since the ancillary study was conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3), and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5)]. When data from the two populations were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI, 1.19-2.60). Differences between groups became apparent in the first year of treatment. It is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3), and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5)].

15 References

  • Rossouw JE, et al. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease by Age and Years Since Menopause. JAMA. 2007;297:1465-1477. Hsia J, et al. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Coronary Heart Disease. Arch Int Med. 2006;166:357–365. Curb JD, et al. Venous Thrombosis and Conjugated Equine Estrogen in Women Without a Uterus. Arch Int Med. 2006; 166:772-780. Cushman M, et al. Estrogen Plus Progestin and Risk of Venous Thrombosis. JAMA. 2004;292:1573-1580. Stefanick ML, et al. Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogens on Breast Cancer and Mammography Screening in Postmenopausal Women with Hysterectomy. JAMA. 2006;295:1647-1657. Chlebowski RT, et al. Influence of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Breast Cancer and Mammography in Healthy Postmenopausal Women. JAMA. 2003;289:3234-3253. Anderson GL, et al. Effects of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Gynecologic Cancers and Associated Diagnostic Procedures. JAMA. 2003;290:1739-1748. Shumaker SA, et al. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Incidence of Probable Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Postmenopausal Women. JAMA. 2004;291:2947-2958. Jackson RD, et al. Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogen on Risk of Fractures and BMD in Postmenopausal Women With Hysterectomy: Results From the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:817-828. Hendrix SL, et al. Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogen on Stroke in the Women's Health Initiative. Circulation. 2006;113:2425-2434.

16.1 How Supplied

MINIVELLE (estradiol transdermal system), 0.025 mg per day - each 1.65 cm 2 system contains 0.41 mg of estradiol USP for nominal* delivery of 0.025 mg of estradiol per day. Patient Calendar Pack of 8 Systems…………………………………..NDC 68968-6625-8MINIVELLE (estradiol transdermal system), 0.0375 mg per day - each 2.48 cm 2 system contains 0.62 mg of estradiol USP for nominal* delivery of 0.0375 mg of estradiol per day. Patient Calendar Pack of 8 Systems…………………………………..NDC 68968-6637-8MINIVELLE (estradiol transdermal system), 0.05 mg per day - each 3.3 cm 2 system contains 0.83 mg of estradiol USP for nominal* delivery of 0.05 mg of estradiol per day. Patient Calendar Pack of 8 Systems………………………………….NDC 68968-6650-8MINIVELLE (estradiol transdermal system), 0.075 mg per day - each 4.95 cm 2 system contains 1.24 mg of estradiol USP for nominal* delivery of 0.075 mg of estradiol per day. Patient Calendar Pack of 8 Systems………………………………….NDC 68968-6675-8MINIVELLE (estradiol transdermal system), 0.1 mg per day - each 6.6 cm 2 system contains 1.65mg of estradiol USP for nominal* delivery of 0.1 mg of estradiol per day. Patient Calendar Pack of 8 Systems………………………………….NDC 68968-6610-8*See Description

16.2 Storage And Handling

Store at room temperature 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C); excursions permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F). Do not store unpouched. Apply immediately upon removal from the protective pouch.Used transdermal systems still contain active hormone. To discard, fold the sticky side of the transdermal system together, place it in a sturdy child-proof container, and place this container in the trash. Used transdermal systems should not be flushed in the toilet.

17 Patient Counseling Information

See FDA-approved patient labeling ( Patient Information and Instructions for Use).

17.1 Vaginal Bleeding

Inform postmenopausal women of the importance of reporting unusual vaginal bleeding to their healthcare providers as soon as possible [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2)]

17.2 Possible Serious Adverse Reactions With Estrogen–Alone Therapy

Inform postmenopausal women of possible serious adverse reactions of estrogen-alone therapy including Cardiovascular Disorders, Malignant Neoplasms, and Probable Dementia [see Warning and Precautions ( 5.1,5.2,5.3)].

17.3 Possible Less Serious But Common Adverse Reactions With Estrogen–Alone Therapy

Inform postmenopausal women of less serious but common adverse reactions of estrogen-alone therapy such as headache, breast pain and tenderness, nausea and vomiting.

* Please review the disclaimer below.